Ch. 20 hw   7 e
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Ch. 20 hw 7 e

on

  • 1,037 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,037
Views on SlideShare
479
Embed Views
558

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
11
Comments
0

1 Embed 558

http://dickmalott.com 558

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Ch. 20 hw 7 e Document Transcript

  • 1. Name: ____________________ Instructor: ________________ Grade: _______LO: 128 Chapter 20 Conceptual Work Sheets for 2. For the behavior of pressing the lever, Behavioral Chains & DifferentialisReinforcement of Low what the function of the light? A. reinforcer Rate B. SD Dual – Functioning Chained Stimuli Stimulus - Response Chains Definition: Definition: Concept Dual – Functioning Chained Stimulus  A stimulus in a behavioral chain  reinforces the response that precedes it  and is an SD or operandum for the following response. Behavioral Chain  A sequence of stimuli and responses.  Each response produces a stimulus that  reinforces the preceding response  and is an SD or operandum  for the following response. Consider this standard Skinner box behavioral chain: Rudolph touched a dot on the wall with his nose. The outcome that follows is that a chain is lowered into the Skinner box. Rudolph pulls the chain. The outcome is that a light is turned on. Rudolph presses the lever. The outcome is a drop of water. Remember: An operandum is part of the environment that the organism operates or manipulates, for example the lever in the Skinner box. With this in mind, let’s examine Rudolph’s chain once again. 1. For the behavior of pulling the chain, what is the function of the light? Select one. A. reinforcer B. SD 2. With respect to Rudolph’s lever pressing behavior, what is the function of the light? A. SD B. Operandum 3. With respect to Rudolph’s chain pulling behavior, what is the function of the chain? A. SD B. Operandum Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz -1- 11/21/2013
  • 2. SD/operandum for the response in link #2 (question #6). Rudolph the Rat and the Behavioral Chain Link #2: When the chain is present, Rudolph pulls the chain. The outcome is that a light turns on. Now let’s analyze Rudolph’s behavioral chain in a contingency diagram: 6. Please diagram this contingency. Don’t forget to write the after condition in link #1 as the SD/operandum for this diagram. Link #1: Rudolph touches the dot; the outcome is a chain dropping down into the Skinner box. SD/Operandum 4. Please diagram this contingency. SD/Operandum Sight of dot Before Before Behavior Behavior After Pull chain After No Chain 7. In this contingency, what is the function of the chain? A. Sr B. SD / operandum 5. In the previous contingency diagram, what is the function of the chain? (Note that Sr is an abbreviation for learned reinforcer). A. Sr B. SD /operandum 8. What is the function of the light? A. Sr B. SD / operandum Link #3: With the light on, Rudolph presses the lever. The outcome is the sound of the dipper “click”. Comment: Remember that in a behavioral chain, the outcome of a response functions as a reinforcer for the previous response, and an SD or operandum for the next response. Go ahead and write in the after condition from the contingency diagram in question #4 (for link # 1) as the Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz -2- 11/21/2013
  • 3. 13. In Rudolph’s behavioral chain, what are the light, the chain, and the dipper “click” functioning as? A. Only the Sr B. Only as SD / operandum C. Dual – functioning chained stimuli D. None of these 9. Please diagram this contingency: SD/Operandum Before Behavior After 14. Now let’s put Rudolph’s behavioral chain together. Please fill in the contingency diagram on the next page. Feel free to refer back to the previous diagrams. Really, it’s not cheating 10. In this contingency, what is the function of the dipper “click”? A. Sr B. SD / operandum Link #4: After the dipper “click”, Rudolph licks the dipper. The outcome is water for Rudolph. 11. Please diagram this contingency: SD/Operandum Before Behavior After 12. In this contingency, what is the function of the dipper “click”? A. Sr B. SD / operandum Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz -3- 11/21/2013
  • 4. SD/Operandum Sight of dot Before Behavior After/SD/Oper Before Behavior After/SD/Oper Before After/SD/Oper Behavior Before -4- Behavior After/SD/Oper
  • 5. The 60 – Second Test: The Molar and Molecular Views 16. At the molar level of analysis, does this contingency pass the 60 – second test (does the outcome follow the response within 60 seconds)? A. yes B. no Consider the following example: An accomplished pianist plays an entire piece of music, which produces the reinforcing sound of the song. It passes the 60 second test because the duration of the response is irrelevant. Molar Analysis: Molecular Analysis: At the molar level of analysis, we’ll consider playing the entire piece of music as the behavior, even though this unit of behavior is a behavioral chain consisting of many component behaviors (we’ll deal with those next). So go ahead and write playing the entire piece of music as the behavior in the following contingency diagram. At this level, the sound of playing the complete song is the reinforcer. The molar level helps us keep our eye on the general behavior that leads to the terminal reinforcer. As mentioned previously, the behavior of playing the entire piece of music consists of many component behaviors. On the molecular level, we apply the 60 – second test to determine whether we have a reinforcable response unit. We’ll consider just playing the first three chords, “X”, “Y”, “Z”, as some component behaviors of playing the entire piece of music. The sound of each chord reinforced playing that chord, and acts as the SD for playing the next chord. The molecular analysis helps us keep our eye on the immediate, momentary outcomes that directly control the behavior. 15. Please diagram this contingency. Before Behavior After Now let’s see what this example looks like in a contingency diagram. -5-
  • 6. Link #1: Link #3: 17. Please diagram the contingency for the behavior of playing chord “X”. Before Behavior 21. Please diagram the contingency for playing chord “Z”. SD/Operandum After No sound of chord "X" Before Behavior After Comment: Remember that in a behavioral chain the reinforcer for each response acts as the SD or operandum for the next response. Link #2: 22. In the above contingency, what is the function of the sound of “Y” chord? A. Sr B. SD 18. Please diagram the contingency for the behavior of playing chord “Y”. SD/Operandum The Response – Unit Test Concept Before Behavior Response unit  A stimulus – response sequence  where each component in the sequence  is within 60 seconds of the surrounding components (each component within the sequence passes the 60-second test). After 19. In the above contingency, what is the function of the sound of chord “X”? A. Sr B.SD The response- unit test involves applying the 60- second test to each component response within a stimulus response chain. Each response must follow the previous response by less than 60 seconds, and also each SD must precede the next response by less than 60 seconds. If there is a break of more than 20. In the above contingency, what is the function of the sound of chord “Y”? A. Sr B. SD Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz -6- 11/21/2013
  • 7. 60 seconds, then you have an analog to a response unit. Therefore, if a component on the molecular level of analysis fails the 60 – second test, your molar analysis fails the response – unit test. If the pianist pauses for more than 60 seconds while playing the song, then this fails the test. Comment: If the contingency failed the response-unit test or the 60- second test, then we would have an analog to a behavioral contingency. But, as we said here, there are no breaks during play and you immediately hear sound of song. 26. Okay, we know this contingency passes the 60-second test (the outcome follows the response within 60 seconds). Does it pass the response unit test? A. Yes B. No 23. In the presumed response unit of playing chords “X”, “Y”, and “Z”, does each response follow the previous response by less than 60 seconds, and does each SD precede the next response by less than 60 seconds? A. yes B. no My Cola Example 24. So what do we have here? A. Response Unit: A stimulus – response sequence where each component in the sequence is within 60 seconds of the surrounding components. B. Analog to a response unit: A stimulus-response sequence where one of the components fails a 60 second test. I love cola. I find the sweet taste of carbonated beverage to be very pleasant. I often drink cola, which gives me that sweet taste. Molar Analysis: 27. Please diagram this contingency: Before Molar Analysis Revisited: Before Behavior Play entire piece of music After After No sound of song Behavior Sound of song 28. On the molar level of analysis, does this contingency pass the 60-second test (does the outcome follow the response within 60 seconds)? A. Yes B. No 25. What do we have here? A. Reinforcement contingency B. Analog to reinforcement contingency Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz -7- 11/21/2013
  • 8. Link #3: Molecular Analysis: Here are the components of my cola drinking:  I open the can of cola. The outcome is that the can is open.  I raise the can of cola to my lips. The outcome is that the can is raised to my lips.  I pour the cola into my mouth. The outcome is the sweet taste of cola. 31. Please diagram the contingency for pouring the cola into my mouth: SD/Operandum Before Link #1: Behavior After 29. Please diagram the contingency for opening the can: SD/Operandum Sight of cola Before Behavior 32. In the presumed response unit of opening the can, raising the can to my lips, and drinking the cola, do the reinforcers follow the previous response within 60 seconds, and so the SD ‘s precede the next response by less than 60 seconds? A. Yes B. No After 33. So what do we have here? A. Response unit: A stimulus – response sequence where each component in the sequence is within 60 seconds of the surrounding components. B. Analog to a response unit: A stimulus-response sequence where one of the components fails the 60-second test. Link #2: 30. Please diagram the contingency for raising the can of cola to my lips: SD/Operandum Before Behavior Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz 34. And what else do we have? (Remember that a contingency must pass the 60-second test and the response – unit test for it to be a behavioral contingency, rather than an analog). A. Reinforcement contingency B. Analog to a reinforcement contingency After -8- 11/21/2013
  • 9.  My Facebook Example It’s the 21st century and just about everyone is on the information superhighway, and you can bet your Skinner box that I’m cruisin’ along too. As a matter of fact, I often check my Facebook page to get updates from my friends and colleagues. The reinforcer for logging into Facebook is the sight of my news feed. Fourth, I click “login” to Facebook. The outcome is that I see my newsfeed. Link #1: I open up my laptop, and the outcome is I can see my desktop. 37. Please diagram this contingency: SD/Operandum Hint: We’re talking the world’s fastest wifi here. Molar Analysis: Before Behavior After 35. Please diagram the contingency for logging into Facebook. Before Behavior After Link #2: I click on Firefox. The outcome is I have an open browser page. 36. On the molar level of analysis, does this contingency pass the 60-second test? A. Yes B. No 38. Please diagram this contingency: SD/Operandum Molecular Analysis: Now we’ll look at the component behaviors of updating a Facebook status:  First, I open up my laptop, and the outcome is I can see my desktop.  Second, I click on Firefox. The outcome is I have an open browser page.  Third, I click on the Facebook icon. The outcome is that I can see the login screen. Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz Before -9- Behavior After 11/21/2013
  • 10. Link #3: I click on the Facebook icon. The outcome is that I can see the login screen. 39. Please diagram this contingency: SD/Operandum Before Behavior After Link #4 I click “login” to Facebook. The outcome is that I see my newsfeed. 40. Please diagram this contingency SD/Operandum Before Behavior After 41. Okay, here’s where we put it all together. Please fill in the contingency diagram on the next page for the behavioral chain of logging into Facebook. Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz - 10 - 11/21/2013
  • 11. SD/Operandum Before Behavior After/SD/Oper Before Behavior After/SD/Oper Before After/SD/Oper Behavior Before -11- Behavior After/SD/Oper
  • 12. Molecular Analysis (continued):  42. Take a look at your molecular analysis contingency diagrams. Does each response follow the previous response by less than 60 seconds, and does each SD precede the next response by less than 60 seconds? A. Yes B. No  analogs to behavioral contingencies and no analogs to response units. Please don’t give us any lame copies of our examples (you will lose points for examples that are not thought out and original). If you do a social situation, make sure you concentrate your analysis on the behavior of a single person. It’s easy to accidentally switch people midstream. Before you do your own original example, here are a few past examples students gave that worked well: 1. Driving to the store. (But it can be tricky). 2. Sports. 3. Training a mentally handicapped person. 43. So what do we have here? A. Response unit: A stimulus – response sequence where each component in the sequence is within 60 seconds of the surrounding components. B. Analog to response unit: A stimulus-response sequence where one of the components fails the 60-second test.  44. What else do we have? A. Reinforcement contingency B. Analog to reinforcement contingency 45. Describe your original example: Your Example of a Behavioral Chain Issues:  Make sure your example passes both the 60 second test and the responseunit test (you will lose points if they don’t). In other words, we want your examples to consist of nothing but true behavioral contingencies, no -12-
  • 13. 50. Please diagram the contingency: Molar Analysis: 46. Please diagram your example: Before Behavior SD/Operandum After Before 47. What kind of contingency is your example? ________________________ Behavior After Link #2: 51. Description (Write a description here): 48. At the molar level of analysis, does this contingency pass the 60-second test (does the outcome follow the response within 60 seconds)? (Note: This does not mean that the whole chain must be completed within 60 seconds, just that the final outcome, the after condition, must follow the completion of the chain within 60 seconds.) A. Yes B. No (recycle city) 52. Please diagram the contingency: SD/Operandum Molecular Analysis: Note: Have at least 5 links in your behavioral chain. You do not need to use all of the boxes on pages 17 and 18. Before Behavior After Link #1: 49. Description (Write a description here): Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz - 13 - 11/21/2013
  • 14. 56. Please diagram the contingency: Link #3: 53. Description (Write a description here): SD/Operandum Before After Link #5: 54. Please diagram the contingency: 57. Description (Write a description here): SD/Operandum Before Behavior Behavior After 58. Please diagram the contingency: Link #4: SD/Operandum 55. Description (Write a description here): Before Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz - 14 - Behavior After 11/21/2013
  • 15. 63. What else do we have? A. ______________ contingency. B. Analog to a(n) _____________ contingency. Link #6: 59. Description (Write a description here) 64. Now let’s put your example together. Please fill in the behavioral chain diagram on the next page (NOTE: The diagram is spread over two pages. You don’t have to use all of the boxes. Just use as many as you need.) 60. Please diagram the contingency: SD/Operandum Before Behavior After 61. Does each response follow the preceding response by less than 60 seconds, and does each SD precede the next response by less than 60 seconds? A. Yes B. No (recycle-a-rama) 62. So what do we have here? A. Response unit: A stimulusresponse sequence where each component in the sequence is within 60 seconds of the surrounding components. B. Analog to a response unit: A stimulus-response sequence where one of the components fails the 60-second test. Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz - 15 - 11/21/2013
  • 16. SD/Operandum Before Behavior After/SD/Oper. Before Behavior After/SD/Oper. dfs Before -16- Behavior After/SD/Oper.
  • 17. SD/Operandum Before Behavior After/SD/Oper. Before Behavior After/SD/Oper. dfs Before Revised by Kaitlyn Peitz - 17 - 11/21/2013 Behavior After/SD/Oper.