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Ch. 11 hw 7 e

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  • 1. Name: ______________________ __ Instructor: _____ __________ Grade: _ ___ _ LO: 99 Name: _____________________________ Instructor: _______________ Red Grade: _______ Black Grade: ________ Chapter 11 Conceptual Work Sheets for Learned Reinforcers and Learned Aversive Stimuli My goal with this homework assignment is for you to understand more fully the concepts of learned reinforcers and learned aversive conditions and how they come to be learned (through a pairing procedure). You will need to create three examples: a learned reinforcer, a learned aversive condition, and a generalized learned reinforcer. If you skim through all of my examples in this homework, you will notice that they are all somewhat related to each other- they all contribute to one overall example or situation. I try to draw my examples from my everyday life. I encourage you to do the same, this will help you to apply the principles of behavior analysis to real-world situations of everyday living rather than hypothetical situations. First, let's check out some relevant definitions.... Definition: Concept Learned Reinforcer  A stimulus that is a reinforcer  because it has been paired with another reinforcer. Definition: Concept Unlearned Reinforcer  A stimulus that is a reinforcer  though not as a result of pairing with another reinforcer. Examples:  Food  Water  Sexual stimulation  Aggression reinforcers  Warmth  Visual stimulation  Auditory stimulation Definition: Procedure Pairing Procedure  The pairing of a neutral stimulus with  a reinforcer or aversive stimulus. Definition: Principle Value-altering Principle  The pairing procedure  converts a neutral stimulus into  a learned reinforcer  or learned aversive stimulus.
  • 2. Pairing vs. Value Altering Common Confusion Let's work on getting these two concepts correctly into your repertoire before we get ahead of ourselves. A neutral stimulus, event or condition becomes a learned reinforcer or learned aversive condition because it has been paired with either another reinforcer or aversive condition. The original reinforcer or aversive condition which the neutral stimulus is paired with could be either an unlearned or an already-established, learned reinforcer or aversive condition. Let's tackle this common confusion right away. When diagramming the pairing of the two stimuli, it is easy to fall into the trap of diagramming a behavior with an after condition; behaviors anywhere in the pairing diagram are wrong. We need to make that clear now, before you get to the end of this assignment and realize you have done it all wrong-that is, foolishly analyzing behaviors in stimulus pairing diagrams. The pair of stimuli have to pass the stimulus, event or condition test because they’re stimuli, not behaviors; they cannot be behaviors of the behaver to whom you will be referring in the contingency diagram. Students often fail to distinguish between the pairing procedure and the value-altering principle. We will try to make that distinction clearer here. The pairing procedure is just that, a procedure. It is the procedure of pairing a neutral stimulus with a reinforcer or aversive condition. What are the results of this procedure? The result is an altering of the value of the neutral stimulus that was paired. What value is altered? It was neutral and it becomes either reinforcing or aversive. The value-altering principle describes the result of the pairing procedure. The pairing procedure converts a neutral stimulus into a learned reinforcer or learned aversive condition. 2. Can we pair behaviors? A. Yes B. No No way! When diagraming a pairing, you diagram two stimuli. It is very easy to fall into the trap of diagramming a behavior and an after condition. Don’t do it, it is wrong. Here is an incorrect example. Remember the definition of a Pairing Procedure: Pairing of a neutral stimulus with a reinforcer or aversive condition. 1. In your own words, explain the distinction between the pairing procedure and the value-altering principle. Incorrect pairing: Jaci answers questions in class Dr. Malott gives Jaci an approving smile Correct pairing: Approving smile Nice comments 3. When diagramming a pairing procedure, what pink Contingency-Diagramming Test must both boxes pass? ___________________________________________ 4. Do we diagram a behavior and an after condition with this pairing diagram? A. yes B. no Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/13 2
  • 3. Eventually, through repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a learned reinforcer. 5. Please explain what the common confusion is in diagramming a pairing procedure. Learned reinforcer (original neutral stim.) Before: No learned reinforcer Generic Example Unlearned reinforcer (original reinforcer) Behavior: After: Respond Learned reinforcer When thinking of an example of a learned reinforcer, it is important to analyze it carefully. It is necessary that during pairing, the original reinforcer follow the neutral stimulus within a few seconds. 8. Becoming a learned reinforcer demonstrates the A. pairing procedure B. value-altering principle You need to determine what the neutral stimulus was initially paired with. Are you with us? A learned reinforcer must have been just a plain old neutral stimulus, event or condition at one point. The neutral stimulus requires a pairing procedure for it to become reinforcing. So you have this neutral stimulus, what was it paired with? Once you have determined both the neutral stimulus and what it was paired with, you can refer to the following generic template for diagramming the pairing. Note: Position is important! The left box PRECEDES the right box! Original neutral stimulus It is important to understand in what way the neutral stimulus (left box, first pairing diagram), changes when it becomes a learned reinforcer (left box, second pairing diagram). The stimulus itself does not change; only its value changes. It went from being neutral to being reinforcing, so we have a new name for it.... a learned reinforcer. 9. Does the physical property of the neutral stimulus change when it becomes a learned reinforcer (i.e., does it change color or become louder or something like that)? A. yes B. no Original (unlearned) reinforcer 10. What changes? A. the stimulus itself B. the value of the stimulus Remember: The original reinforcer can be an unlearned reinforcer or an already established learned reinforcer. 6. Pairing these two stimuli demonstrates the A. pairing procedure B. value-altering principle 11. With respect to a pairing procedure, can you pair a neutral stimulus with an unlearned reinforcer? A. yes B. no 7. During pairing, did the original reinforcer follow the neutral stimulus within a few seconds? A. yes (Good) B. no (Then it probably wasn't a pairing procedure.) Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/13 12. With respect to a pairing procedure, can you pair a neutral stimulus with an already-established, learned reinforcer? A. yes B. no 3
  • 4. 13. During pairing, did the original reinforcer follow the neutral stimulus within a few seconds? A. yes B. no Notice that you don't use the unlearned reinforcer in the contingency diagram at all. Many students make the mistake and often stick the original reinforcer in the behavior box (remember the original reinforcer is the one that was paired with the neutral stimulus, thus making the neutral stimulus a learned reinforcer). Don't make that mistake. The behavior box is where the particular behavior that you are using for the example goes. All three boxes in the contingency diagrams should always be filled out. 14. Let’s look at establishing attention as a learned reinforcer. A child receives attention every time he or she gets food. After repeated pairing the attention becomes a learned reinforcer. Please diagram this pairing. Let’s go back to the Skinner box. For Rudolph we pair the click with water several times. 17. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. How do we know the neutral stimulus has become a learned reinforcer? To answer this question, let’s go back to the basics. What is the click before the pairing? neutral stimulus unlearned reinforcer original reinforcer none of the above What is the water? neutral stimulus unlearned reinforcer original reinforcer b and c 18. 15. What is the definition of a reinforcer? Now we want to prove that the value-altering principle (neutral stimulus has been converted to a learned reinforcer) has taken place. 19. In order to prove that the neutral stimulus (click) has been converted to a learned reinforcer we must... A. present the click randomly to Rudolph B. present the click contingent on Rudolph’s response C. present the water randomly to Rudolph D. present the water contingent on Rudolph’s response 16. If we assume the neutral stimulus has become a learned reinforcer, what will happen to the behavior when it is presented contingent on a response (refer to the definition you just wrote)? A. increase B. decrease C. nothing will happen 20. OK, now let’s diagram this procedure as it happens in the Skinner box--careful, this may be tricky (2). Before So, if we want to prove that a neutral stimulus has been converted into a learned reinforcer (value-altering effect), we present the stimulus contingent on a behavior. If the behavior increases, we have a learned reinforcer. If the behavior does not increase, the stimulus is not a reinforcer. Refer to the previous generic template. Behavior After 21. Does the original reinforcer get placed into the behavior box of the contingency diagram? A. yes B. no 22. What concept is relevant for the before and after conditions? A. the original reinforcer B. the learned reinforcer Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/13 4
  • 5. Now that you have the basics down you're ready to start applying your behavior analytic repertoire to the rest of this assignment. Refer back to this entire section as you go through the rest of this assignment to make sure you are on the right track. Dotted Line: The dotted line shows that the learned reinforcer should be placed in the after box. A lot of students make the mistake of putting the original reinforcer in the after box. But to show that a neutral stimulus has become a learned reinforcer, we must show that it will reinforce a behavior. Therefore, we must present it after the behavior and see if it increases the frequency of the behavior. My example of a Learned Reinforcer 24. Did you put the stimulus that occurred first in the top, left box, and the stimulus that occurred second in the top, right box? A. yes (Good) B. no (Revise) Let me point out that my example analyses will illustrate a higher-order pairing, the pairing of the neutral stimulus with an already-established, learned reinforcer1. Many of our everyday life examples are higher-order pairing. For some examples of pairing with unlearned stimuli, refer to Principles of Behavior (Chapter 11). 25. Did you put a behavior in the pairing procedure diagram? A. yes (Revise) B. no (Good) 26. Does the after condition follow the behavior by 60 seconds or less? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) I use my computer to watch my favorite television shows online. Once on the website, I click on my favorite show. Sometimes, when I first attempt to watch a show it does not load right away. But, within a second or so, I see the loading pinwheel on the screen, and then I’ll immediately be able to watch my favorite show. Therefore, through pairing the original reinforcer (my favorite show), with the neutral stimulus (loading pinwheel), the loading pinwheel has become a learned reinforcer. 27. Does the behavior pass the reinforceable responseunit test? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) 28. Do the stimuli in the pairing diagram pass the stimulus, event, or condition test? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) 23.Please diagram the pairing procedure, in my example, illustrating the value-altering principle by placing the learned reinforcer into the contingency diagram (Don't forget the behavior too!)(4) 29. box? A. B. Is the learned reinforcer placed into the behavior yes (Revise) no (Good, go on) 30. Is the original reinforcer placed anywhere in the contingency diagram? A. yes (Revise) B. no (You got it!) Before: Behavior: 31. A. B. C. D. After: What kind of contingency is this? escape reinforcement by the presentation of a reinforcer punishment penalty 32. During pairing, did the favorite show follow the loading pinwheel within a few seconds? A. yes B. no 1 rather than an unlearned reinforcer. Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/13 5
  • 6. 33. A. B. C. D. 34. A. B. C. D. o Jay’s new car doesn't beep when she leaves the lights Originally, what was the pinwheel? neutral stimulus original reinforcer learned reinforcer none of the above What has the pinwheel become? neutral stimulus original reinforcer learned reinforcer none of the above 35. Does the physical property of the neutral stimulus change when it becomes a learned reinforcer? A. yes B. no 36. What is my favorite show in this contingency? (Warning: Tricky question. Please reread the 1st and 2nd paragraph at the start of this section.) A. neutral stimulus B. original reinforcer o 37. What else is my favorite show? A. already established learned reinforcer B. unlearned reinforcer 38. In your own words explain how the loading pinwheel has become a learned reinforcer. o o o My Answer -- The sight of the loading pinwheel was immediately paired with seeing my favorite TV show several times. The pairing of those two stimuli converted the sight of the pinwheel into a learned reinforcer. My behavior of clicking on my favorite show is now reinforced by the loading pinwheel; reinforcement by the presentation of a reinforcer contingency. Your example of a Learned Reinforcer 39. Now, your example, please. Please describe your example of a learned reinforcer. Try to make it something that you have actually witnessed or even experienced. Some student examples:  Dan’s girlfriend’s perfume has been paired with her reinforcing presence, so he sniffs her fragrance at Hudson’s. Really? Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/13 on; so the battery runs down. And when the battery runs down, her remote car door opener doesn’t work, and pushing the button on the remote doesn’t produce that satisfying click, one which she might never have noticed, had she not experienced the no click => no working car pairing, as well as the click => working car pairing. And, of course, the learned reinforcing value of the click reinforces pushing the button on her remote. (Note that to some extent, Jay’s talking about that little emotional rush that comes with the presentation of some reinforcers; the emotional rush is not part of the definition of the reinforcer and may not be essential to something being a reinforcer, but it may be a nice indicator that we are dealing with a reinforcer and that that reinforcer could be used to increase the frequency of behavior. Also, let me note that Jay need not be aware of her reaction of the click or even that she’s heard the click for it to be a reinforcer; awareness is not necessary for reinforcement.) In a similar manner, all we have to do is look at school kids’ reaction to the recess bell to infer that it would be a great reinforcer, hypothetically, if we were to make it contingent on study behavior, for instance. And, of course, the bell acquired its learned reinforcing power through pairing with recess and its good times. In working with Jimmy, the autistic child, Sue pairs her praise with food reinforcers, causing the praise to become a learned reinforcer. The Simpson’s song was paired with the enjoyment of watching TV with my sister. So hearing the sound of the Simpson’s song reinforced flipping through the channels until I found the Simpson’s on. When I turn on the TV, it makes an electric buzzing sound. The buzzing was paired with a relaxing TV show. Thus the buzz became a learned reinforcer that reinforced turning on the TV. 6
  • 7. 40. Please diagram the pairing procedure, in your example, illustrating the value-altering principle by placing the learned reinforcer into the contingency diagram (Don't forget the behavior too!). Remember...No behaviors involved in the pairing procedure diagram, only in the contingency diagram (4). Before: Behavior: 47. During pairing, did the original reinforcer follow the neutral stimulus within a few seconds? A. yes (Good) B. no (Revise) 48. In your own words explain how the neutral stimulus has become a learned reinforcer. After: My example of a Learned Aversive stimulus Use the pink Contingency-Diagramming Job Aid to analyze the example. Now that you have applied your repertoire to the analysis of a learned reinforcer, you are ready to analyze a learned aversive stimulus. Remember during pairing, the original aversive stimulus must follow the neutral stimulus within a few seconds. 41. Did you put a behavior in the pairing procedure diagram? A. yes (Revise) B. no (Cool) First, let's check out a relevant definition.... 42. Does the after condition follow the behavior by 60 seconds or less? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) Definition: Concept: Learned aversive stimulus o A stimulus that is aversive o because it has been paired with another aversive stimulus. 43. Does the behavior pass the reinforceable responseunit test? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) I remember when I was working on Principles of Behavior 6.0. I used an outline/word processor we'll call Bugs. Sometimes it would put a bug in one of the files that held one of my beloved chapters. Then a strange thing would happen, when I pressed the control/page-down buttons to move from one page to another. A cute, little black dot would appear on the edge of my computer screen, the words would rapidly disappear, and all would be lost--very aversive. 44. Do the stimuli in the pairing diagram pass the stimulus, event, or condition test? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) 45. box? A. B. Is the original reinforcer placed into the behavior yes (Revise) no (Good, go on) 46. Is the learned reinforcer placed anywhere in the contingency diagram? A. yes (You got it!) B. no (Revise) Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/13 7
  • 8. D. penalty 56. A. B. During pairing, did the loss of words follow the sight of the black dot within a few seconds? yes (You're groovin’ ) no (Oh, you almost had it...revise) 57. A. B. C. D. What was the sight of the black dot? neutral stimulus original aversive stimulus learned aversive stimulus both b and c 58. A. B. C. D. What has the sight of the black dot become? neutral stimulus original aversive stimulus learned aversive stimulus none of the above 59. A. B. What is the loss of words in the previous example? neutral stimulus original aversive stimulus Use the pink Contingency-Diagramming Job Aid to analyze the example. 60. A. B. What else is the loss of words? learned aversive stimulus unlearned aversive stimulus 50. 61. In your own words explain how the sight of the black dot has become a learned aversive stimulus. 49. Please diagram the pairing procedure, in my example, illustrating the value-altering principle by placing the learned aversive stimulus into the contingency diagram (Don't forget the behavior too!)(4). Before: A. B. 51. A. B. 52. A. B. Behavior: After: Does the after condition follow the behavior by 60 seconds or less? yes (Good!) no (Revise) Does the behavior pass the reinforceable responseunit test? yes (Good!) no (Revise) Do the stimuli in the pairing diagram pass the stimulus, event, or condition test? yes (Good!) no (Revise) My answer: Well, that black dot was immediately paired with my loss of a few hours’ worth of words. So the black dot took on the aversive properties of that loss. And it's occasional, but immediate, following of my trying to move from one page to the next, effectively punished my behavior, a punishment by the presentation of an aversive stimulus contingency. Therefore, I spent a whole week searching for another program to use in its place. I ended up with Lotus Manuscript--the program I'm writing these very words with, at this very moment. 53. Is the learned aversive stimulus placed into the behavior box? A. yes (Revise) B. no (Good, go on) 54. Is the original aversive stimulus placed anywhere in the contingency diagram? A. yes (Revise) B. no (You got it!) 55. A. B. C. What kind of contingency is this? reinforcement escape punishment by the presentation of an aversive stimulus Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/13 8
  • 9. 67. Is the learned aversive stimulus placed into the behavior box? A. yes (Revise) B. no (Good, go on) Your example of a Learned Aversive stimulus 68. Is the original aversive stimulus placed anywhere in the contingency diagram? A. yes (Revise) B. no (You got it!) 62. Please describe your example of a learned aversive stimulus. 69. A. B. C. D. 70. During pairing, does the original aversive stimulus follow the neutral stimulus within a few seconds? A. yes (You're groovin’ ) B. no (Oh, you almost had it...revise) 63. Please diagram the pairing procedure, in your example, illustrating the value-altering principle by placing the learned aversive stimulus into the contingency diagram (the behavior too!). This should be an escape or a punishment contingency (4). Before: Behavior: What kind of contingency is this? reinforcement escape punishment by the presentation of an aversive stimulus penalty 71. In your own words explain how the neutral stimulus has become a learned aversive stimulus. After: Your Example of a Generalized Learned Reinforcer 72. Please describe your example of a generalized learned reinforcer (Note: In all the homework, I greatly prefer that your examples be real, from your real life, something interesting, not just some contrived example that fits the contingencies but doesn’t help us gain insight into how the real world really works.) Use the Contingency Diagram Job Aid to analyze the example. 64. Does the after condition follow the behavior by 60 seconds or less? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) 65. Does the behavior pass the reinforceable responseunit test? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) 66. Do the stimuli in the pairing diagram pass the stimulus, event, or condition test? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/13 9
  • 10. 73. What are some examples of the many other reinforcers that the neutral stimulus was paired with? 80. During pairing, did all of the original reinforcers follow the neutral stimulus within a few seconds of each other? A. B. yes (Good) no (Revise) 81. On what occasions would that pairing have taken place? A. when I was deprived of those other reinforcers, the backup reinforcer. B. when I was not deprived of them. C. it doesn’t matter whether or not I was deprived of them. 74. Please diagram the pairing procedure, in your example, illustrating the value-altering principle by placing the learned reinforcer into the contingency diagram (the behavior too!)(4). 82. In your own words explain how the neutral stimulus has become a generalized learned reinforcer. OPTIONAL: My example of a Generalized Learned Reinforcer Use the Contingency Diagramming Job Aid to analyze the example. 75. Does the after condition follow the behavior by 60 seconds or less? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) Now let's try out your repertoire on the analysis of a generalized learned reinforcer. However, this is a very complex example of a generalized learned reinforcer. Points to consider: 76. Does the behavior pass the reinforceable responseunit test? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise)   78. Is the generalized learned reinforcer placed into the behavior box? A. yes (Revise) B. no (Good, go on) Power and control become generalized learned reinforcers early on in life (i.e. Infant crying followed by bottle, etc.) Make sure you check out the definition prior to working on the problems. Definition: Concept Generalized Learned Reinforcer o A learned reinforcer that is a reinforcer, o because it was paired with a variety of other reinforcers. 79. Are any of the original reinforcers placed anywhere in the contingency diagram? A. yes (Revise) B. no (You got it!) Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/13 The more difficult the task the more rewarding.  77. Do the stimuli in the pairing diagram pass the stimulus, event, or condition test? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) Power and control seems to be the stimulus condition of having done something that produced the intended results. 10
  • 11. A. B. Learned Reinforcer o A stimulus that is a reinforcer o because it has been paired with another reinforcer. 88. Is the generalized learned reinforcer placed into the behavior box? A. yes (Revise) B. no (Good, go on) The crucial difference between these two concepts is that a learned reinforcer is paired with only one other reinforcer and the generalized learned reinforcer is paired with many other reinforcers. 89. Are any of the original reinforcers placed anywhere in the contingency diagram? A. yes (Revise) B. no (You got it!) I've been known to spend 20 to 30 hours in a single weekend, fiddling with my computer and programs. What's the generalized learned reinforcer maintaining all this? Power. Control. (Incidentally, 5 out of 20 PSY 1400 students have been sucked into their computer unnecessarily for five hours in a row, a moderate level of computer degeneracy.) 90. During pairing, did the many other reinforcers always follow the power and control within a few seconds of each other? A. yes (Good) B. no (Revise) Why is control a generalized learned reinforcer? Control over our environment has been immediately paired with all sorts of other reinforcers, like getting water from a tap, a soft drink from a vending machine (in Japan, you can get beer that way!), getting your car to start, especially on a cold winter's morning, getting the furnace to start, etc. One of the reasons why control over the computer is so effective may be that it's so immediate, even though it may be intermediate. When you make the right response, your computer does all sorts of amazing tricks, immediately; you have immediate power and control. 91. What are some examples of the many other reinforcers that the power and control were paired with (besides computer tricks)? 92. On what occasions would that pairing have taken place? A. when I was deprived of those other reinforcers, the backup reinforcer. B. when I was not deprived of them. C. it doesn’t matter whether or not I was deprived of them. 83. Illustrate the value-altering principle by diagramming an example of the pairing procedure other than the computer tricks example. 84. Now fill in the contingency diagram so as to show that power and control have become learned reinforcers. Before: Behavior: yes (Good!) no (Revise) When I was deprived of those other reinforcers? Yes, that's right, keep going.... After: 93. In your own words explain how the neutral stimulus has become a generalized learned reinforcer. Use the Contingency Diagram Job Aid to analyze the example. 85. Does the after condition follow the behavior by 60 seconds or less? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) Incidentally, 19 out of 20 PSY 1400 students agreed with this analysis and that power and control are powerful reinforcers for all of us. 86. Does the behavior pass the reinforceable responseunit test? A. yes (Good!) B. no (Revise) 87. Do the stimuli in the pairing diagram pass the stimulus, event, or condition test? Revised by Sarah Lichtenberger on 11/21/13 11