W orld I ssues @ Glance A S ingapore P erspective Prepared by: Team: The Liberators Lee Jun Long Koh Zhi Wei Rodney Vivek Menon Jeganeson S/O Jayagopalan Class: T21
Economy- Subsistence agriculture, exports of coffee and tea
French, Kinyarwanda, Swahili
History of the Conflict Since 15 th century the Tutsi’s have been in the rulers. Hutu’s were the majority group however still Tutsi held the higher position Tutsi’s were the minority group , they were rich and powerful
Root of Social Segregation
Tutsis were given identity cards from Belgians to segregate the Hutu’s from the Tutsis.
Tutsis were given special privileges in comparison to the Hutu’s.
Tutsi are thought to be tall with thin lips and nose.
Hutu are thought to be shorter and broader, with thin lips and flat nose
In 1959, the Hutu’s formed the Parmehutu to start a revolution. In the first day of the revolution over 20,000 Tutsi’s were killed . More than 200,000 Tutsis fled the country and accumulated the forces of the Tutsis from neighboring countries to form the Republic Patriotic Front (RPF). In 1961, the Belgians left the country, and the people of Rwanda gained Independence. Social Revolution
The Rwandan Civil War President Habyarimana In 1971, Habyarimana, a hutu overthrew the Tutsi President to start a 20 year dictatorship. The president Habyarimana was being opposed by the Republic Patriotic Front (RPF) Several peace treaties were signed between the two none worked out. Habyarimana did not want to give any political powers to the Tutsis
The two militia who started the Genocide were
The Interahamwe - "those who stand/work/fight/attack together"
The Impuzamugambi - "Those who have a single goal"
In 1994, on a trip to Kigali, the Rwandan President Habyarimana and the President of Burundi was shot down with a rocket. The plane crashed and both presidents died a gruesome death. This sparked off the Genocide.
What caused the Genocide to take place?
If you don’t kill, be killed!!
Hutu civilians were commanded by the Hutu Militants to kill the Tutsis.
The Tutsis hid in Churches, Schools and Hospitals but were found and brutally massacred.
On an estimate, about 1 million Tutsis were killed in the Genocide.
Re-segregation of the community
Less job opportunities
Prejudices leading to discrimination
- Hutu had broad noses while the Tutsis has sharp noses.
Gender and the Treatment of women
Women did have 49% rights in the government when Tutsis were in power and this is something the Hutus didn’t like.
The Interahamwe militia was often caught mistreating the Tutsi women.
Other important social, economic and political factors
- After the treaty of Versailles 1918, Belgians has not done a good job till 1961. They fail to recognize the needs of the Hutu’s and racially profiled the Hutu people causing them to rebel.
What do we have so far…??
Singapore’s Racial Harmony is challenged by several religions. Political power of one ruling party eminent since the year - 1955
Rwanda’s discrimination was because of giving one race more power than the other.
Protests over Hindu Temple in Malaysia.
Racism that may spark a riot in Singapore between the Malays & the Indians.
Tutsi’s rule in the country for decades left to this revolution.
External Factors affecting Internal Harmony.
Comparing Rwanda to Singapore - Social Inequality
Current number of Malay students going into Local Universities is low compared to the two other main communities Chinese & Indians.
In Rwanda there were more educated Tutsi than the Hutus.
This trend is in relation to the Herders & Croppers situation.
Prejudice may develop!!
Prejudice Leading to Discrimination
Gender & Treatment of Women Singapore gives equal rights to Women citizens in comparison the Male citizens however statistics shows otherwise. For example in the parliament the number of women candidates are stunningly scarce compared to the male candidates. In 2008, 44 seats out of 80 seats is currently filled up by Women. This shows us the amount of rights the women has in the Rwanda Government. Discrimination May Exist against women after all!!
- 1970’s Birth Control Measures
Backfired (Fertility Rate = 1.28 in 2008)
The Need to bring in more foreigners
Migrants bring in their own individual mindset. Migrants challenging the Job Opportunity.
When Tutsis came from the neighboring country of Burundi, the Hutus faced a serious problem of competition and increasing amount of inequality.
Prejudice & Discrimination may arise between the Singaporeans and the Foreigners. This is similar to Rwanda situation when the Belgium was in power.
Influx of Migrants
Current Situation in Singapore
Low birth rate - Increasing
Aging Population - Increasing
High Standard of Living - Increasing
Social problems – Multi-racial society
Political problems – One Party Leadership
Economic Problems – Recession
Possible Situation in 2050
Low Birth Rate Continues (0.89)
Aging Population is far worse
Standard of Living is higher
Social Problems arise between the Foreigner(s) & Foreign Brides & the Singaporeans
(discrimination against the Foreigners)
(current one party being led by less significant leaders, party over thrown, new regime causing political unrest)
Unemployment Rate because much worse. The West Slump while Asia recovers, Singapore too dependant on the West.
Malaysia has stopped supplying water to Singapore and Singapore will have to look for alternative solutions.
Analysis - The Likely Future 2061 if left unchecked
- Promote Racial Harmony
- Educate the Students the mindsets of Foreigners
Prejudice Leading to Discrimination
- Teach students to treat everyone equally regardless of race, religion & language
Gender & Treatment of Women
- Encourage more women to take up leadership skills
Influx of Migrants
- Encourage Singaporeans to have more children
- Teach foreigners the customs of Singaporeans
Solving our Problems Now
Uneducated Singaporeans / Foreigners
Correcting the wrong perceptions
Prevents any idealists from developing
Ensure that implemented measures does not create any disharmony among the civilians
Challenges faced when proposing measures
It is important for the people in power to realise the needs of each community. They leaders must be willing to make changes. Changes that are made now will affect the future to betterment of others or the worse. Revolution does not take place over night, it takes time.