Ch. 16 hw   7 e
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Ch. 16 hw   7 e Ch. 16 hw 7 e Document Transcript

  • Name: _________________________ Instructor: _____________________ Grade: _____ __39___ Chapter 16 Conceptual Work Sheets for Punishment by Prevention (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior – DRO) Punishment by the Prevention of the Removal of an Aversive Condition Generic Contingency Here’s a description of a contingency for punishment by the prevention of the removal of an aversive condition. before = aversive condition will soon be removed behavior = punished behavior after = aversive condition will not be removed, or at least not soon. (Note: Take notice that it is in future tense. This means that a reinforcer will occur or an aversive condition will be removed, but the response prevents the presentation of the reinforcer or the removal of the aversive condition.) 1. Please complete the generic example in the diagram below (2). Hint: the bold text provides some direction. (Use the diagram as a reference, so make sure it is correct. Check it from time to time to see if you are handling the following examples correctly. Be sure to include the time when the behavior will or will not occur in the before and after box). Before Behavior Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 After 1
  • My Example Sometimes I fail to turn off the stove in time. So I ruin my breakfast, and I also pollute the atmosphere of our home with the aversive smell of burnt oats. The only solution is to open a window on each side of the kitchen and let the cross ventilation clean up my pollution, before the Environmental Protection Agency finds out about it. But this doesn’t work too well in the winter, when that fresh air is a bit too fresh, a bit too cold. So I close the window to escape the cold air, but my closing the window is also punished by the prevention of the removal of the smelly air. Careful now. Remember, the response we’re analyzing is the one that’s punished by the prevention of the removal of an aversive condition. And understand that the aversive condition would go away in a few seconds, if I didn’t make that punished response. 2. Please diagram my example (2). (Remember to include the time!) Before Behavior After Your Example 3. Describe your example of punishment by the prevention of the removal of an aversive condition in the space below. 4. Please fill in the contingency diagram for your example (2). (Remember to include the time!) Before Behavior After Use the Pink Sheet with the contingency job aid to analyze the example. Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 2
  • Punishment by the Prevention of the Presentation of a Reinforcer Generic Contingency Here’s a description of the generic punishment by the prevention of the presentation of a reinforcer contingency: Before = a reinforcer will soon be present Behavior = the punished behavior After = a reinforcer will not soon be present 5. Please insert that description of this generic punishment contingency in the following diagram (2): Before Behavior After Now refer to this diagram from time to time, to make sure you’re handling the next example correctly! My Wrong Example Now, check out the definition: Definition: Contingency Punishment by the prevention of a reinforcer contingency: o Response-contingent prevention o of a reinforcer resulting in o a decreased frequency of that response. Most examples of this sort of contingency are performance management or behaviormodification. Examples that do not occur in the natural environment. In the middle of scarfing down his oats, Sid belches with pride. His wife, Dawn, picks up his steaming bowl of rolled oats and she tosses the entire delicacy into the compost bucket. Somehow, in the future, Sid finds himself less likely to display his gustatory skills with a belch. Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 3
  • 6. Please fill in the contingency for my erroneous example. In other words, this is not punishment by prevention. Read the example again (2). Before Behavior After Use the correct contingency job aid (backside of the sheet) to find what kind of contingency this really is. Hint: It’s not punishment by the prevention of a reinforcer because the reinforcer is present in the before condition. 7. So what is it? _____________________________________________________ 8. Please explain: My Revised Example So here goes my second attempt: In the middle of scarfing down his oats, Sid belches loudly and clearly; and then he giggles with pride, as would any reasonable 27-year-old, male instructor working on his Ph.D. Next, Sid asks his wife, the fantastic Dawn, if she’d mind passing another slice of whole-wheat pita bread. She says she would mind and doesn’t pass it. Somehow, in the future, Sid finds himself less likely to display the gourmet pleasure with a belch. 9. Please fill in the contingency diagram for my example (2). (The behavior of interest is Sid’s beautiful belch, not his humble request for a piece of bread. And don’t forget to put the time!) Before Behavior Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 After 4
  • Look at the back side of the pink sheet with the contingency criteria and then compare and contrast this with the preceding example. (This is not for points; this is just so you are aware of the difference between the two). 10. Explain why this is a correct example of punishment by the PREVENTION of a reinforcer whereas the preceding one wasn’t: The Reinforcer Need NOT Be Contingent on the Undesirable Behavior. 11. In the previous case study (the beautiful belch vs. the unappreciative wife), what was the prevented reinforcer?___________________________________________________ 12. Which is correct? A. The presentation of pita bread is contingent on his belching. B. Prevention of the presentation of pita bread is contingent on belching. However, in many behavior modification uses of punishment by the prevention of a reinforcer, the reinforcer is presented on a fixed-time schedule. That means no response is required. For example, suppose Sid frequently belched. And suppose Dawn wished to eliminate that inappropriate behavior. As a professional behavior modifier, she might have given him a small piece of pita every 20 seconds, regardless of what he was doing, but as long as Sid didn’t belch. If Sid had belched, she would then withhold the next scheduled piece of pita. 13. Would that also have been punishment by the prevention of a reinforcer? A. yes B. no The procedure is punishment by the prevention of a reinforcer regardless of whether that reinforcer is contingent on a response. In other words, punishment by the prevention of a reinforcer can be, but not need be, punishment by the prevention of reinforcement. Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 5
  • Punishment by Prevention vs. Extinction Why isn’t it Dawn’s unreasonable refusal to pass the pita an example of extinction of Sid’s belching? Let’s consider the following contingency diagrams, to help you figure it out. 14. Now diagram the contingency that is reinforcing Sid’s gross response (2). Before Behavior After 15. Now, what would the contingency look like if Dawn managed to extinguish that response? (2) Before Behavior After The reinforcer for Sid’s belching was Dawn’s signs of disgust. She could extinguish belching by not reacting to his belches. And she could punish belching by withholding the pita bread contingent on his gross belching. 16. So, what’s the function of Dawn’s refusal to pass the pita? A. Extinction of Sid’s belching response B. Punishment of Sid’s belching response 17. Why is it punishment? 18. Why is it not extinction? Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 6
  • To Miss a Kiss The end of their third date. Sid’s hand grasped the small of Dawn’s back. The soft flesh of her waist pressed through her blouse to caress his wrist. He drew her toward him. She raised her head and closed her eyes. She opened her mouth ever so slightly. A gentle moan escaped. Sid moved toward their first kiss, so full of love, so full of inexpressible joy. But he must express himself, “Dawn, you’re so wonderful, you’re so beautiful, you’re almost as pretty as my last girlfriend.” Dawn opened her eyes, closed her mouth, and turned her head away—punishment by prevention of a reinforcer. 19. Using the following diagram, please do a contingency analysis of Sid’s inappropriate remark—the analysis he himself should have done before so rashly expressing himself (2). (Remember to include the time!) Before Behavior After Punishment by Prevention vs. Penalty 20. Please explain why we say Sid’s ill-timed remark got punished by a prevention contingency? 21. Please explain why it is not penalty? Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 7
  • Reinforcer for the Punished Behavior vs. the Reinforcer Prevented by the Punishment Contingency Whenever there’s a punishment procedure operating, there’s also a reinforcement contingency operating, or at least a history of reinforcement. Why? Because without reinforcement of the behavior of interest, that behavior would probably not occur. Then there would be no behavior for the punishment contingency to operate on. What reinforcement contingency could be responsible for Sid’s bold belches? To answer that question we must dig deep into Sid’s psyche (behavioral history). Sid spent several of his formative years in the Boy Scouts of America, although he never rose above the rank of life scout. The scout master arranged contingencies of reinforcement for rapidly starting campfires and tying the bow line hitch. His peers arranged other reinforcement contingencies for behaviors the Boy Scouts of America had neglected—belching, farting, smoking, and masturbation. What were the reinforcers? The winning of contests and general social approval. You can imagine what life was like in a tent full of pubescent punks. You can also see that I showed a modicum of restraint in the example I used to illustrate this prevention contingency. So Sid, entered marriage with a history of social reinforcement for the big, bad, bold, bountiful belch. Approval was the reinforcer that had established his repertoire of ostentatious belching. And pita bread was the reinforcer whose prevention was destined to suppress this merit-badgeless relic of his ancient history. So what’s the point of this nostalgia? The reinforcer causing the punished behavior is usually not the same as the reinforcer responsible for suppressing that behavior. Peer approval reinforced Sid’s belching, and the prevention of pita punished it. And if you can’t tell the difference between approval and pita, then I’d hate to send you to the store for a loaf of bread. (Sorry for that last sentence, but now that I’m in the Boy Scout mode, that variation on a junior-high joke couldn’t be suppressed.) In any case, when you do your original example, remember to distinguish between the reinforcer in the reinforcement contingency and the reinforcer in the prevention contingency; students often get that one screwed up. Remember, approval of Boy Scouts vs. pita from Dawn. The SD for Reinforcement vs. the SD for Prevention To answer these questions, you will need to read the preceding story about Sid. 22. In terms of Sid’s history, what SD was present when belching was reinforced? In other words, what were the previous occasions when belching had been reinforced? Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 8
  • 23. In terms of Sid’s current history, what S D was present when belching was punished? Fortunately, Sid has no trouble discriminating between Dawn and Boy Scouts and his belching soon came under proper stimulus control. Original Example Student examples:  When my fiancé, Michael, called me I was with my girlfriend. He could hear someone next to me and he asked, “Who are you with?” I responded, “My other fiancé,” which made my girlfriend laugh, but Michael did not. The contingency is an analog to punishment by prevention: Before: No laughter from friend Before: Will have access to bed tonight  After: Laughter from friend Behavior: Make joke about “other fiancé” After: Won’t have access to bed tonight You could also diagram it as straight punishment, albeit slightly vague (but I KNOW every person out there knows what I’m talking about!): Before: Not in doghouse Behavior: Make smart ass remark Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 After: In the doghouse 9
  •  Here’s a non-example (incorrect): Jenna Bush is planning on a fun night of old fashioned, Texan drunkenness with her friends. Unfortunately, her fake ID doesn’t always work. Before: Not in the club Before: Will be in the club soon After: In the club Behavior: Show the doorman a fake ID After: Won’t be in the club soon This is a non-example because getting in the bar is maintaining the response and therefore, it cannot be prevented, and so it is extinction. Your Example 24. Please describe your example of punishment by the prevention of a reinforcer in the space provided below. (Hint: include the time in before and after conditions) Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 10
  • 25. Please fill in the diagram for your example (3). Before After Behavior Before After 26. What type of contingency is on top? 27. What type of contingency is on bottom? 28. Do you have the same reinforcer in both contingencies? A. yes (revise) B. no (good) Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 11