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WJTA-IMCA 2013 Cleaning Applications

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    • 1. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop CLEANING APPLICATIONS Waterblast Cleaning And Material Removal
    • 2. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop PLANNING A WATERBLAST OPERATION • Jetability of material to be removed • Size and shape of equipment to be cleaned • Selection of pressure, flow and tooling to safely and efficiently complete the task
    • 3. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop MATERIAL JETABILITY • Material response to waterjets • Thickness and volume of material • Structure to which material is attached
    • 4. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop PENETRATION AND FRACTURE • Waterblasting removes material by force of impact: crushing, penetrating joints and cracks to blow apart material • Hard scale in pipe • Coke
    • 5. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop CUTTING OF MATERIAL Materials such as rubber and plastics must be completely cut thru to remove; they do not break
    • 6. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop • Efficiency curve for rubber • The optimum pressure occurs at 3 to 5 times the minimum pressure that begins to cut the material EFFECT OF PRESSURE
    • 7. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop DETERMINING PRESSURE • If possible, test a sample of the material to see what pressure will begin to cut it
    • 8. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop EFFECT OF FLOW RATE • In general, higher flow rates increase productivity • Maximum flow rates will be limited by pump size, water availability, plumbing system, and waterblast tool capability • Higher flows create larger reaction thrusts
    • 9. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop MATERIAL THICKNESS • The thickness of the deposit is a factor in selecting the number of orifices in a tool • Use fewer, and thus larger, jets in thick deposits
    • 10. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop Use more jets in thin deposits and coatings to allow faster removal rates MATERIAL THICKNESS
    • 11. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop COMBINED EFFECT Pressure and number of jets
    • 12. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop BONDING OF MATERIAL In waterblast cleaning, the surface underneath can have strong effect on ease or difficulty of cleaning Smooth steel vs. Refractory lining
    • 13. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop STRUCTURES Due to the complexity of structures to be cleaned and available access, the most challenging part can be getting the jet power where needed
    • 14. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop TOOL SELECTION Specific tools may exist for common applications
    • 15. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop Positioning apparatus place the jets closer to surfaces to be cleaned and reach all areas TOOL SELECTION
    • 16. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop Support positioning combined with controlled feed rate allows consistent cleaning TOOL SELECTION
    • 17. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop Even simple pipe cleaning has specific tools made to fit the application TOOL SELECTION
    • 18. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop Important to use the proper tool and setup for safety reasons as well TOOL SELECTION
    • 19. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop APPLYING JET POWER • Pressure Loss • Standoff Distance • Upstream Conditions • Surface Speed • Feed Rate
    • 20. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop HOSE OR TUBE PRESSURE LOSS Pressure drop or loss is dependent on flow rate; operating pressure does not matter Pressure at Pump – Pressure Loss = Pressure at Nozzle
    • 21. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop HOSE AND TUBE PRESSURE LOSS • Can calculate using a formula • Hose manufacturers put charts in catalogs • Measure by running the pump with hose, but without a nozzle; the resulting pressure gauge reading is the hose pressure drop
    • 22. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop PRESSURE LOSS AND Cv • All fluid delivery components - fittings, valves, swivels, hose, etc. - have a Flow Coefficient (Cv) • Determined by using a known flow and measuring pressure before and after the tool Pressure Loss = (Flow/Cv)2
    • 23. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop CALCULATE PRESSURE LOSS Need to know the inside diameter (D, in.), length (L, ft), and flow rate (F, gpm) Pressure loss, psi =.00076 * L * F1.85 / D4.87
    • 24. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop PRESSURE LOSS CALCULATOR Pressure Loss Thru Hose or Lance Inside Diameter 0.5 inches 12.7 mm Length 200 feet Hose Stretch 0 % Flow 30 gpm Pressure Loss 2051 psi Pressure @ Pump 10,000 psi Pressure Loss thru Tool 0 psi Pressure @ Nozzles 7,949 psi Power @ Nozzles 139 hp
    • 25. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop REDUCING PRESSURE LOSS Pressure Loss Thru Hose Inside Diameter 0.5 inches Length 200 feet Hose Stretch 0 % Flow 30 gpm Pressure Loss 2051 psi Pressure @ Pump 10,000 psi Pressure Loss thru Tool 0 psi Pressure @ Nozzles 7,949 psi Use two hoses in parallel – half the flow passes through each hose Pressure Loss Thru Hose Inside Diameter 0.5 inches Length 200 feet Hose Stretch 0 % Flow 15 gpm Pressure Loss 513 psi Pressure @ Pump 10,000 psi Pressure Loss thru Tool 0 psi Pressure @ Nozzles 9,487 psi
    • 26. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop LANCE PRESSURE LOSS • Lance ID will be limited by tube size being cleaned and operating pressure • Decide maximum pressure loss you are willing to live with. What do you need to cut the material? • Limit the flow to a value that creates less than the maximum pressure drop
    • 27. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop LANCE PRESSURE LOSS • 25 ft of 3/8 Medium Pressure tubing with .203 in. ID • You have a 20,000 psi 17 gpm pump • Need to have 17,000 psi at the jet (maximum 3,000 psi loss) to cut the material • Pressure loss at 17 gpm: 5080 psi • Pressure loss at 10.5 gpm: 1940 psi • Remember other pressure drops in the system (hose, fittings, swivel)
    • 28. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop OPTIMIZING PULLING FORCE • If trying to maximize pulling distance, the maximum pulling force occurs when flow is increased to where 1/2 of the pressure is lost. Pressure Loss Thru Hose or Lance Inside Diameter 0.5 inches Length 200 feet Hose Stretch 0 % Flow 38 gpm Pressure Loss 3290 psi Pressure @ Pump 10,000 psi Pressure Loss thru Tool 0 psi Pressure @ Nozzles 6,710 psi Pulling Force 162 pounds Pressure Loss Thru Hose or Lance Inside Diameter 0.5 inches Length 200 feet Hose Stretch 0 % Flow 46 gpm Pressure Loss 4821 psi Pressure @ Pump 10,000 psi Pressure Loss thru Tool 0 psi Pressure @ Nozzles 5,179 psi Pulling Force 173 pounds One pound of pulling force will pull between 5 and 10 feet of hose horizontally.
    • 29. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop OPTIMIZING POWER The optimum power at the nozzle occurs when flow is increased to where 1/3 of the pressure is lost Pressure Loss Thru Hose or Lance Inside Diameter 0.5 inches Length 200 feet Hose Stretch 0 % Flow 25 gpm Pressure Loss 1424 psi Pressure @ Pump 10,000 psi Pressure Loss thru Tool 0 psi Pressure @ Nozzles 8,576 psi Power @ Nozzles 125 hp Pressure Loss Thru Hose or Lance Inside Diameter 0.5 inches Length 200 feet Hose Stretch 0 % Flow 38 gpm Pressure Loss 3290 psi Pressure @ Pump 10,000 psi Pressure Loss thru Tool 0 psi Pressure @ Nozzles 6,710 psi Power @ Nozzles 149 hp
    • 30. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop LOSS DUE TO STANDOFF DISTANCE How hard does the jet impact the wall?
    • 31. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop • Obtain orifice size • Divide the standoff distance by the orifice size standoff distance = 60” = 480 orifice size .125” • This is the standoff distance in nozzle diameters *Sizes in inches LOSS DUE TO STANDOFF DISTANCE
    • 32. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop STANDOFF DISTANCE Determine loss due to Standoff Distance at 480 diameters
    • 33. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop UPSTREAM CONDITIONS Have as much effect on performance as nozzle design
    • 34. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop UPSTREAM CONDITIONS The best performing nozzle with good upstream conditions had performance cut in half with poor upstream conditions
    • 35. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop UPSTREAM CONDITIONS • Poor upstream conditions are often unavoidable • Flow straighteners improve the jet
    • 36. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop FLOW STRAIGHTENER Flow straightener brings performance back to 80%
    • 37. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop EXTENSION ARMS Extension arms reduce the standoff distance
    • 38. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop EXTENSION ARMS Extension arms also improve the jet
    • 39. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop LOSS DUE TO STANDOFF DISTANCE
    • 40. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop What if it is not enough? • Reduce standoff distance • Increase flow (orifice size) • Increase pressure STANDOFF DISTANCE
    • 41. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop Calculate and compare effect of increasing pressure and flow on performance with standoff distance Relative Impact at Surface Orifice Ø 0.057 inches Standoff Distance 12 inches Pressure at Nozzles 20000 psi Impact at Surface 11162 psi based on poor upstream condition with flow straightener Relative Impact at Surface Orifice Ø 0.098 inches Standoff Distance 12 inches Pressure at Nozzles 10000 psi Impact at Surface 6523 psi STANDOFF DISTANCE
    • 42. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop ROTATING TOOLS Rotating tools allow the use of fewer, larger jets At 10,000 psi, 20 gpm: 20 jets, average size Ø.022” 5 jets, average size Ø.043”
    • 43. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop ROTATING TOOLS Rotating tools make tube cleaning much faster and easier
    • 44. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop ROTATION SPEED In large pipe and vessel cleaning, we are really interested in surface speed 200 rpm, 8 inch pipe Surface speed 7 ft/sec 200 rpm, 30 inch pipe Surface speed 26 ft/sec
    • 45. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop SURFACE SPEED • Large Stack 15 ft diameter • RPM = Surface Speed x 19.1 / Diameter • 20 ft/sec = 25 rpm
    • 46. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop FEED RATE Once rotation speed is determined, the cleaning rate for pipe or tube can be estimated Surface Speed and Feed Rate Vessel Ø 24 inches rotation speed 250 rpm surface speed 26 ft/sec OrificeØ 0.063 inches Number of jets 4 Jet Spread 2 rotation speed 250 rpm Feed Rate 10.5 ft/min
    • 47. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop PREVENTING SUBSTRATE DAMAGE • Pipe and Tubes • Rotation and movement required Damage to steel tube by static jet
    • 48. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop Adding rotation helps 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Depth,mm Time, seconds 140 MPa (20,000 psi) Stationary Jet 250 MPa (36,000 psi) Stationary Jet 250 MPa (36,000 psi) Rotating Jets PREVENTING SUBSTRATE DAMAGE
    • 49. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop Need to keep moving along even if rotating 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Depth,mm Time, seconds 70 MPa (10,000 psi) 105 MPa (15,000 psi) 140 MPa (20,000 psi) 250 MPa (36,000 psi) PREVENTING SUBSTRATE DAMAGE
    • 50. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT • It costs more… and gets the job done faster • Safer, happier workers
    • 51. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop AUTOMATION Reduce operator fatigue
    • 52. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop Eliminate confined space entry AUTOMATION
    • 53. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop Increase production rates AUTOMATION
    • 54. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop Difficult access and consistency of cleaning AUTOMATION
    • 55. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop BENEFITS OF AUTOMATION • Safety • Operator is further from the jets • Reduced contact with hazardous materials • Eliminate confined space entry • Reaction force and fatigue • Economics and Quality • More power can be applied • Less operator fatigue • Consistency of cleaning • Access to difficult locations
    • 56. Waterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference WorkshopWaterjet Technology – Basics and Beyond 2013, WJTA-IMCA Pre-Conference Workshop SUMMARY • Waterblasting is both science and art. • Experience is valuable in setting up the job. • Geometry, access limitations, and material type, all play a big role in optimizing the jetting operation. • Tool selection can make a big difference. • Mechanization is the key to safety and productivity.