Ch. 9 hw 7 e

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Ch. 9 hw 7 e

  1. 1. Name: __________________________ Instructor: __________________Red Grade: ________ LO: 66 Chapter 9 Conceptual Work Sheets for Unlearned Reinforcers, Aversive Stimuli, and the Motivating Operation In Chapter 9 of Principles of Behavior you were introduced to unlearned reinforcers and aversive conditions and to Motivating Operations. It is important for you to be able to diagram these new concepts along with the basic contingency diagram. This worksheet will teach you to put them all together in one diagram. 1 response becoming more likely to occur __________. a. some time in the future (even if it’s a couple minutes later). b. right now, at this very moment (current time). Okay? Let’s check out learning. This is the tricky one, so let’s pay close attention to details. Motivating Operation  Deprivation at the time of reinforcement increases the impact the delivery of a single reinforcer has on the subsequent frequency of the reinforced response - learning  The MO makes the organism more susceptible to reinforcement by a particular reinforcer. This means that, if the reinforcer is delivered, it will increase the future likelihood of the response more if the MO is present than it would have if the MO had not been present. We call this an increase in learning. And deprivation at the time to perform that response increases the frequency of that previously reinforced response and thus previously learned response - performance 2. When we’re talking about the MO increasing learning, we’re talking about the response becoming more likely to occur __________. a. some time in the future. b. right now, at this very moment. Learning vs. Performance Wow! I’m feeling the effects of example deprivation. Let’s visit the rat lab! You will need to know how to differentiate learning and performance. Put simply, learning refers to a change in the future likelihood of the response and performance refers to the current likelihood of the response. But that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Now let’s take a more in-depth look. Here are the crucial rules you need to follow for this homework: Learning refers to a change in the future likelihood of the response. Performance refers to the current likelihood of the response. 1. First, let’s look at performance. If we’re talking about the Motivating Operation (MO) increasing performance, we’re talking about the 1 Revised by Bill Boettcher and Elaine Foss (1994), Melissa Daws (1995). This chapter was revised by Wendy Jaehnig as partial fulfillment of the requirements for an Independent Study during Fall, 1995 and Winter, 1996. Revised by Nathalie Witt as part of her MA project requirements (20022003). -1-
  2. 2. Ringo in the Rat Lab principles that were introduced in Principles of Behavior that are related to this example. Let’s start with the basics. You’re in the rat lab and have dipper trained your rat, Ringo. It has been 23 hours since Ringo had access to water. Now it’s time to shape the lever press. Ringo wanders near the lever and, “click!” you raise the dipper. Ringo slurps up the water and then wanders back toward the lever. He touches it with his paw, “click!” In a short time Ringo is making a high rate of solid lever presses and receiving water reinforcement (thanks to your excellent shaping skills). However, toward the end of the lab period Ringo stops making the lever press as frequently and eventually stops altogether. Note: The process of increasing the force with which the rat presses the lever is shaping. The process of training the rat to approach the lever, lift up, and press it is chaining. 3. Diagram this basic contingency (2): Before Behavior After 4. What type of contingency is this? a. reinforcement b. punishment c. escape d. penalty Definition: Principle Deprivation  Withholding a reinforcer  increases relevant learning and performance. Definition: Principle Satiation  Consuming a substantial amount of a reinforcer  temporarily decreases relevant learning and performance. Now let’s return to Ringo in the rat lab. 5. What principle is demonstrated in Ringo’s high rate of lever pressing at the beginning of the lab session in this example? a. deprivation b. satiation 6. At the beginning of the example, when you were training the lever press and Ringo was “learning” the lever press for the first time, deprivation made water reinforcement more effective in increasing the _________ frequency of lever pressing. a. current b. future 7. This is an increase in __________. a. learning b. performance Now we need to figure out what the Motivating Operation (MO) is in this example. Here is the definition of an MO: Definition: Procedure Motivating Operation (MO)  A procedure or condition  that affects learning and performance  with respect to a particular reinforcer or aversive stimulus. So, what is the Motivating Operation in this example? Before you answer that, there are two 8. After Ringo had “learned” the lever press response and was making it reliably, his currently high rate of responding shows an increase in ________ due to water deprivation. a. learning b. performance 9. Toward the end of the example Ringo had consumed a large amount of water. He slowed down and eventually stopped responding. This demonstrates which principle? a. deprivation b. satiation 10. This resulted in a decrease in __________. a. learning Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 -2-
  3. 3. b. performance 11. Now, can you figure out what the Motivating Operations are? There are two of them in this example. Each relates to one of the principles we just talked about. What MO produced an increase in lever pressing? _____________________________________ Hint: (It relates to the deprivation principle. Think hard and fill in the diagram, including the MO.) Note: (For the Motivating Operation in the next two diagrams, be more specific than satiation and deprivation.) (3) Hint: (The MO box should not contain a behavior!) 12. How effective do you think water would be as a reinforcer if the rats were satiated? a. just as effective b. a little less effective c. probably ineffective 13. Now, what is the MO that produces a decrease in Ringo’s lever pressing behavior? Experience in the rat lab should tell you that after Ringo has consumed a large quantity of water, he is going to press the lever for water reinforcement less frequently. Ever notice that your rat responds less and less toward the end of the hour? This time the answer is related to the Satiation Principle. Fill in the contingency diagram (3). Hint: (The MO box should not contain a behavior!) Do you notice something special about the last two diagrams you just filled in? How about that the diagrams look the same except for the MO box. (If that is not the case, go back and change your answers). The behavior is the same; the before and after conditions are the same. It is only the MO that is different. However, even though the contingency is the same, the behavioral effect is different. The rat is more likely to press the lever when he is water deprived and less likely when he is water satiated. 14. Incidentally, one student asked a good question: instead of lever pressing as the behavior of interest, can we have Ringo just lies there, as the behavior of interest? What do you think? a. Yes, Ringo just lies there is cool. b. Nope, better stick with Ringo presses the lever. 15. Of course, just lying there doesn’t work because it fails the dead-rat test. But aside from the dead-rat test, would Ringo just lies there be cool? a. Then just lying is OK. b. No, even though just lying there is what’s happening, we’ve still got to stick with the lever press. Here’s the point: A contingency is an if-then relationship. If you jump out the 4th floor window, then you’ll really trash your body. Jumping out the window is the behavior of interest, even though you’ll never do it. Similarly, lever pressing is the behavior of interest, because Ringo will get the water, if he presses the lever, even though a satiated Ringo may never make that response. Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 -3-
  4. 4. 16. When the rat is water deprived, the water will be ____________ effective as a reinforcer in comparison to when he is water satiated. a. more b. less c. about equally 21. We want to know what the MOs are for this example. Once again, there are two of them. Which MO produced an increase in lever pressing? Fill in the contingency diagram (3). (Hint: the MO box should not contain a behavior!) Romeo Rat Romeo rat is in a Skinner box. He has not had any exposure to female rats for a couple days. Romeo wanders around the box and eventually comes upon the lever and presses it. Immediately a female rat (Juliet?) is placed in the box. One copulation occurs, and Juliet Rat is removed. This happens several times, and eventually Romeo Rat starts reliably pressing the lever as soon as Juliet is removed. However, after numerous copulations, Romeo stops pressing as frequently and eventually stops altogether. 17. What is the response of interest in this example (what produces the female rat)? a. Romeo’s copulation b. Romeo’s lever press 22. This increase in lever pressing demonstrates which principle? a. deprivation b. satiation 18. What is the outcome of that response? a. sexual stimulation b. opportunity for sexual stimulation/ presence of female rat 23. At beginning of the example, this MO made the opportunity for sexual stimulation ____________ effective as a reinforcer. a. more b. less 19. Diagram this basic contingency. (Hint: the after condition should be something like, “a receptive female rat,” which is better than saying, “sexual stimulation,” because it is not sexual stimulation that’s directly contingent on the lever press.) (2) 24. Thus, Romeo will be more likely to press the lever in the future. This shows an increase in ____________. a. learning b. performance Before Behavior After 25. The effect of sexual deprivation on performance is demonstrated by Romeo’s increased rate of responding ____________. a. at this moment (current) b. in the future 20. What type of contingency is this? a. reinforcement b. punishment c. escape d. penalty Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 -4-
  5. 5. 26. What is the MO that produced a decrease in Romeo’s lever pressing behavior? Fill in the contingency (3): Before Behavior After 30. What type of contingency is this? a. reinforcement b. punishment c. escape d. penalty 27. The decrease in the rate of lever pressing after numerous copulations demonstrates which principle? a. deprivation b. satiation 28. The resulting decrease in lever pressing demonstrates the MO’s effects on ____________. a. learning b. performance Dr. Malott’s Nightmare We have just done two examples that dealt with deprivation and satiation. But not all MOs involve that. The following example has an MO that does not involve deprivation and satiation. Poor Dr. Malott is having a nightmare. He’s in a Skinner box with an electrified floor, and Rudolph the rat is at the controls. Rudolph sets the shock dial at 100 milliamps, and Dr. Malott doesn’t have his sandals on…OUCH!!! However, Dr. Malott presses the bar inside the box, and immediately the shock is less aversive, at 20 milliamps. Now you need to figure out what the Motivating Operation is. Well, in the case of escape and punishment, the Motivating Operation and the before condition are usually the same thing; so we don’t need a separate Motivating Operation box. This was not Dr. Malott’s first experience in the Skinner box with Rudolph at the controls. He had already learned the response. Keep that in mind when you answer the next question. 31. This MO is affecting ____________. a. learning b. performance 32. What happens if Rudolph lowers the shock in the before conditions from 100 to 30 m.a.? In comparing Dr. Malott’s lever pressing frequency when the before condition was 100 m.a., the frequency at 30 m.a. will be a. lower b. higher c. the same Here’s another way to look at the previous question. When the before condition is not as intense, only 50 m.a., it will not be as highly “motivated” to press the lever. This is a sort of loose way of talking about it, but maybe a little clearer; generally, it’s not too tight to talk about “being motivated.” 33. Thus, setting the shock at a lower level ____________ affect learning and performance. a. can b. cannot 34. This effect shows that decreasing the intensity of an aversive stimulus ____________ function as an MO. a. can b. cannot Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 -5- 29. Note that when Dr. Malott presses the lever, the shock doesn’t turn off, but it gets less aversive. Keeping that in mind, fill in the contingency diagram (2):
  6. 6. Aversively Cold Restaurant You are dining at the Olive Garden with your significant other. It’s the middle of July, so they try to keep the restaurant cool for the comfort of the customers. However, you are getting to be kind of cold. Fortunately, you brought a sweater, and you put it on. Now you feel warmer and quite comfortable. 35. Please diagram this contingency (2): Before Behavior After has touch screen controls. You fumble around a bit pushing random places on the screen until you finally hit the correct area. Immediately, cool air rushes at you from the vents. Ahhhhhhh…what a relief. The next time it is too hot in your car, you’ll push that button a little sooner. 40. The before condition in this contingency is a. a neutral condition b. an aversive condition 41. Thus, what type of contingency is this? a. reinforcement b. punishment c. escape d. penalty 42. Diagram this basic contingency (2): 36. What type of contingency is this? a. reinforcement b. punishment c. escape d. penalty Before 37. Do we need a separate box for the Motivating Operation? a. yes b. no 38. The response in this example is a. a new response b. a response that has already been learned 39. This MO affects ____________. a. learning b. performance Behavior After 43. Was the response in this example a new response, or had you made the same response many times in the past? a. It’s as new as the car. b. I’ve made that same response hundreds of times. 44. Thus, this MO affects ____________. a. learning b. performance The Air Conditioning After your lunch at the Olive Garden, you and your significant other climb into your brand new car, which has been sitting in the parking lot as you dined. Man, is this heat aversive! It would have been a good idea to find a parking spot in the shade. But that’s okay; the salesman said this car is equipped with an air conditioner. Now, where is the button that turns it on? Your old car had a knob that you turned to the left, but your new, fancy car Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 -6-
  7. 7. 47. Now, fill in the contingency diagram (3): Example An unconditioned MO is one in which a learning history is not necessary for its function. One example is deprivation of food. A learning history is not necessary for food deprivation to serve as an MO that increases the reinforcing effectiveness of food as a reinforcer. So now it’s your turn to come up with an example with an unconditioned MO. If you can use an MO we he haven’t covered yet, that would be great. Use a human in your example, not a rat in the Skinner box. 45. Describe your example in the space below : 48. What type of contingency is this? a. reinforcement b. punishment c. escape d. penalty 49. Describe the effects of your MO. Be sure to include the MO’s effects of learning and performance. (Describe the effects of your frequency of responding now and in the future.) 46. Now, is any learning history necessary in order for the MO you are using to function as an MO? a. yes b. no If the answer to the above question is, “yes,” then your example involves a conditioned motivating operation instead of an unconditioned motivating operation. Be sure to use an unconditioned motivating operation in your example. Now you need to figure out what the motivating operation is. Well, in the case of escape and punishment, the motivating operation and the before condition are the same thing; so we usually don’t need a separate motivating operation box. (Hint: the MO box should not contain a behavior!) Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 -7-

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