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Ch. 12 hw   7 e
 

Ch. 12 hw 7 e

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    Ch. 12 hw   7 e Ch. 12 hw 7 e Document Transcript

    • Name: ____________________ Instructor: _____________________ Grade: _____ Learning Opportunities: __103___ Chapter 12 Conceptual Work Sheets for Stimulus Discrimination Stimulus Discrimination vs. Response Differentiation Be sure you don’t confuse discrimination with response differentiation. Follow the instructions for the following exercises. Identifying the Procedures Please circle the best answers for each of the following (the first one is not a boxed definition from the book. So you’ll have to think about it.) Definition: Concept  One response class occurs more frequently than  Another response class  Because of either a differential reinforcement or a differential punishment procedure. 1. Which choice identifies the definition? A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination Definition: Concept  A response occurs more frequently in the presence of one stimulus than  In the presence of another stimulus  Because of a discrimination training procedure. 2. Which choice identifies the definition? A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination 3. Selecting between a proper way of responding and an improper way of responding: A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination 4. Selecting between a proper occasion for responding and an improper occasion for responding: A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination 5. Involves two different responses: 6. A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination Involves two different stimuli: A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination Skinner Box 7. 8. You train Rudolph to press the lever with 20 grams of force and not with 10 grams of force. A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination You train Rudolph to press the lever in the presence of a light and not in its absence. A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination Business 9. Your fellow employees train you to work hard when the boss is in, and to slack off when she is not. (The presence of and absence of the boss are the stimuli). A. Response Differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination 10. When in a business setting, your boss trains you to act professionally, not unprofessionally. (You are acting in two different ways). A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination Tennis 11. Your tennis pro trains you to make the proper serve rather than an improper one. (Remember: you train Rudolph to press the lever with 20 grams of force rather than with 10 grams of force. In both cases, the emphasis is on the different ways of acting, not on telling the proper occasion for action. Which did we say we used to train the proper way to respond?) A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination
    • 12. Your tennis pro trains you to tell her when she’s demonstrating a proper serve and when she’s demonstrating an improper one. (Is she trying to teach you the correct way to say “good serve” and “bad serve”? No. Or is she trying to teach you the proper occasion to say “good serve” and “bad serve”? Yes.) In other words, a good serve is the SD for saying, “good serve;” and a bad serve is the SD for saying “bad serve.” So what is the main emphasis? A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination Behavior Modification 13. Your supervisor trains you to use proper behavioral techniques when working with a depressed client rather than using the wrong techniques. (Is your supervisor using response differentiation to teach you the proper way to respond or stimulus discrimination training to teach you to know when you are working with a depressed client and when you’re not?) A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus discrimination 14. Your supervisor trains you to identify whether or not a client is clinically depressed. (What’s your supervisor concerned with here: discriminating whether a client is clinically depressed (two different sets of stimuli) or differentiating the different responses you need to use with depressed patients?) A. Response differentiation B. Stimulus Discrimination Discriminative Stimulus vs. Operandum Note: The SD is associated with the opportunity for reinforcement. The operandum provides the opportunity to respond. Everyday Life Sid is more concerned with life’s meaning than with its everyday details. As a result, he hasn’t properly adjusted the idle of his rusty 1982 Volvo and it often dies at stop signs. When the Volvo dies, Sid won’t hear the hum of the engine; and pressing the accelerator won’t cause his car to move forward. But when he hears the hum, putting his foot to the gas will produce the desired result of forward motion. 15. What’s the engine’s hum? (Hint: You can’t manipulate a hum) A. An SD1 B. An operandum 16. What’s the hum? A. An opportunity for reinforcement B. An opportunity to respond 17. What is the accelerator? A. An SD B. An operandum 18. What’s the accelerator? A. An opportunity for reinforcement B. An opportunity to respond 19. What’s being in the car? A. An opportunity for reinforcement B. An opportunity to respond Remember: Avoid confusing the opportunity for reinforcement (the SD ) with the opportunity to make the response (the operandum or the environment containing the operandum). And when diagramming the SD be sure it passes the stimulus test. It cannot include a behavior of the behaver. Definition: Concept Discriminative stimulus (SD)  Stimulus in the presence of which  a particular response will be reinforced or punished. Definition: Concept Operandum (manipulandum)  that part of the environment  the organism operates (manipulates). Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 1 Some students were concerned with “an SD;” they thought it should be “a SD,” because of what their English teachers had taught them. But their English teachers had not told them the full story. First of all, just say “a SD” out loud. Sounds really bad, doesn’t it. It’s not that you should precede vowels with “an;” it is that you should precede vowel sounds with “an” and in some cases, consonant letters, by themselves, have a vowel sound (for example the letter “S”). I must admit, it took me a while to figure out what the true English rule was. (This has been another Uncle Dickie, True-Adventure English Lesson.) 2
    • 20. Please diagram Sid’s interaction with his beloved but decrepit Volvo. (Always, in the behavior component, mention the operandum) (4). SD After B. An opportunity to respond Remember: Avoid confusing the availability of/opportunity for reinforcement (the SD) with the opportunity to respond (the operandum or the environment containing the operandum). 26. Please diagram this training procedure. (In the behavior component, mention the operandum)(4). Before SD Behavior S∆ After Before After Behavior S∆ After Behavior Modification Under Dawn’s supervision, Eve was teaching retarded clients to cross the street safely. Eve started by having them move a pedestrian doll along a poster-board model of sidewalks and across streets. When the model pedestrian “walk” light was on, Eve praised the client for moving the pedestrian doll across the street. She withheld her praise for crossing the street when the “don’t walk” light was on. 2 21. The “walk” light is: A. An opportunity for reinforcement B. An opportunity to respond 22. So the “walk” light is (Hint: You can’t manipulate the light) A. An SD B. An operandum 23. What’s the doll? A. An opportunity for reinforcement B. An opportunity to respond 24. So the doll is: A. An SD B. An operandum 25. What’s the poster-board model? A. An opportunity for reinforcement 2 Based on Page, T. J., Iwata, B. A, (1976). Teaching pedestrian skill to retarded persons: Generalization from classroom to the natural environment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 433-444. Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 In summary of this section, the goal here is not so much to teach you what an operandum is as it is to teach you what an SD isn’t. In other words, the goal is to help you avoid the error of calling an operandum an SD. Here’s to hoping. Note There is no SD , When there’s no S∆. Instead there’s an undiscriminated opportunity for reinforcement. I should also mention that many responses and contingencies don’t even involve operanda: What’s the operandum for the behavior of talking? Your tongue? The vibrating air? Better to say this example involves no operandum. Discriminative Stimulus vs. Undiscriminated Opportunity for Reinforcement Everyday Life 3
    • Dawn comes home after working with Eve and the mentally handicapped clients. The wind-chill is minus 10. She enters her home and is immediately immersed in a cozy 72 degrees. 27. What is the contingency for Dawn’s entering her home? A. A discriminated opportunity for reinforcement contingency B. An undiscriminated opportunity for reinforcement contingency A discriminated reinforcement contingency involves an SD and an S∆ , and an undiscriminated reinforcement contingency doesn’t. Also, the absence of an operandum (like she lost her door key) doesn’t make it a discriminated contingency. It would have to be like there was an external, stimulus condition in the presence of which entering her house would not result in the escape from the cold weather. I know you could come up with something sleazy, but can you really come up with something realistic? Really? 28. If you circled A for question 27 and said this was discriminated reinforcement, what is the SD ? _________________ And what is the S∆? __________________ (If you circled B. for question 27 do not fill in the blanks.) Her Master’s Horn Señor Garcia lives on a busy street in Caracas, Venezuela. Cars pass by tooting their horns every three or four minutes. But when Señor Garcia drives up to the house and toots his horn that plays the WMU fight song, their dog, Chu Chu runs to the wrought-iron gate. Chu Chu’s running to the gate is reinforced by the sight of Señor Garcia. 29. What is the sound of Señor Garcia’s horn to Chu Chu? A. A discriminated opportunity for reinforcement contingency B. An undiscriminated opportunity for reinforcement contingency 30. Please diagram Chu Chu’s running contingency. (Remember, honks horn wouldn’t be the behavior of Chu Chu, but rather the behavior of Señor Garcia; and we’re doing this contingency for Chu Chu.) Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 (Note: It’s O.K. to include hears as part of the SD, if you wish)(4). SD Before After Behavior S∆ After Behavior Mod Mama It’s hard to find a behavior mod example of an undiscriminated opportunity for reinforcement because usually the behavior modifier must be present, and the behavior modifier’s presence then functions as an SD. So let’s see if this works: Dawn wants to increase young Rod’s interaction with his environment; therefore, she fastens an infant’s music box to his crib. Whenever Rod pulls the plastic loop extending from the box, he hears a few bars of his favorite children’s song—La Bamba. 31. When he is in the crib, is pulling the loop always reinforced? A. Yes B. No 32. Can Rod pull the loop when he is not in the crib? A. Yes B. No 33. So if he can’t emit the response, is it an S∆? A. Yes B. No Right, if you can’t emit the response, its’ not an S∆ because it fails the response test. 34. What about Rod’s crib? What is it? (Hint: Think of Rod being in the crib as the same as you being in the car) 4
    • A. An SD B. Just part of the environment associated with it 35. What is the loop-pull contingency? A. A discriminated opportunity for reinforcement contingency B. An undiscriminated opportunity for reinforcement contingency The Hand that Rocks and Rolls the Cradle Sid is preparing Rod for Name that Song. He samples various tunes from his Rock and Roll Classics CD and asks Rod to name them. When he plays La Bamba, Rod gets lavish praise for saying Bamba (would you believe Baba?). Rod’s hand clapping is optional. If he fails to say Baba when he should or says it for other tunes, Rod gets no praise. At this point Rod has three words in his active vocabulary—Mama, Papa and, most importantly, Baba. 36. What is saying Baba when La Bamba is playing? A. A discriminated opportunity for reinforcement contingency B. An undiscriminated opportunity for reinforcement contingency 37. Diagram this example (4): SD After The Before Condition vs. the Discriminative Stimulus Now life in the Skinner box is getting a little aversive, so we’ll depersonalize a bit and talk about an anonymous rat. The rat is in the Skinner box with the electrified, stainless steel rod floor. Occasionally a mild but aversive shock comes through the floor. When the rat presses the lever, the shock goes off immediately. At first glance, the shock may seem like an SD --a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced. (In this case, reinforcement consists of escape from the shock.) Why does the shock seem like an SD? Because only when the shock is on can pressing the lever turn it off. But instead, the mild shock is a condition of the environment of the environment that affects the rat’s sensitivity to reinforcement by the contingent presentation of a zero intensity shock (no shock). I think this is the way to look at it: Suppose there is no shock before the lever press. The rat presses the lever and now there is also no shock after the press. Going from no shock before to no shock after did not reinforce the lever press. But going from mild shock to no shock would. 38. So what’s the shock? A. An SD B. A before condition Before Harsher Life in the Skinner Box Behavior S∆ After What we’ve really got here is a conditional SD La Bamba + Sid’s presence. So, that means that if either Sid or “la Bamba” is missing, we’ve got an S∆. So the S∆ is also conditional. Took me a few years to figure that one out; so feel free to go back and correct your answer now, if you’re as slow as I was. Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 I suspect you still think the shock may be the SD. So let’s change the contingencies slightly. Now a light on the wall of the Skinner box turns on sometimes when the shock is on. The lever press will turn off the shock only when the light is on, not when the light is off. 39. Is the light a stimulus in the presence of which the lever press will be reinforced by the termination of the shock? A. Yes B. No 40. Which is the SD for the lever press? A. The light B. The shock 5
    • 41. Please diagram the contingency (4). SD 42. Diagram my original example, but leave the S∆ contingency blank (4). After SD Before After Behavior Before S∆ Behavior After S∆ After Let’s check to make sure we have an SD My Example of Stimulus Control Sue’s working with Jimmy, the autistic preschooler. They’re sitting across from each other in the discrete-trial booth. Sue’s goal is for Jimmy to look at her, each time she says, “Jimmy, look at me.” When Jimmy does as requested, Sue gives him a small piece of a cracker (smaller than a dime, to slow down satiation). Jimmy’s looking at someone, when requested to do so, is a prerequisite to teaching Jimmy more advanced skills. What’s the SD Sue’s saying, “Jimmy, look at me.” What’s the response? Jimmy’s looking at Sue. What’s the reinforcer? The dime-sized piece of cracker. Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 43. Will the response be more likely to be reinforced in the presence of the stimulus and less likely in its absence? A. Yes B. No 44. Is the discriminative stimulus (SD) a stimulus? A. Yes B. No 45. Is the discriminative stimulus (SD) a response of the behaver? A. Yes B. No 46. Does “look at me” make the cracker reinforcing (in other words, is “Look at me” the motivating operation)? A. Yes B. No Remember that the motivating operation must be something that makes the after condition more reinforcing, not just something that makes the response more probable. So the SD and MO are never the same. 6
    • Now let’s look at the S∆ contingency of my example. If the response is Jimmy’s looking at Sue; and the SD is Sue’s request that he do so, then looking at Sue will be reinforced in the presence of the request. But the response of looking at Sue probably wouldn’t be reinforced with a piece of cracker when Sue doesn’t ask him to look at her. (Remember the definition of an S∆ ---A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will not be reinforced or punished. [And unlike the response’s dead-man test, there is not dead-stimulus test. In other words, it’s OK to say the stimulus is anything other than the SD, though it doesn’t hurt to be more specific when possible.]) explaining a concept, the professor ignores the raised hand until he is done explaining, and then calls on the student. 47. So, will Jimmy’s response of looking at Sue be reinforced with a piece of cracker when she doesn’t ask him to look at her? A. Yes B. No 48. What is the S∆?______________________ 54. So, in the presence of ____________ the response of raising your hand will be reinforced. (Be specific) Please analyze your behavior of raising your hand when your professor asks: “Any questions?” 52. What’s the response?_________________ To help find out what the SD is we must fill in the missing parts of the following question. 53. Please fill in the missing parts of the definition.  A_________ in the presence of which a particular  response _____________ reinforced or punished. Note: An SD cannot involve the response of the behaver (you), but it can involve the response of someone else (the professor). Let’s check to make sure we have an S∆. 49. Is the S∆ a stimulus? (This is a little tricky. We would say the absence of a particular event is still a stimulus, because there are still auditory, visual, olfactory (smell), and tactile (touch) stimuli presenting themselves to Jimmy. While it’s easy to have no response, it’s almost impossible to have no stimulus. ) A. Yes B. No 50. Will the response be more likely to be reinforced when the SD is present than when the S∆ is present? A. Yes B. No 51. Would the behavior of interest be less likely to occur in the presence of that S∆ in the future? A. Yes B. No Now go back to your diagram of my example and fill in the S∆ contingency. Another Example of Stimulus Control Your professor likes his students to ask questions, but only when he asks for them. He usually asks for questions after he explains each concept. If a student raises his/her hand while he is Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 55. What’s the reinforcer? 56. Please diagram the example, but leave the S∆ contingency blank (4) SD Before After Behavior S∆ After Let’s check to make sure we have an SD 57. Will the response be more likely to be reinforced in the presence of the stimulus and less likely in its absence? A. Yes B. No 7
    • 58. Is the discriminative stimulus (SD) a stimulus? A. Yes B. No 59. Is the discriminative stimulus (SD) a response of the behaver? A. Yes B. No 60. Is the discriminative stimulus a motivating operation? (Hint: What makes being called on a reinforcer?) A. Yes B. No By the way, the MO is fear of losing points on the quiz. This makes the answer to the question more reinforcing. Now let’s look at the S∆ contingency of my overall example. Sometimes a response is reinforced in the presence of one stimulus and not reinforced in the absence of the stimulus. So your hand raising will be reinforced in the presence of the SD, but not reinforced in the absence of the SD. 61. What is the S∆____________________? Your Original Example It’s your turn to come up with an example of stimulus control. Please try to draw your examples from your own professional life. (We’ll make this course relevant to your professional interests, or bust an intestine trying!) If you can’t relate it to your professional life, at least relate it to your life in some fashion. (Student example: The flasher on my phone lights, because I have messages waiting, is an SD for picking up the phone.) Student examples:  Kid steals cookie when mom is not there.  Kid will be injured, if she jumps in the pool when there’s no water there.  Bad Example: I get stopped by the police, when I don’t have insurance; and I get a ticket. Problem: Getting stopped by the police is not an action by the driver.  Tom tells a dumb blonde joke in the presence of a group of brunettes; but it will be extinction city (at the least), if he tells the same joke in the presence of a group blondes.  Bad Example: The SD is a green light, and driving through the green light will not be punished by an accident. The problem with this one is that the SD for the punishment contingency is the red light.  Bad Example: One student had a contingency in which he has no pressure on the bowels when he has a bowel movement if the SD (toilet paper is present) is seen when he walks into the bathroom. However, this person would still have no pressure on the bowels regardless of the toilet paper being present when he has his bowel movement. Let’s check to make sure we have an S∆ 62. Is the S∆ a stimulus? (Remember that the general environment is a stimulus.) A. Yes B. No 63. Will the response be more likely to be reinforced when the SD is present than when the S∆ is present? A. Yes B. No 64. Will the response of interest be less likely to occur in the presence of that S∆ in the future? A. Yes B. No Now go back to your diagram of my example and fill in the S∆ contingency 65. Please describe your original example. 66. What is the behavior?__________________ 67. Who is the behaver?___________________ 68. What is the SD? ______________________ Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 8
    • 69. Please diagram the example, but leave the S∆ contingency blank (4). SD After 76. Will the response be more likely to be reinforced or punished when the SD is present than when the S∆ is present? A. Yes B. No Before 77. Would the behavior of interest be less likely to occur in the presence of that S∆ in the future (for reinforcement) or more likely to occur in the presence of the S∆ in the future (for punishment)? A. Yes B. No Behavior S∆ After Now go back to your diagram and fill in the contingency S∆ Discriminated Contingencies Let’s check to make sure we have an SD 70. Will the response be more likely to be reinforced or punished in the presence of the stimulus and less likely in its absence? Is the S∆ a stimulus? (Remember that the general environment is a stimulus.) A. Yes B. No Here are some original discrimination examples students gave in David Bradshaw’s section of P360. The question is, what are the contingencies? 78. The following is an example of A. Discriminated reinforcement B. Discriminated escape C. Discriminated punishment 71. Is the discriminative stimulus (SD) a stimulus? SD A. Yes B. No A/C plugged in After No Aversive Heat 72. Is the discriminative stimulus (SD) a response of the behaver? A. Yes B. No Before Behavior Aversive Heat Push ON Button 73. Is the discriminative stimulus a motivating operation? A. Yes B. No S∆ After A/C not plugged in Aversive Heat 74. What is the S∆? _______________________ Let’s check to make sure we have an S∆ 75. Is the S∆ a stimulus? A. Yes B. No Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 9
    • 79. The following is an example of A. Discriminated reinforcement B. Discriminated escape C. Discriminated punishment SD After Usher present No screaming baby Before Behavior Screaming Baby I call for an usher S∆ After Usher not present Screaming Baby 80. The following is an example of ________. (Assume that being wet is aversive for Don) D. Discriminated reinforcement E. Discriminated escape F. Discriminated punishment SD After It’s raining outside Dopey Don is wet Before Behavior Dopey Don is dry Dopey Don goes outside S∆ After It’s not raining outside Dopey Don is dry Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 10
    • Hey Kids, Captain Contingency says, “Earn Real Bonus Points!” Diagram a real cute original example of discriminated punishment, and discriminated escape. In other words, give the SD and S∆ for a punishment contingency. And for an escape contingency. Wowie zowie! One bonus point for each example up to 2 bonus points per family. Double Wowie Zowie! Yes, we’re talking real bonus points here, not optional activity points; in other words, the bonus points are added to your homework grade. Just use your magic decoder pink criterion sheet to make sure you’ve got right answers. And remember, cute counts. Participation in this contest is optional. The bonus points are added to your homework points. 80. Escape contingency. Describe the situation and diagram the contingency. SD Before After Behavior 79. Punishment contingency. Describe the situation and diagram the contingency. S∆ SD Before After After Behavior S∆ After Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/19/11 11