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Ch. 25 hw   7 e
 

Ch. 25 hw 7 e

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    Ch. 25 hw   7 e Ch. 25 hw 7 e Document Transcript

    • Name: ____________________ Instructor: _____________________ Grade: _____ Learning Opportunities: __31___ Chapter 25 Conceptual Work Sheets for Pay For Performance People often have trouble quitting smoking. Why? The natural punishment contingency fails to suppress the behavior of smoking one cigarette. Often people fail to do things that are in their best interest. For example, we should exercise, floss our teeth every day, and eat healthy food. We also have trouble stopping the behaviors that are not good for us, including smoking, drinking, and eating fatty foods. 2. What is the natural outcome that fails to decrease smoking one cigarette? A. An enormous decrease in health B. An infinitesimal decrease in health C. Death D. Lung Cancer 3. What is the ineffective natural contingency for smoking one cigarette? So why does poor self-management occur? The Ineffective Natural Contingency It occurs because the reinforcement and punishment contingencies that occur naturally in our environment are not effective. Why are they ineffective? The outcome for each instance of behavior is either too small (though may be of cumulative significance) or too improbable. For example, each time you exercise you only increase your health infinitesimally. This is not enough to maintain the behavior. We call this contingency the ineffective natural contingency. Before 4. Behavior After Ineffective natural contingencies occur naturally in the environment. They are not designed by people to increase or decrease behavior. What is the ineffective natural contingency for exercising for 30 minutes? Before Behavior Is this a natural contingency? After Before I exercise for 30 minutes Will not lose 10 dollars on Friday A. Yes B. No What type of ineffective natural contingency is the previous contingency? A. Ineffective punishment contingency B. Ineffective avoidance contingency C. After Will lose 10 dollars on Friday 1. Behavior Ineffective reinforcement contingency D. Ineffective avoidance of the loss contingency Ch. 25 HW - 7E 1 12/12/05
    • 5. Is this an ineffective contingency? Before Small probability of being injured Behavior is too small (though may be of cumulative significance) or too improbable. While the performance management contingency is 1) designed by a person with the intent to increase, decrease, or maintain behavior and 2) is effective because the outcome is sizeable and probable. After Infinitesimally I buckle up my seat belt smaller probability of injury Example 1: Before Behavior After Will lose 10 dollars on Friday A. Yes B. No I exercise for 30 minutes Will not lose 10 dollars on Friday What do we do about poor selfmanagement? We design a performance management contingency. A performance management contingency is designed by a person with the intent to increase, decrease, or maintain behavior. These contingencies are often (but not always) rule governed indirect-acting contingencies. For example, if I want to decrease smoking, I might design a contingency that will control my behavior. If the contingency is effective, the outcome must be sizeable and probable. So for every cigarette I smoke I must do one extra chore in my apartment on Friday. 6. 8. 9. Behavior Does the contingency occur naturally in the environment? A. Yes B. No 10. Is the outcome for the behavior in the contingency above sizable and probable? A. Yes B. No Diagram the performance management contingency I designed to decrease smoking. Before Is this contingency designed by a person with the intent to increase, decrease or maintain behavior? A. Yes B. No 11. Is the outcome for the behavior in the contingency above small (but cumulative significance) or improbable? A. Yes B. No After 12. What is the above contingency? 7. A. B. What type of contingency is this? A. Reinforcement B. Punishment C. Analog to Reinforcement D. Analog to Punishment Ineffective natural contingency Performance management contingency People often confuse the ineffective natural contingency and the performance management contingency, so let’s go through a few examples. Remember, the ineffective natural contingency 1) occurs in the environment naturally and 2) fails to control the behavior because the outcome Ch. 25 HW - 7E -2- 11/21/2013
    • Example 2: Before Small probability of being injured Behavior controls the behavior. If the PM contingency is an analog to avoidance the inferred theoretical contingency is escape. If the PM contingency is an analog to punishment or penalty, the inferred theoretical contingency is punishment or penalty. After Infinitesimally I buckle up my seat belt smaller probability of injury Example 3: Performance-Management Contingency Before I do not have to do an extra chore on Friday 13. Is this contingency designed by someone with the intent to increase, decrease or maintain behavior? A. Yes B. No 14. Does the contingency above occur naturally in the environment? A. Yes B. No Behavior I smoke one cigarette After I do have to do an extra chore on Friday Inferred Theoretical Direct-acting Contingency Before No fear of having to do an extra chore on Friday 15. Is the outcome for the behavior in the contingency above sizable and probable? A. Yes B. No 16. Is the outcome for the behavior in the contingency above small (but cumulative significance) or improbable? A. Yes B. No Behavior I smoke one cigarette After Fear of having to do an extra chore on Friday 18. What is the inferred theoretical contingency for the following performance management contingency? 17. What is the above contingency? A. Ineffective natural contingency B. Performance management contingency Before Will have to do the dishes tonight Behavior I floss my teeth After Will not have to do the dishes tonight Inferred Theoretical Contingency If the performance management contingency is indirect-acting, we need an inferred theoretical contingency to explain the effectiveness of the performance management contingency. The statement of the rule (which describes the performance management contingency) acts as an establishing operation that establishes noncompliance with that rule as aversive. In other words when you are NOT DOING what you are supposed to be doing you are in the aversive state of fear. If you DO the behavior you are NOT supposed to be doing you are in the aversive state of fear. This inferred theoretical contingency is direct-acting and therefore Ch. 25 HW - 7E Before Behavior After Fill in the above inferred theoretical contingency -3- 11/21/2013
    • Original Example 19. Now make your own original example to share with the class. (Don’t forget your delay!) Note: Analog to punishment should NOT have a deadline. The Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management Ineffective Natural Contingency Before Behavior After Performance Management Contingency SD (Deadline) Before Behavior After Inferred Direct-acting Contingency Before Behavior Ch. 25 HW - 7E After -4- 11/21/2013