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ASO 1-5

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  • 1. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 The Four Basic Contingencies ANSWERS 1. Reinforcement by the presentation of a reinforcer, reinforcement by the removal of an aversive condition, punishment by the presentation of an aversive condition (or simply punishment), and punishment by the loss of a reinforcer (penalty). a. Construct a 2x2 contingency table Stimulus/ Present Event/ Condition Reinforcer Reinforcement Aversive Condition Punishment Rudolph has no water Rudolph has water Press lever Rudolph has no water SKINNER BOX PUNISHMENT Penalty Escape After: No Food Food Behavior: Lever Press Rudolph has water SKINNER BOX PENALTY No shock Shock Press lever No shock EVERYDAY, NATURAL RFMT Don’t hear friend’s voice Answer phone Hear friend’s voice EVERYDAY, NATURAL PENALTY Juice Spill juice No juice EVERYDAY, NATURAL PUNISHMENT Don’t hear telemarketer Answer phone Hear telemarketer EVERYDAY, NATURAL ESCAPE Hear aversive alarm Press snooze Don’t hear aversive alarm PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT REINFORCEMENT No approval from Mom After: Water Press lever SKINNER BOX ESCAPE Shock Before: Press lever Remove b. Diagram the three types of examples (Skinner box, everyday [the natural contingencies that govern your everyday behaviors], and performance management contingencies [added contingencies that are used to govern your behavior]) for each of the four basic contingencies. Note: In this course, always include the maintaining reinforcement contingency for the response of interest, when you diagram a punishment or penalty contingency. Before: No Water ANSWER: SKINNER BOX REINFORCEMENT Say “please” Approval from Mom
  • 2. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PENALTY Say “Gimme!” Toy No toy PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PUNISHMENT Say “Gimme!” No scolding Scolding PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT ESCAPE Aversive “look” from Mom Say “please” No aversive “look” from Mom 2. Positive and Negative reinforcement and Positive and Negative punishment a. Compare and contrast in terms of the preferred nomenclature (names) in PB ANSWER: Traditional PB Positive Reinforcer Reinforcer Positive Reinforcement Reinforcement by the presentation of a reinforcer Aversive condition Negative Reinforcer Negative Reinforcement the traditional manner of speaking, positive and negative refer to the adding (presentation) or subtraction (removal) of the outcome stimulus. It does NOT refer to the effect (increase or decrease in frequency) that the outcome has upon the response. Reinforcement by the removal of an aversive condition b. What’s the common confusion? ANSWER: People think negative reinforcement will decrease behavior and positive reinforcement will increase behavior. In other words, using 3. According to the toothpaste theory, what is wrong with talking about expressing things, not only expressing anger but even expressing love? ANSWER: Beware of the verb to express. Expressing implies that there is bottled up emotion waiting to ooze out in the form of behavior. It will almost always lead you away from the contingencies controlling the behavior of concern.