0
Mark Twain
(1835–1910)
Morals are an
acquirement—like
music, like a
foreign
language, like
piety, poker, paraly
sis—no man...
A Behavior Analysis
of
Moral and Legal Control
Mrs. Nellie B.
Louis, you‟re a foxy
lady.
Thank you, Mr.
Albert, you handsome
man, you.
Let‟s do
the
nasty*, Mrs
. Louis.
*the nasty is a really awesome sin-onym for copulation.
Cool,
Mr. Albert.
Effective, Natural
Reinforcement Contingency
BEFORE
Mrs. Louis &
Albert have
no sexual
stimulation.
AFTER
Mrs. Louis &
Alb...
Meanwhile, back at the
laboratory,
The Genesis of Behavior Analysis
Book I, Verse I
In the beginning,
Skinner created
the box and the lever.
Box
Lever
And the box was without
behavior.
And Skinner said,
“Oh, rats”!
And there were rats.
And Skinner saw the
contingencies, that they
were good.
And Skinner divided the
contingencies
into increasing and
decreasing.
And Skinner called
the increasing, “reinforcement”
and
the decreasing, “punishment.”
Effective, Natural
Reinforcement Contingency
BEFORE
Rudolph the
rat has no
food.
AFTER
Rudolph the
rat has food.
BEHAVIOR
...
Press LeverNo Food Food
No Food Press Lever Food
And as it is with food in the laboratory,
so it is with sex in the laboratory.
No Sex Press Lever Sex
And as it is in the laboratory,
so it is on the street.
No Sex
Hit on
Chick
Sex
But there‟s
another
contingency.
And that other
contingency isn‟t
controlling Mrs.
Lewis and Albert‟s
behavior.
In other
words, that
contingency is
ineffective.
It‟s a
punishment
contingency.
And that punishment
contingency fails to
suppress Mrs. Louis
and Albert‟s adultery.
That punishment
contingency is the
…
Ineffective, Natural
Punishment Contingency
BEFORE
Mrs. Louis &
Albert‟s
families have
some
marital/
child-rearing
stabili...
Frankie and Albert were sweet hearts.
Lordy, how they could love.
Vowed to love one another,
Baby ‘neath the stars above.
...
AFTER
Mrs. Louis &
Albert‟s families
have slightly
less marital/
child-rearing
stability.
What do we mean by slightly less...
What do we mean by slightly less
marital/child-rearing stability?
 A slightly greater
chance the
spouses (Mr. Louis
and F...
What do we mean by slightly less
marital/child-rearing stability?
 A slightly greater
chance the
children will get
hurt b...
What do we mean by slightly less
marital/child-rearing stability?
 Adultery may
create the
“Who‟s your
daddy?” problem
fo...
But that‟s not the end
of the story.
Frankie, she cried, she cried, she cried,
“Lordy what have I done?
I done give my lov...
But that‟s still not the end
of the story.
Albert saw Frankie comin‟.
He said, “Oh Lord, Baby, don‟t you
shoot.”
Well, you...
Meanwhile, back at the
laboratory,
Rudolph the rat receives painful
electric shock;
so he bites another rat.
Scientists co...
BEFORE
Rudolph has
no
satisfaction
of
aggression.
AFTER
Rudolph has
satisfaction
of
aggression.
BEHAVIOR
Rudolph
bites
ano...
And as it is in the laboratory,
so it is on the street.
BEFORE
Frankie has
no
satisfaction
of
aggression.
AFTER
Frankie has
satisfaction
of
aggression.
BEHAVIOR
Frankie
shoots an...
So what have
we got here?
We‟ve got an . . .
BEFORE
No
satisfaction.
AFTER
Satisfaction.
MOTIVATING OPERATION
Frankie‟s hurt.
Effective, Natural
Reinforcement Continge...
But, again, we‟ve also got another
contingency that is ineffective.
Another ineffective punishment
(penalty) contingency.
...
Ineffective, Natural
Punishment Contingency
BEFORE
Society has
Albert, a
good, produc
tive, though
lecherous
man.
AFTER
So...
Why are these natural
contingencies ineffective?
Why doesn‟t the potential harm prevent
the St. Louis woman and Albert fro...
BECAUSE
The St. Louis Woman and Albert
probably won‟t get caught.
And even if they do,
one little caught indiscretion ma...
Why are these natural
contingencies ineffective?
Why doesn‟t the
potential harm
prevent Frankie from
killing Albert?
Because Frankie can always get a
better man than Albert, maybe?
Because some rules are
hard to follow:
Rules that specify improbable outcomes are
hard to follow.
e.g., buckle up, because...
Because some rules are
hard to follow:
Rules that specify improbable outcomes are
hard to follow.
e. g., don‟t commit adul...
Because some rules are
hard to follow:
Also rules that specify small but
cumulatively significant outcomes are
hard to fol...
Because some rules are
hard to follow:
Also rules that specify small but
cumulatively significant outcomes are
hard to fol...
Summary to Date
Society is plagued with competing
natural contingencies.
Effective, natural reinforcement
contingencies ...
How does society solve this
problem?
Society supplements the
ineffective, natural punishment/penalty
contingencies
with la...
Busted By The Police
Legal Control of
Harmful Behavior
All states have laws against murder
even murder of a two-timing lout like
Albert.
And so...
Adultery
Alabama (Adulterers cannot
hold public office) Section
# 4184:
“If any man and woman live
together in adultery or...
But what happens
when there ain‟t
no one a lookin‟?
What happens
when the cop‟s
asleep?
Then there are no
law-enforcement
contingencies?
Then I could do
anything I want to
do.
But so could
everyone else.
It would be each
selfish pig for
himself.
When the laws
of nature fail to
get us to do the
right thing,
And when the
laws of man fail
to get us to do
the right thin...
When the laws
of nature fail to
get us to do the
right thing,
And when the
laws of man fail
to get us to do
the right thin...
The Ten
Commandments
are religion-based
rules for living in
the material world.
They specify
religious
contingencies that
...
Ten, thou shalt
nots.
Including
Thou shalt not
commit
adultery.
And thou shalt
not commit
murder.
Nearly 2500
years ago when
intrigue and vice
were rampant in
feudal China,
Nearly 2500
years ago when
intrigue and vice
were rampant in
feudal China,
the philosopher
Confucius
Nearly 2500
years ago when
intrigue and vice
were rampant in
feudal China,
the philosopher
Confucius
taught principles
of ...
Both Moses and Confucius
provide moral rules
to supplement legal rules
in order to increase good behavior and
decrease bad...
And, if you don’t
follow those rules,
God a mighty, gone
‘a cut you down.
Whether we’re
 atheists
 agnostics or
 born-again true
believers,
most of us
have grown up
in the context
of one of the...
Because of our
religious
backgrounds,
most of us have
acquired strong
religious/moral
values.
These
religious/moral
values are best
understood as:
learned
reinforcers
and learned
aversive
conditions.
For most of us
the well-being, of
humanity
is a strong, learned
reinforcer;
and harm to
humanity is a
strong, learned
aver...
So how do we
achieve the well-
being of humanity?
Our human nature
no longer reliably
works toward
humanity‟s well-
being....
Ineffective Contingencies
Ineffective
contingencies have
small (although
cumulatively
significant
outcomes)
or they have
i...
The outcomes may be
small, but cumulatively
significant,
Or they may be
improbable,
But they may affect
the well-being of
...
Religion-based Moral Control
Involves the use of
fear (of losing the
opportunity to go to
heaven) to reduce
immoral behavi...
Avoidance of going to hell
A behavioral contingency that
supports much of our moral behavior.
The Threat
of Hell
A punishment
contingency that
suppresses much
of our immoral
behavior.
The Standard Analysis of
Heaven in Moral Control
Not only do you go to
Hell or purgatory
when you sin (a
punishment
contin...
The Standard Analysis of
Heaven in Moral Control
We agree with
this part of the
standard analysis.
But we disagree
with th...
The Standard Analysis of
Heaven in Moral Control
is a reward
(reinforcer)
for a life of good
deeds
(reinforcement
continge...
Bill Gates
gains entrance to
Heaven
as a reinforcer for
giving millions of dollars
to higher education
(reinforcement
cont...
And now,
Our
Analysis of Heaven in Moral
Control
Our Analysis of the Role of
Heaven in Moral Control
Gates
avoids loss of entrance
to Heaven
by giving millions of
dollars ...
Our Analysis of the Role of
Heaven in Moral Control
This is an avoidance
contingency
because there‟s a
deadline.
Gates mus...
Our Analysis of the Role of
Heaven in Moral Control
Microsoft‟s Gates
gives
for fear of loss of entrance through
Heavens g...
Our Analysis of the Role of
Heaven in Moral Control
The main function of
Heaven
is to give us something
to lose.
All moral...
This presentation is from the
Behavior Analysis Training System
Behavior Analysis Program
Department of Psychology
Western...
the authors are
Richard W. Malott PhD, BCBA
Jason T. Otto (Ph.D. Student)
(Jason now has his Ph.D.)
Moira McGlynn (BA Stud...
subliminal message
Study behavior
analysis in
BATS
at WMU
and you, too, can be
cool like
Jason and Moira
and get good
beha...
In Summary
B e tte r living,
th rough
B e h a viorism
In Summary
Save the world
with behavior analysis.
ThankYou
Morality
Morality
Morality
Morality
Morality
Morality
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Transcript of "Morality"

  1. 1. Mark Twain (1835–1910) Morals are an acquirement—like music, like a foreign language, like piety, poker, paraly sis—no man is born with them.
  2. 2. A Behavior Analysis of Moral and Legal Control
  3. 3. Mrs. Nellie B. Louis, you‟re a foxy lady. Thank you, Mr. Albert, you handsome man, you.
  4. 4. Let‟s do the nasty*, Mrs . Louis. *the nasty is a really awesome sin-onym for copulation.
  5. 5. Cool, Mr. Albert.
  6. 6. Effective, Natural Reinforcement Contingency BEFORE Mrs. Louis & Albert have no sexual stimulation. AFTER Mrs. Louis & Albert have sexual stimulation. BEHAVIOR Mrs. Louis & Albert commit adultery.
  7. 7. Meanwhile, back at the laboratory, The Genesis of Behavior Analysis Book I, Verse I
  8. 8. In the beginning, Skinner created the box and the lever. Box Lever
  9. 9. And the box was without behavior.
  10. 10. And Skinner said, “Oh, rats”!
  11. 11. And there were rats.
  12. 12. And Skinner saw the contingencies, that they were good.
  13. 13. And Skinner divided the contingencies into increasing and decreasing.
  14. 14. And Skinner called the increasing, “reinforcement” and the decreasing, “punishment.”
  15. 15. Effective, Natural Reinforcement Contingency BEFORE Rudolph the rat has no food. AFTER Rudolph the rat has food. BEHAVIOR Rudolph the rat presses the response lever.
  16. 16. Press LeverNo Food Food
  17. 17. No Food Press Lever Food
  18. 18. And as it is with food in the laboratory, so it is with sex in the laboratory.
  19. 19. No Sex Press Lever Sex
  20. 20. And as it is in the laboratory, so it is on the street.
  21. 21. No Sex Hit on Chick Sex
  22. 22. But there‟s another contingency.
  23. 23. And that other contingency isn‟t controlling Mrs. Lewis and Albert‟s behavior.
  24. 24. In other words, that contingency is ineffective.
  25. 25. It‟s a punishment contingency.
  26. 26. And that punishment contingency fails to suppress Mrs. Louis and Albert‟s adultery.
  27. 27. That punishment contingency is the …
  28. 28. Ineffective, Natural Punishment Contingency BEFORE Mrs. Louis & Albert‟s families have some marital/ child-rearing stability. AFTER Mrs. Louis & Albert‟s families have slightly less marital/ child-rearing stability. BEHAVIOR Mrs. Louis & Albert commit adultery.
  29. 29. Frankie and Albert were sweet hearts. Lordy, how they could love. Vowed to love one another, Baby ‘neath the stars above. It was her man, and he was doin’ her wrong. Ineffective, Natural Punishment Contingency
  30. 30. AFTER Mrs. Louis & Albert‟s families have slightly less marital/ child-rearing stability. What do we mean by slightly less marital/child-rearing stability? Ineffective, Natural Punishment Contingency
  31. 31. What do we mean by slightly less marital/child-rearing stability?  A slightly greater chance the spouses (Mr. Louis and Frankie) will get hurt. Ineffective, Natural Punishment Contingency
  32. 32. What do we mean by slightly less marital/child-rearing stability?  A slightly greater chance the children will get hurt by their parental disruption or divorce. Ineffective, Natural Punishment Contingency
  33. 33. What do we mean by slightly less marital/child-rearing stability?  Adultery may create the “Who‟s your daddy?” problem for any illicit offspring. Ineffective, Natural Punishment Contingency
  34. 34. But that‟s not the end of the story. Frankie, she cried, she cried, she cried, “Lordy what have I done? I done give my love to this man. He done took my love and run. It was my man. And he was doin‟ me wrong.”
  35. 35. But that‟s still not the end of the story. Albert saw Frankie comin‟. He said, “Oh Lord, Baby, don‟t you shoot.” Well, you know, out from under that red kimono, the gun went “rooty toot toot.” She shot that man, „cause he was doing me wrong.
  36. 36. Meanwhile, back at the laboratory, Rudolph the rat receives painful electric shock; so he bites another rat. Scientists conclude: Pain make aggression reinforcing.
  37. 37. BEFORE Rudolph has no satisfaction of aggression. AFTER Rudolph has satisfaction of aggression. BEHAVIOR Rudolph bites another rat. MOTIVATING OPERATION Rudolph receives electric shock.
  38. 38. And as it is in the laboratory, so it is on the street.
  39. 39. BEFORE Frankie has no satisfaction of aggression. AFTER Frankie has satisfaction of aggression. BEHAVIOR Frankie shoots and kills her beloved Albert. MOTIVATING OPERATION Frankie‟s feeling are hurt by two-timing Albert.
  40. 40. So what have we got here? We‟ve got an . . .
  41. 41. BEFORE No satisfaction. AFTER Satisfaction. MOTIVATING OPERATION Frankie‟s hurt. Effective, Natural Reinforcement Contingency BEHAVIOR Frankie shoots Albert.
  42. 42. But, again, we‟ve also got another contingency that is ineffective. Another ineffective punishment (penalty) contingency. A punishment contingency that fails to suppress Frankie‟s homicidal aggression. It‟s the
  43. 43. Ineffective, Natural Punishment Contingency BEFORE Society has Albert, a good, produc tive, though lecherous man. AFTER Society doesn‟t have Albert, a good, produc tive, though lecherous man. BEHAVIOR Frankie shoots and kills her beloved Albert.
  44. 44. Why are these natural contingencies ineffective? Why doesn‟t the potential harm prevent the St. Louis woman and Albert from fornicating?
  45. 45. BECAUSE The St. Louis Woman and Albert probably won‟t get caught. And even if they do, one little caught indiscretion may not hurt that much, though a series of caught indiscretions might be disastrous.
  46. 46. Why are these natural contingencies ineffective? Why doesn‟t the potential harm prevent Frankie from killing Albert?
  47. 47. Because Frankie can always get a better man than Albert, maybe?
  48. 48. Because some rules are hard to follow: Rules that specify improbable outcomes are hard to follow. e.g., buckle up, because there is a low probability you‟ll have a car accident.
  49. 49. Because some rules are hard to follow: Rules that specify improbable outcomes are hard to follow. e. g., don‟t commit adultery, because there is a low probability that you‟ll be caught.
  50. 50. Because some rules are hard to follow: Also rules that specify small but cumulatively significant outcomes are hard to follow e.g., don‟t pollute, because every instance of pollution has a small but cumulatively significant, environmental impact.
  51. 51. Because some rules are hard to follow: Also rules that specify small but cumulatively significant outcomes are hard to follow e.g., don‟t commit adultery, because every instance of caught adultery may have a small but cumulatively significant impact on your family.
  52. 52. Summary to Date Society is plagued with competing natural contingencies. Effective, natural reinforcement contingencies can cause us to do harmful things. And ineffective, natural punishment/penalty contingencies can fail to prevent us from doing those harmful things.
  53. 53. How does society solve this problem? Society supplements the ineffective, natural punishment/penalty contingencies with laws specifying effective, performance-management contingencies— contingencies that specify sizeable, probable outcomes.
  54. 54. Busted By The Police
  55. 55. Legal Control of Harmful Behavior All states have laws against murder even murder of a two-timing lout like Albert. And some states still have laws against adultery even adultery with someone as irresistible as that St. Louis woman.
  56. 56. Adultery Alabama (Adulterers cannot hold public office) Section # 4184: “If any man and woman live together in adultery or fornication, …be fined not less than $100, and may also be imprisoned.”
  57. 57. But what happens when there ain‟t no one a lookin‟?
  58. 58. What happens when the cop‟s asleep?
  59. 59. Then there are no law-enforcement contingencies?
  60. 60. Then I could do anything I want to do.
  61. 61. But so could everyone else.
  62. 62. It would be each selfish pig for himself.
  63. 63. When the laws of nature fail to get us to do the right thing, And when the laws of man fail to get us to do the right thing, We need the laws of God.
  64. 64. When the laws of nature fail to get us to do the right thing, And when the laws of man fail to get us to do the right thing, We need the laws of God. The Ten Commandments
  65. 65. The Ten Commandments are religion-based rules for living in the material world. They specify religious contingencies that supplement the natural and legal contingencies.
  66. 66. Ten, thou shalt nots. Including Thou shalt not commit adultery. And thou shalt not commit murder.
  67. 67. Nearly 2500 years ago when intrigue and vice were rampant in feudal China,
  68. 68. Nearly 2500 years ago when intrigue and vice were rampant in feudal China, the philosopher Confucius
  69. 69. Nearly 2500 years ago when intrigue and vice were rampant in feudal China, the philosopher Confucius taught principles of proper conduct and social relationships that embraced high ethical and moral standards.
  70. 70. Both Moses and Confucius provide moral rules to supplement legal rules in order to increase good behavior and decrease bad behavior.
  71. 71. And, if you don’t follow those rules, God a mighty, gone ‘a cut you down.
  72. 72. Whether we’re  atheists  agnostics or  born-again true believers, most of us have grown up in the context of one of the world’s great religions.
  73. 73. Because of our religious backgrounds, most of us have acquired strong religious/moral values.
  74. 74. These religious/moral values are best understood as: learned reinforcers and learned aversive conditions.
  75. 75. For most of us the well-being, of humanity is a strong, learned reinforcer; and harm to humanity is a strong, learned aversive condition.
  76. 76. So how do we achieve the well- being of humanity? Our human nature no longer reliably works toward humanity‟s well- being. Ineffective natural contingencies do not allow it.
  77. 77. Ineffective Contingencies Ineffective contingencies have small (although cumulatively significant outcomes) or they have improbable outcomes.
  78. 78. The outcomes may be small, but cumulatively significant, Or they may be improbable, But they may affect the well-being of humanity— our strong, learned, moral /religious reinforcer.
  79. 79. Religion-based Moral Control Involves the use of fear (of losing the opportunity to go to heaven) to reduce immoral behavior, a penalty contingency.
  80. 80. Avoidance of going to hell A behavioral contingency that supports much of our moral behavior.
  81. 81. The Threat of Hell A punishment contingency that suppresses much of our immoral behavior.
  82. 82. The Standard Analysis of Heaven in Moral Control Not only do you go to Hell or purgatory when you sin (a punishment contingency), But you also lose entrance to heaven (a penalty contingency). Both contingencies decrease sinful acts.
  83. 83. The Standard Analysis of Heaven in Moral Control We agree with this part of the standard analysis. But we disagree with the next part.
  84. 84. The Standard Analysis of Heaven in Moral Control is a reward (reinforcer) for a life of good deeds (reinforcement contingency). Entrance to Heaven
  85. 85. Bill Gates gains entrance to Heaven as a reinforcer for giving millions of dollars to higher education (reinforcement contingency). The Standard Analysis of Heaven in Moral Control
  86. 86. And now, Our Analysis of Heaven in Moral Control
  87. 87. Our Analysis of the Role of Heaven in Moral Control Gates avoids loss of entrance to Heaven by giving millions of dollars to higher education (avoidance contingency).
  88. 88. Our Analysis of the Role of Heaven in Moral Control This is an avoidance contingency because there‟s a deadline. Gates must have done his good deeds before his death (the dead line).
  89. 89. Our Analysis of the Role of Heaven in Moral Control Microsoft‟s Gates gives for fear of loss of entrance through Heavens gates. Without a deadline, it would be a simple reinforcement contingency, no fear, and an eternity of procrastination.
  90. 90. Our Analysis of the Role of Heaven in Moral Control The main function of Heaven is to give us something to lose. All moral control is based on fear, either fear of Hell or fear of loss of access to Heaven.
  91. 91. This presentation is from the Behavior Analysis Training System Behavior Analysis Program Department of Psychology Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, Michigan USA
  92. 92. the authors are Richard W. Malott PhD, BCBA Jason T. Otto (Ph.D. Student) (Jason now has his Ph.D.) Moira McGlynn (BA Student) (Moira now has her MA) They are now both off saving the world with behavior analysis and with amazing grace.
  93. 93. subliminal message Study behavior analysis in BATS at WMU and you, too, can be cool like Jason and Moira and get good behavior analysis jobs like they did.
  94. 94. In Summary B e tte r living, th rough B e h a viorism
  95. 95. In Summary Save the world with behavior analysis.
  96. 96. ThankYou
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