Chapter 5
The Periodic Table
History of Periodic Table <ul><li>1860 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 60 elements had been discovered </li></ul></ul><ul>...
History Continued… <ul><li>Mendeleev </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Chemist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to organize e...
History Continued… <ul><li>Moseley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked with Rutherford </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered a pr...
Periodic Law <ul><li>Based on Mendeleev’s principle of chemical periodicity </li></ul><ul><li>The physical and chemical pr...
Periodic Law <ul><li>In simple terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic n...
Modern Periodic Table <ul><li>Noble Gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First was discovered in 1868 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He...
Modern Periodic Table <ul><li>Lanthanides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 14 elements with atomic numbers from 58 (Cerium) to 71...
Modern Periodic Table <ul><li>Actinides </li></ul><ul><li>The 14 elements with atomic numbers 90 (Thorium) to 103 (Lawrenc...
5.2:  Electron Configuration    & The Periodic Table <ul><li>Periods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal rows on the periodic...
Electron Configuration and Periodic Table <ul><li>Groups/Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical columns on table </li></u...
Group 1  <ul><li>Group 1 (Alkali Metals) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silvery appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft enough t...
Group 2 <ul><li>Alkaline-Earth Metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denser </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Groups 3 - 12 <ul><li>Transition Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good conductors of electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Group 17 <ul><li>Halogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>React with most metals to form salts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 electron...
Group 18 <ul><li>Noble Gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inert gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively nonreactive </li></ul...
Periodic Properties <ul><li>Arranged on periodic table according to atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>However, that isn’t al...
Periodic Properties <ul><li>Atomic Radii </li></ul><ul><li>Ionization Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Affinity </li></ul...
Cited Sources: <ul><li>Photo of Mendeleev </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.bluffton.edu/~bergerd/nsc_111/science2.html </l...
Cited Sources Continued…. <ul><li>Alkaline-Earth Metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_alkalin...
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Periodic Law

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Periodic Law

  1. 1. Chapter 5
  2. 2. The Periodic Table
  3. 3. History of Periodic Table <ul><li>1860 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 60 elements had been discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No accurate method to determine atomic mass or the number of atoms of element in compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different chemists used different values for the same elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>September of 1860 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First International Congress of Chemists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannizzaro (Italian) presented method for measuring atomic masses of atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enabled chemists to agree on standard values for atomic mass </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. History Continued… <ul><li>Mendeleev </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Chemist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to organize elements according to properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created first periodic table based on similarities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left many spaces due to his process of organization </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. History Continued… <ul><li>Moseley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked with Rutherford </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered a previously unrecognized pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work led to modern definition of atomic number and this is the basis for organization of table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent with Mendeleev’s ordering of table </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Periodic Law <ul><li>Based on Mendeleev’s principle of chemical periodicity </li></ul><ul><li>The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Periodic Law <ul><li>In simple terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, elements with similar properties appear at regular intervals </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Modern Periodic Table <ul><li>Noble Gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First was discovered in 1868 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered as a component of the sun </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Modern Periodic Table <ul><li>Lanthanides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 14 elements with atomic numbers from 58 (Cerium) to 71 (Lutetium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belong to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 th period </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Modern Periodic Table <ul><li>Actinides </li></ul><ul><li>The 14 elements with atomic numbers 90 (Thorium) to 103 (Lawrencium) </li></ul><ul><li>Belong to the 7th period </li></ul>
  11. 11. 5.2: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table <ul><li>Periods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal rows on the periodic table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies energy level of element </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Electron Configuration and Periodic Table <ul><li>Groups/Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical columns on table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies number of valence electrons </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Group 1 <ul><li>Group 1 (Alkali Metals) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silvery appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft enough to cut with a knife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely reactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not found in nature as free elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melt at low temperatures </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Group 2 <ul><li>Alkaline-Earth Metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stronger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly less reactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not found in nature as free elements </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Groups 3 - 12 <ul><li>Transition Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good conductors of electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High luster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some do not form compounds easily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist in nature as free elements </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Group 17 <ul><li>Halogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>React with most metals to form salts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 electrons in outer shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist at room temperature in all three states of matter </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Group 18 <ul><li>Noble Gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inert gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively nonreactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a complete valence shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low boiling points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All are gases at room temperature </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Periodic Properties <ul><li>Arranged on periodic table according to atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>However, that isn’t all! </li></ul>
  19. 19. Periodic Properties <ul><li>Atomic Radii </li></ul><ul><li>Ionization Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Affinity </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic Radii </li></ul><ul><li>Electronegativity </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cited Sources: <ul><li>Photo of Mendeleev </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.bluffton.edu/~bergerd/nsc_111/science2.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photo of Moseley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://physics.ucsc.edu/groups/condensed/moseley/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lanthanide series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ggg.gl/Rare-Earth-Elements/Rare-Earth-Elements.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noble gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://brotiman.glogster.com/noble-gases/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Actinide series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>https://www.llnl.gov/news/newsreleases/2007/NR-07-06-03.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Halogen Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_halogen.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_pertable.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Groups/Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/the-periodic-table-families-and-periods.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alkali Metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.learner.org/interactives/periodic/groups2.html </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Cited Sources Continued…. <ul><li>Alkaline-Earth Metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_alkalineearth.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.radiantchuaminhuiace.blogspot.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noble Gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/N/noble_gas.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periodic Table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// en.loadtr.com/Periodic_Table_could_have-438617.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periodic Table Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=DFDF8F8A-C1F1-49E1-ADE5-59E340A4D519&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US </li></ul></ul>
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