• What is A Robot
• The Anatomy of a Robot
• Controlling Robots
• Water Jet Integration With Robotics
Topics to Cover
1: A machine capable of carrying out a
complex series of actions automatically.
2: (esp. in science fiction) A machine
resembling a human being and able to
replicate certain human movements and
What is a robot?
• End Effector
For a machine to qualify as
a robot, it usually needs
these five parts:
Every robot is connected to,
or contains in it, a computer,
which keeps it’s pieces
working together. This
computer is known as the
controller. The controller
functions as the "brain" of
the robot. The controller also
allows the robot to be
networked to other systems,
so that it may work together
with other machines,
processes, or robots.
Robot arms come in all
shapes and sizes. The arm
is the part of the robot that
positions the end-effector
and sensors to do their pre-
Many (but not all)
arms, and have
wrists, even fingers.
This gives the robot a
lot of ways to position
itself in its
Most robotic arms have the same basic
As we just noted, many robots have shoulders,
elbows, wrists, even fingers. This gives a robot
lots of options for moving, and helps it do things
in place of a human arm.
In order to reach any possible point in space
within its work envelope, a robot needs a total of
6 degrees of freedom. Each direction a joint can
go gives an arm 1 degree. As a result, many
robots of today are designed to move in at least
This is the tool
installed on the end of
the arm. These can be
• A gripper to
• Spray guns to
• Magnets to lift
• Welding guns…..
• And even water
Most robots of today are deaf and blind. Sensors
can utilized to provide some feedback to the robot
so it can do its job. In relation to the senses of even
the simplest living things, robots have a long way to
The sensors sends information, in the form of
electronic signals back to the controller. Sensors can
give the robot controller information about its
surroundings and lets it know the exact position of the
arm, or the state of the world around it.
Sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell are the kinds of
information we get from our world. Robots can be
designed and programmed to get specific information
that is beyond what our 5 senses can tell us. For
instance, a robot sensor might "see" in the dark,
detect tiny amounts of invisible radiation or measure
movement that is too small or fast for the human eye
Robots are machines which are used in
industry to perform a range of tasks.
There are two types of robots:
• Stationary Robots
• Mobile Robots
These are fixed in one
spot to perform their task,
eg. a robot arm stationed
at the side of a conveyor
belt in a factory in order to
weld parts onto a car
body or a robot arm used
to spray paint body parts.
• Sometimes robots need to move from one
location to another (e.g. robotic fork lift trucks in
an automated warehouse).
• These robots require self-contained power
sources (e.g. batteries) and additional
autonomy (i.e. the ability to make simple
decisions based on limited information).
• They are often fitted with wheels or tracks and
are powered by electric motors to enable them
to move about.
• A mobile robot might be used for transporting
dangerous chemicals inside a chemical plant,
or disabling a bomb.
• This is an
example of a
• It is guided by
How to Autonomous Robots
Find Their Way?
• Magnetic Guidance Systems
• Light Guidance Systems
A cable is set into the floor which gives off a
magnetic field. The robot is fitted with magnetic
sensors which can detect a magnetic field and
feed the data back to the processor. The
processor adjusts the motors controlling the
wheels to make sure the robot travels along the
path set by the magnetized cable.
Magnetic Guidance System
A path for a robot is set by a white line painted
on the factory floor. The robot is fitted with a
light source which shines light directly onto the
white line. Sensors on either side of the light
source detect and measure the amount of light
being reflected off the floor. Data is then fed to
the computer. If the robot strays to the left of
the line, the readings on the left sensor fall and
the processor then sends control signals to the
motor to correct the course of the robot.
Light Guidance System
Automated System Robots
• They are controlled by software which is
processed either by microprocessors fitted to,
for example, the mobile robot or by a central
• The software programs are written in a high
level language known as a control language.
This is usually held in ROM.
• Storing it in ROM makes it immediately
accessible to the processor as well as making
Some control languages allow the user to
‘teach’ a robot how to do a particular task by
‘leading it through’ the series of steps required
to complete the task.
Programming by ‘leading through’
A programming method
in which a robot is
placed in "teach mode"
while the trainer uses a
remote teach pendant
to manipulate the robot
through the different
steps of the job. Also
known as lead-through
Teach Pendant Programming
Components in a