Name:____________________________________Instructor: ____________________________Grade:________LOs:53

Chapter 13
Conceptu...
Individual Stimuli vs. a Stimulus
Class

Back to Disastrous Dave
What sort of conceptual discrimination training must life...
(Here’s the main reason we so greatly emphasize the SΔ in
these examples: It helps us make sure we’ve got a true S D.
In o...
15. In this example, the stimulus class controlling Sid’s
behavior (SD) is:
A. a plausible or “good” design
B. an implausi...
21. What’s the stimulus class of interest (SD) that caused
Sid to reject the proposals? Whether the experiments
were ___.
...
floor of his home cage. Rudolph has no pellet of food. Poor
Rudolph.

Concept Training

Juke has $1. Juke swears. Mae coll...
Your Original Example of
Concept Training and Conceptual
Stimulus Control

36. Please define your stimulus class, state it...
Concept Training
39. Please diagram your concept training procedure (4).
S D:
After:

Before:

Behavior:

After:
SΔ:

40. ...
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Ch. 13 hw 7 e

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Ch. 13 hw 7 e

  1. 1. Name:____________________________________Instructor: ____________________________Grade:________LOs:53 Chapter 13 Conceptual Work Sheets for Complex Stimulus Control Disastrous Dave: 1 Definition: Concept Other Examples of Stimulus EE Classes (or concepts) Stimulus class  A set of stimuli,  all of which have some common physical property. One characteristic of a stimulus class (concept) is that there must be more than one instance of that stimulus class (i.e., it must be a set of stimuli as the previous definition says). For example, food is an example of a stimulus class (concept) because there is more than one instance or more than one type (e.g., meat, vegetables, and fruit). Also, the different instances all have a common property (you can eat them). I once had a graduate student with disastrous social skills. For a long time, neither I nor my other graduate students could define what he was doing wrong. In his case, we couldn’t define the concept of poor social skills, but we could all recognize it. Our behavior was under the intuitive stimulus control of the concept of poor social skills. (Incidentally, one of my most perceptive graduate students finally defined it, by giving examples of what was offending us. This particular set of poor social skills included talking too loudly, always having his hair messed up, throwing his books down with a bang, and walking like he’d just come in from the cattle feed lot and still had on his feces-covered boots.) Let’s break this down. For that matter, fruit is also an example of a stimulus class or concept because there is more than one instance or more than one type (e.g., blueberries, cherries, and watermelons). And the different instances all have a common property (roughly speaking, an edible, usually sweet and fleshy form of a seed-bearing plant). What’s the common property? In Dave’s case it was poor social skills--behaviors that offend us. That’s a bit of a cop out, because we can’t identify the common physical properties (but that’s often the case). Instead we can only define this concept in terms of its effect on us. Almost always it helps to give instances of the stimulus class (concept), whether or not we can give the dictionary definition. 1. What are some instances of poor social skills (e.g., talking too loudly, unkempt hair)? Feel free to use an example from above. 1 Students find this a tough assignment, but I’m having a hard time finding where the problems are. So I’d really appreciate it if you’d put a big question mark with a circle around it beside any part that’s not clear or you’re having trouble with. And if you can add a comment about the problem, that would help. There’s a good chance your TA can find a few spare OAPs for your conscientious efforts to help. Disastrous Dave in Action 1 November 21, 2013
  2. 2. Individual Stimuli vs. a Stimulus Class Back to Disastrous Dave What sort of conceptual discrimination training must life have provided my grad. students and me for us to agree so reliably in our use of the label disastrous (poor) social skills? When we had said so and so was a disaster, people agreed with us, if that person had poor social skills. And when we had said someone else was a disaster, but they were actually cool (had good social skills), people did not agree. Chairs 2. Do they also form a set of stimuli? Is there more than one? A. yes B. no 3. Do they have some common property or properties? A. yes B. no Now let us analyze the behavioral histories of my grad. students and mine. Diagram the conceptual discrimination training procedure we had experienced, someplace along the line. 4. So chairs are: A. an individual stimulus B. a stimulus class Definition: Concept Concept: Concept Training  Reinforcing or punishing a response in the presence of one stimulus class  and extinguishing it or allowing it to recover in the presence of another stimulus class. The chair I’m sitting in right now and have been sitting in for the last twelve hours while watching a Looney Tunes marathon on the television 5. Does it also form a set of stimuli? Is there more than one example of the specific chair that I’m sitting in right now? A. yes B. no Here’s an example of the sort of discrimination training I’d need as part of the concept training for the concept of poor “social” skills to exert conceptual stimulus control over my behavior. I would also need many other instances of excessively loud people and appropriately quiet people, as part of my continued concept training. 6. So this specific chair is: A. an individual stimulus B. A stimulus class What about Dick Malott? 7. Does he form a set of stimuli? Is there more than one Dick Malott? (Let’s hope not!) A. yes B. no S D: I hear Loud Larry After: I have approval 8. So what is Dick Malott: A. an individual stimulus B. a stimulus class Before: I have no approval Behavior: I say, “What a disaster!” After: I still have no approval SΔ: I hear Quiet Quayale 2 Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/20
  3. 3. (Here’s the main reason we so greatly emphasize the SΔ in these examples: It helps us make sure we’ve got a true S D. In other words, the light that’s always on in the Skinner box won’t function as an SD for Rudolph’s lever press (it won’t exert much stimulus control over his lever press) unless ∆ there’s an S , (no light) in the presence of which the response won’t be reinforced. In addition to the preceding training, we might give me a little training with other dimensions of the concept. Here’s an illustration for an example from another dimension of poor “social” skills: Definition: Concept Concept: Stimulus control (conceptual control)  Responding occurs more often in the presence of one stimulus class  and less often in the presence of another stimulus class,  because of concept training. 10. What’s the stimulus class that caused us to label Dave a disaster? Bad _______________________________. S D 11. How might we label the other stimulus class where we would be less likely to apply the label disaster? : I see Messy Max After: Good ______________________________. I have approval Before: I have no approval 12. Did this concept exert stimulus control over my behavior and the behavior of my grad. students? A. yes B. no Behavior: I say, “What a disaster!” After: 13. Did the concept of poor social skills control our behavior before we had figured out what the more-orless definition was? A. yes B. no I still have no approval SΔ: I see Neat Nancy 14. So is the concept of poor social skills controlling our behavior an example of intuitive stimulus control? A. yes B. no Why is it an example of intuitive stimulus control? Because we can recognize examples and non-examples of poor social skills without actually defining poor social skills. 9. Now you fill in the following diagram with the instance of poor social skills that you gave on the first page. S D: After: Before: Behavior: I say “What a disaster!” After: SΔ: 3 Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/20
  4. 4. 15. In this example, the stimulus class controlling Sid’s behavior (SD) is: A. a plausible or “good” design B. an implausible or “bad” design What about Disastrous Dave? D.D. was such bad news that none of my doctoral students wanted him to continue his apprenticeship or project under their supervision. They were all ready to give him the heave ho, even though he was bright, reliable, and industrious. And they were right. His poor social skills were causing too many problems in the settings where he was working. So Dave and I had what we’ve come to call a Self-Development Interview. During the interview, I pointed out his considerable virtues, his problem behaviors, their importance, our desire to help him, and our willingness to give him daily feedback on his performance so he could improve. It worked. He got the concept. We gave him both positive and corrective feedback. He improved immediately and greatly. He was very appreciative. And he eventually published his MA thesis and went on to be a successful professional. Concept Training What sort of conceptual discrimination training must life have provided Sid for him to be able to somewhat reliably classify experimental proposals as implausible? Let’s take a closer look. Please diagram Sid’s conceptual discrimination training procedure that allowed him to correctly classify experimental proposals as those that wouldn’t work. Keep in mind that Sid often received approval from his colleagues when he correctly classified a design as good or bad. 16. Whose behavior are we analyzing? A. Sid’s B. students’ Supervisor Sid 17. What is the behavior we are analyzing? A. classifying proposals as implausible B. conducting experiment Sometimes professionals forget the rules they may have once learned and start operating on an intuitive basis. For example, Sue proposed a complex experiment for her research project. And her supervisor, Sid Fields intuitively knew her experiment wouldn’t work. But Sid had a hard time convincing Sue, because he couldn’t come up with the rules to define a successful experiment. 18. What are the before and after conditions? A. no successful completion/completion B. no approval/approval 19. What is the SD for this contingency? A. implausible proposal B. plausible proposal (Technically speaking, what do we mean by intuitively know? We mean Sid could correctly classify experimental proposals as those that will work and those that won’t, even though he couldn’t state the rule.) 20. Diagram classifying proposals as implausible (4). S D: Stimulus Class What’s the common property? After: As in so many real world examples, we can’t really define all the common physical properties. Sid pointed out that the baseline was liable to take too long to stabilize. It would be hard to get good reliability between observers of the dependent variable. It would be hard to get the independent variable applied consistently. The effect would be so dependent on the unique behavioral history of the clients that the results would not be readily replicated across subjects. He could point to some of the examples from experience, but many he’d “forgotten.” Yet they controlled his intuitive conceptual behavior. Sid could correctly identify an implausible design without stating the rules for doing so. Before: Behavior: After: SΔ: 4 Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/20
  5. 5. 21. What’s the stimulus class of interest (SD) that caused Sid to reject the proposals? Whether the experiments were ___. A. Plausible B. Implausible Concept Training Please diagram a plausible concept training history for Alternative Al. (Hint: When Al was with his friends, they would agree with him and tell him what a hip guy he was when he classified the alternative tune correctly or said it was cool; however, if he heard an Elvis Presley tune and classified it as alternative, he wouldn’t get agreement or approval). Stimulus control (Stimulus discrimination)  The occurrence of a response more frequently in the presence of one stimulus  than in the presence of another,  usually as a result of a discrimination training procedure. 29. What is the behavior of interest? _____________ 30. Please diagram a plausible concept training history for Alternative Al (4). S D: 22. Did this concept exert stimulus control over Sid’s behavior? A. yes B. no After: 23. Is Sid’s case an example of intuitive stimulus control? A. yes B. no Before: Behavior: After: Behavioral explanation: Identifying bad proposals occurs more frequently in the presence of bad proposals than in the presence of good proposals. SΔ: Alternative Al Al could identify examples of alternative music, but he couldn’t define alternative music. 24. What’s the stimulus class of interest (S D)? __________________________________________ Teaching a Behavioral Concept 25. Explain how the stimulus class you’ve described meets our definition of stimulus class: ________________________________________ ________________________________________ In my behavior analysis seminar, I give examples and nonexamples of the concept of penalty contingency. I ask my students to tell me whether each instance I present is an example or a non-example. And each time they give me an answer I tell them whether they are correct. This conceptual discrimination training should establish good stimulus control by the concept of penalty contingency. 26. Is alternative music exerting conceptual stimulus control over Al’s behavior? A. yes B. no Stimulus Class 27. Is that conceptual control intuitive? A. yes B. no By this point, we could all give a formal definition of penalty contingency. But let’s not bother. Instead, here are some examples of that concept: 28. Explain:_____________________________________ ____________________________________________ Rudolph has a pellet of food. Rudolph “washes” his whiskers and drops the pellet through the grating in the 5 Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/20
  6. 6. floor of his home cage. Rudolph has no pellet of food. Poor Rudolph. Concept Training Juke has $1. Juke swears. Mae collects $1 penalty from Juke. Poor Juke. When my students correctly identify examples of penalty contingencies, they immediately find out if their answer was correct. In the classroom seminar, I could immediately tell the student the answer was correct. On the other hand, if my students incorrectly identify an escape contingency as a penalty contingency, I would not tell them that they were correct. Juke has a nice, new Ford Taurus. Juke slams on the brakes on an icy road. Juke doesn’t have a nice, new Ford Taurus. Poor Juke. What are the common properties of these examples of penalty contingency? They all involve immediate loss of a reinforcer contingent on a response. 32. Whose behavior are we analyzing? ______________ 33. What is the behavior we are analyzing? A. identifying a penalty contingency B. saying “you are correct” Intuitive Stimulus Control I want my students’ behavior to be under the proper intuitive stimulus control of the concept penalty contingency. When they see an example of a penalty contingency, I want them to be able to properly label it as such. When they see something that’s not an example (a non-example), I want them to be able to say it’s not. (To make this present example clear, I won’t give my fictitious students a definition of penalty contingency. If I did, their behavior might be under rule-governed stimulus control, not intuitive stimulus control. In that case, the students would look at the definition and state a rule, to see if their example fits all the parts of the definition or rule. As you know, in reality you do get the definition of penalty contingency and your behavior of identifying a penalty contingency is rule-governed (you follow the definition). 34. What is the reinforcer? A. hearing about the correctness of your answer (approval). B. identifying the penalty contingency. 35. Diagram the students identifying penalty contingencies. (Hint: what happens in the presence of a penalty contingency when the behavior occurs? What happens in the presence of an escape contingency when the behavior occurs?)(4) S D: After: 31. Is this fictitious case of non-rule-governed control with the penalty contingency being the stimulus an example of intuitive stimulus control? A. yes B. no Before: Why? If I haven’t given my students the definition, then they probably wouldn’t be able to define penalty contingency, even though they might be able to use the word correctly. In fact, I suspect that’s the case; I suspect most people can use penalty contingency correctly but can’t define it. Behavior: After: SΔ: 6 Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/20
  7. 7. Your Original Example of Concept Training and Conceptual Stimulus Control 36. Please define your stimulus class, state its common properties, and/or give a few examples: If possible, draw your examples from the specialty area of your major. Be original; for example, don’t just give an example of conceptual training of a different kind of music, like polkas. (In giving your answers, be sure to refer frequently to the pink Contingency Diagram Criteria. Also remember, the presentation or removal of the reinforcer must immediately follow the response and the presentation or removal of the aversive condition must also immediately follow the response.) Here are some student examples. „ As a flute player, I can identify good vibrato but I can’t define it. „ An autistic child gets popcorn when he identifies wet objects, vs. dry objects; he says wet in the presence of a wet object. „ I learned to use the proper filters when printing photos depending on the level of photo contrast. „ In an experiment I scored people working on a computer terminal as to whether their behavior was safe. I received concept training before doing that scoring. „ Teaching a child to say kitty in the presence of cats but not in the presence of dogs. „ Teaching a sophisticated drinker to identify a good wine by its taste. „ At Friday’s, the cooks may prepare a plate of food that is unattractive and is rejected by the customer or the waiter. „ The boys identifying babes vs. non-babes. 37. Please explain why your example illustrates conceptual control. 38. Please explain why your example does or does not illustrate intuitive stimulus control. Please describe your overall example: 7 Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/20
  8. 8. Concept Training 39. Please diagram your concept training procedure (4). S D: After: Before: Behavior: After: SΔ: 40. Does the reinforcer or aversive condition immediately follow the response in the presence of the S D? A. yes (good) B. no (Revise your example or do a lot of fast talking to explain why you shouldn’t.) Fast talk if you chose B: 8 Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/20

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