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Ch. 22 hw   7 e
Ch. 22 hw   7 e
Ch. 22 hw   7 e
Ch. 22 hw   7 e
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Ch. 22 hw 7 e

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  • 1. Name:________________________________ Instructor:_________________________ Grade:_____ LOs: 31 Chapter 22 Conceptual Work Sheets for Rule-Governed Behavior: Concepts First, skim through the work sheets so you can come up with one big example that handles all the questions, if possible. Also, if possible, take your examples from your professional life. Analogs to Danger! For the first four questions, make sure the outcomes are TOO delayed to reinforce the behavior you're analyzing. The contingency diagram for my example of an Analog to Avoidance Reinforcement -- Part 1 Cutting Some Slack In the real world, most rule-governed analog contingencies involve response units that contain gaps greater than 60 seconds. (Let’s call such response units analogs to reinforceable response units.) And, unless otherwise indicated, for the rest of this course, you may now use analogs to reinforceable response units in your original examples. Ain’t that cool. Analogs to Avoidance Contingencies The following homework assignments are in transition from looking at all life in terms of analogs to reinforcement to what we now think is a more realistic view--analogs to avoidance. So, if you want to make your original examples real cool, you’ll make them analog to avoidance contingencies by adding a deadline. Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz 11/21/2013 1 First, check out the definition: Definition: Concept Behavioral contingency  The occasion (SD) for a response (behavior),  the response (behavior),  and the outcome of the response (behavior). So let's include the SD and S∆, if there are any, in our examples, something we haven't usually done in analyzing analog contingencies. However, you may not have an S D and S∆. For example, a Christmas tree in the living room is not an SD for decorating it. Why not? The Christmas tree is more like an operandum, the lever that must be in the Skinner box before a response is even possible, let alone reinforceable. It would be nice if your examples have an S D and ∆ S but not necessary. My example: In order to get started on my long overdue practicum project I must meet with my notoriously absent minded advisor. (Excuse the loose use of the term forget, I am well aware there's no such thing as forgetting.) Due to my advisor's busy schedule and forgetfulness (we're calling him Dr. M. for anonymity's sake), if I set up an appointment with him while his laptop computer is open with its calendar/appointment, he will meet me at our agreed upon time several days later. If, however, he does not have his computer open, it is most probable he won't show for our appointment.
  • 2. 1. What's the contingency diagram of my example of a contingency with a delayed outcome? SD Dr. M. has his computer open for a few minutes Before Will lose opportunity to meet with Dr. M at end of week After Please fill out the contingency diagram describing your example. Remember to put the before and after boxes in the future tense (will and won’t…), and to include the delay in the before and after boxes. Behavior I make an appointment with Dr. M. S∆ The contingency diagram for your example of an analog to avoidance: 6. But first, whose behavior are you analyzing? ________________________ After Remember: If there's no SD, then there's no S∆. That means the contingency is always active. Don't confuse the S D with the operandum or manipulandum (e.g., the rat's lever). Don't confuse the SD with the environment or experimental space (e.g., the rat's Skinner box). SD Now go through the list of contingency-diagram criteria, and make sure this diagram meets the criteria. In other words this contingency should fail the SixtySecond Test. For analogs to avoidance, the delay between the response and the outcome is greater than 60 seconds. So the delay is too great for the outcome to reinforce that response. This is just the opposite of the requirement in the previous chapters. (There we wanted the delay to be short enough so reinforcement or punishment could occur.) Before After Behavior S∆ After 2. What type of indirect acting contingency is this (analog to reinforcement, avoidance, reinforcement, etc.)? Write your answer below. ______________________________________ 3. So does this example fail the 60-second test? a. yes b. no 4. Since it does fail the 60 second test, does the after condition really reinforce making the appointment? a. Yes b. No 5. Please explain: Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz 11/21/2013 2 Now go through the list of contingency-diagram criteria, and make sure your diagram meets the criteria. For the Sixty-Second Test, the answer should be that the delay is greater than 60 seconds. 7. What type of indirect acting contingency is this (analog to reinforcement, avoidance, etc.)? ____________________________________
  • 3. Your example of a rule-governed analog to avoidance b. no (Revise your example. If no one (including the behaving person) stated the rule at the time for the response, then the behaving person may have "forgotten" the rule.) (I just asked you to diagram the contingencies. Your description of the contingency should be the same as your statement of the rule.) 12. Did the behaving person state the rule? a. yes b. no Definition: concept 13. If no, then who did? _______________________ Rule 14. Was there an increase in the frequency of the response the rule described? a. yes (Good.) b. no (Then the rule didn't govern the behavior. Revise your example.) … A verbal description of a behavioral contingency. 8. Now please state the rule that describes the contingency in my example. (Be sure you state a complete rule, that you include the behavior, the outcome, any delay, and any SD or deadline.) 9. Now please state the rule that describes the contingency in your example. (Be sure you state a complete rule, that you include the behavior, the outcome, any delay, and any SD or deadline.) The next question is, how did the rule govern the behavior? To answer that question, check out this definition: Definition: Concept Rule-governed analog to reinforcement by the presentation of a reinforcer  An increase in the frequency of a response  because of a rule stating the occasions when the response will  produce a reinforcer. 10. In your example, was the rule stated either to or by the behaver (the person who’s behavior you’re analyzing)? a. yes (Good.) b. no (Revise your example. If no one stated the rule, then how's it going to govern behavior?) 11. Was the rule stated at the time when the response might be made? a. yes (Good) Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz 11/21/2013 3 15. Would there have been the same increase in the frequency of the response, if someone hadn't stated the rule? a. yes (Then it looks like the increase was not a result of the rule; in other words, the rule didn't really add anything, so you don't have rulegoverned behavior. You'd better give it another shot.) b. no (Good.) My example of contingencycontrolled behavior: Definition: Concept Contingency control (intuitive control)  Direct control of behavior  by a contingency  without the involvement of rules. What's an example of contingency-controlled behavior? (This is the same as what we’ve been doing all semester. In other words, it must pass the 60” test and the reinforceable response-unit test.) My example: To make sure that I (Bill Boetcher) don't miss the meeting with Dr. M., I grab my pen and appointment book and start to write...but my pen is out of ink. I try it one more time then toss it in the wastebasket. (Writing with that pen has been extinguished.) Please fill out the contingency diagram describing my example. Use writing words as the behavior; or if you prefer to be more precise, you may use moving the pen across the paper. 16. Whose behavior am I analyzing? a. Mine b. Malott’s Also, be careful about whether or not there's a discriminative stimulus (don't confuse the opportunity to respond with the opportunity for reinforcement; only a stimulus correlat-
  • 4. ed with the opportunity for reinforcement is the discriminative stimulus; also remember there is no discriminative stimulus if the opportunity for reinforcement is always there when the opportunity to respond is available). Hint: the pen is an operandum, so therefore, what has to be the S D? (Note that this is contingency-controlled behavior, which means it’s a direct acting contingency, which means the delay is 0 seconds.) SD Before After Behavior 17. Please diagram. S∆ D S After After Ink in pen Behavior Now go through the contingency-diagram criteria on the pink sheet, and make sure your diagram meets the criteria. S∆ Before Also watch out for this common error. Some people put the SD and S∆ after the response rather than before and during the response; and that ain’t cool. For example: I place an order on the web, and my computer is working, SD, so two weeks later my ordered CD arrives. But, I place an order on the web; and my computer then freezes, S∆; so two weeks later my ordered CD does not arrive. Bad example because the computer froze after the response of placing the order. After Absence of ink in pen Your example of contingencycontrolled behavior 18. But first, whose behavior are you analyzing? _____________________________________ Remember: Not all examples have a discriminative stimulus (SD). If there's no SD, then there's no S∆. That means the contingency is always active. Don't confuse the SD with the operandum or manipulandum (e.g., the rat's lever). Don't confuse the SD with the environment or experimental space (e.g., the rat's Skinner box). 20.Please fill out the contingency diagram describing your example. (Note that this is contingency-controlled behavior, which means it’s a direct acting contingency, which means the delay is 0 seconds.) Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz 11/21/2013 4 Here’s another one. I go to a job interview and the interviewer is there, SD; so I get the job. But, I go to a job interview and the interviewer is not there, S ∆; so I do not get the job. Bad example because the interviewer was not there after the response of going to the interview. 19. Does your contingency fail the Sixty-Second Test? _____ (The answer should be no.) Next, look at the other side of the pink page. 20. What type of direct acting contingency is this? _____________ 21. Did someone state to the behaving person the rule describing the contingency? a. yes (Uh, oh. Looks like you may have rulegoverned behavior then. Please revise.) b. no (That's a relief.)

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