TheArabRegion in             the New Internet World                             William Dutton            Oxford Internet ...
The Global Values Project Focus: Global User Perspectives on Freedom of Expression Researchers: William Dutton, Principa...
The Global Values Project:            The New Internet World1. New online nations are   dominant in the New World;2. Users...
ResearchQuestions• Where does MENA sit in the ‘New Internet  World’?• Are there patterns of attitudes or beliefs  constrai...
Methodology• Online survey of Internet users in selected nations of  the Middle East and North Africa conducted in two  ph...
The Survey SampleComposition: • 11,225 respondents in over 58 countries       MENA    AFRICA    LATIN    ASIA    EUROPE   ...
MENA REGION             GCC           NORTH AFRICAAlgeria      229     Bahrain           11   Algeria          229Bahrain ...
Number and Proportion of Internet Users by Region                      90%                                                ...
Patterns of Use  •MENA users rely more on the Internet for information &      communication than users in North America/Eu...
"The Internet is making things better for people like                                    me."60%50%                       ...
Global Values: Freedom of                               Expression, Privacy, Trust, …Image scourtesy of maya picture and d...
Perceptions of Media Freedom in the MENA Region                                                           90%             ...
Perceptions of Media Freedom in North Africa and                                                                          ...
"Access to the Internet should be a fundamental right                             for all people."70%60%                  ...
"People should be able to say what they feel about                             their government on the Internet."60%50%   ...
"I can express myself freely online."45%40%                                                                               ...
“I can express myself freely online” Proportions Who ‘Totally Disagree’ (MENA)                               Gender       ...
"I feel free to say things online that others might not45%                                      agree with."           42%...
“The Internet is a safe place to express my opinions."25%                                                                 ...
"There are times when people should be able to be                         anonymous on the Internet."35%                  ...
"Government authorities should not censor political                         content on the Internet."30%                  ...
“It is OK for people to express their ideas on the                           Internet, even if they are extreme.”30%      ...
Over-Arching Themes The MENA Region Reflects the New Internet World    - Innovative Uses of the Internet and Social Media...
Implications for Discussion Interventions in Support of More Inclusive Access:    - Take-up    - Skills    - Digital Lite...
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The Arab Region in the New Internet World

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Presentation to ISOC INET Qatar Conference, 27 November 2012, focusing on the Middle East and North African in a Global Perspective. Based on the Global Values Project at the OII, University of Oxford.

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  • -including respondents from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen
  • -
  • Interpersonal benefitsGeneral information seekingDistractionEconomical purposes
  • (This is the sum of answers 5,6,7)****
  • -This is the sum of answers 5,6,7***
  • (Slide 55)Correlations (Pearson): Age(.073** ) Gender (-0.015)Experience (.142**)Skills(.109**)Time of use(.105**) Education(.058**)
  • The Arab Region in the New Internet World

    1. 1. TheArabRegion in the New Internet World William Dutton Oxford Internet Institute, University of OxfordGlobal Values Project: http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/?id=65 Presentation for INET Qatar, Doha, 27 November 2012.
    2. 2. The Global Values Project Focus: Global User Perspectives on Freedom of Expression Researchers: William Dutton, Principal Investigator; SoumitraDutta, Co-Principal Investigator; Ginette Law, Research Associate, Gillian Bolsover, Research Assistant, Isabella Litke, Research AssistantBased at the Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, in collaboration with the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University. Surveys conducted in collaboration with the World Economic Forum (WEF) and comScore Supported by ictQatar through ISIS Innovation, University of Oxford Online field research conducted by Toluna and comScore
    3. 3. The Global Values Project: The New Internet World1. New online nations are dominant in the New World;2. Users developing a global Internet culture: sharing similar values and attitudes;3. Newly adopting countries are as liberal, if not more so, such as support for freedom of expression;4. Users in the newly adopting nations are more innovative in their patterns of use, e.g., social networking.
    4. 4. ResearchQuestions• Where does MENA sit in the ‘New Internet World’?• Are there patterns of attitudes or beliefs constraining the role of the Internet in the MENA region?
    5. 5. Methodology• Online survey of Internet users in selected nations of the Middle East and North Africa conducted in two phases, from July through September 2012, fielded by Toluna.*• Merged with online survey of Internet users in selected nations world-wide from July through September 2012, fielded by comScore.• Contextualized by review of related research and literature, including other survey data available to the project investigators.*The survey was suspended during Ramadan.
    6. 6. The Survey SampleComposition: • 11,225 respondents in over 58 countries MENA AFRICA LATIN ASIA EUROPE OCEANIA NORTH TOTAL REGION AMERICA /AUS AMERICA(N) 2,803 595 1,825 2,156 2,025 509 1,312 11,225 (N) = 2,309 (N) = 9,166
    7. 7. MENA REGION GCC NORTH AFRICAAlgeria 229 Bahrain 11 Algeria 229Bahrain 11 Kuwait 197 Egypt 529Egypt 529 Oman 141 Morocco 270Iran 3 Qatar 156 Tunisia 108Iraq 1 Saudi Arabia 511Israel 10 UAE 245Jordan 243Kuwait 197Morocco 270Oman 141Qatar 156SaudiArabia 511Tunisia 108UAE 245Yemen 149TOTAL 2803 1261 1136
    8. 8. Number and Proportion of Internet Users by Region 90% 1200 79% 80% 1017 1000 70% 68% 61% Total number of Internet users (Mil.) 60% 800% of Internet users 50% 600 40% 45% 40% 501 36% 30% 26% 400 273 20% 22% 236 14% 200 139 10% 12% 10% 77 24 6% 1% 3% 0% 0 North America Oceania/Australia Europe Latin Middle East Asia Africa America/Carib. Percentage of global Internet population Number of Internet Users (mio.) Internet penetration within region Source: Internet World Stats- www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Penetration rates are based on a world population of 6,930,055,154 and 2,267,233,742 estimated Internet users for December 31, 2011.
    9. 9. Patterns of Use •MENA users rely more on the Internet for information & communication than users in North America/Europe. • The Internet is a greater source of entertainment, such as music, in the MENA region. • MENA users more involved in content production than old Internet countries. • However, less reliance on the Internet for work/school and business and commerce in MENA.Image courtesy of uak_rock8/Flickr.com Image courtesy of jannoon028/FreeDigitalPhotos.net
    10. 10. "The Internet is making things better for people like me."60%50% 49%49% 48%40% 39% MENA (n=2727)30% North Africa (n=1102) GCC ( (n=1227) 21% World Average (n=10811)20% 17% 16% 15% 13% 12% 12% 11% 11% 10% 10%10% 9% 9% 8% 7% 5% 5% 4% 4% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    11. 11. Global Values: Freedom of Expression, Privacy, Trust, …Image scourtesy of maya picture and digitalart/FreeDigitalPhotos.net
    12. 12. Perceptions of Media Freedom in the MENA Region 90% 80%% of respondents who believe that the media has freedom 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Radio Print TV Internet MENA (n=2803) 45% 49% 47% 70% Global Average (n=11225) 66% 65% 65% 82%
    13. 13. Perceptions of Media Freedom in North Africa and the GCC Region% of respondents who believe that the medi a has freedom 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Radio Print TV Internet North Africa (n=1136) 47% 54% 47% 78% GCC (n=1261) 44% 46% 47% 63%
    14. 14. "Access to the Internet should be a fundamental right for all people."70%60% 59% 54%50% 47% 46%40% MENA (n=2694) North Africa (n=1092)30% GCC ( (n=1203) World Average (n=10794)20% 18% 14% 12% 12% 12% 13% 10% 11% 10% 10%10% 9% 5% 5% 5% 3% 3% 4% 2%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    15. 15. "People should be able to say what they feel about their government on the Internet."60%50% 48% 42% 41%40% 33% MENA (n=2639)30% North Africa (n=1078) GCC ( (n=1163) World Average (n=10754)20% 19% 16% 16% 15% 15% 14% 14% 13% 12% 11% 11%10% 9% 7% 7% 6% 6% 5% 4% 5% 3%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    16. 16. "I can express myself freely online."45%40% 39%35% 31%30% 27%25% 23% MENA (n=2700) 22% 21% North Africa (n=1097)20% 19% 19% 18% 18% GCC ( (n=1204) 17% 16% 16% 16% 16% World Average (n=10831)15% 13%10% 8% 8% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6% 5%5% 4% 4% 4%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    17. 17. “I can express myself freely online” Proportions Who ‘Totally Disagree’ (MENA) Gender Skills** 29% 17% Male, 6% Female, 8% 10% 7% 7% 6% 4% 1 Poor 2 3 4 5 6 7 Age** Excellent 8% 8% Time of use** 7% 7% 6% 11% 5% 8% 6% 5% 5% 0% Under 18 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ 0-5 hrs/week 6-10 11-15 16-20 >20 hrs/week hrs/week hrs/week hrs/week 15% Experience** 15% Education** 8% 9% 7% 6% 5% 5% 9% 9% 7% 7% 5% <6 months 6 mo-<1yr 1 yr-<2 yrs 2 yrs-<5 yrs 5-7 yrs >7 yrs
    18. 18. "I feel free to say things online that others might not45% agree with." 42%40% 37%35% 32% MENA (n=2682)30% 27% North Africa (n=1093)25% GCC ( (n=1194)20% World Average 17% 17% (n=10735) 16% 15%15% 14% 14% 13% 13% 11% 11% 11% 11% 10% 10%10% 8% 8% 7% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5%5%0% 1 Totally disagree 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7
    19. 19. “The Internet is a safe place to express my opinions."25% 22% 21% 20% 20%20% 19% 18% 18% 17% 15% 15%15% MENA (n=2803) 12% 11% 11% North Africa (n=1136) 10% 10% GCC ( (n=1261)10% 9% World Average (n=11225) 8% 8% 8% 7% 7% 6% 5%5% 4%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 Dont know disagree
    20. 20. "There are times when people should be able to be anonymous on the Internet."35% 31% 30%30% 28% 27%25%20% 18% MENA (n=2665) 17% 16% 16% North Africa (n=1064) 15% 15%15% 14% GCC (n=1185) 13% 13% 13% 13% 12% 12% 12% World Average (n=10701) 10%10% 9% 8% 8% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    21. 21. "Government authorities should not censor political content on the Internet."30% 28% 27%25% 24% 21%20% 18% 16% 16% 15% 15% MENA (n=2803)15% 14% 14% 14% 13% North Africa (n=1136) 12% GCC ( (n=1261) 11% 11% 11% 10% World Average (n=11225)10% 9% 9% 8% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6% 5%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 Dont Know disagree
    22. 22. “It is OK for people to express their ideas on the Internet, even if they are extreme.”30% 27%25% 24% 23% 20%20% 18% 18% 18% 18% 18% 17% 17% 16% 16% 15% MENA (n=2652)15% 14% 13% North Africa (n=1079) 12% GCC ( (n=1180) 11% 10% 10% World Average (n=10761)10% 9% 9% 9% 8% 8% 7%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    23. 23. Over-Arching Themes The MENA Region Reflects the New Internet World - Innovative Uses of the Internet and Social Media - Support for the Internet for Information, Entertainment, Expression, … - Support for Core Internet Values: Freedom of Expression, Privacy, … - But More Sensitive Areas of Expression Concerns over Privacy, Trust, Security, … Spectrum of Regional Opinions between Two Poles: Traditional versus Next Generation Users (education, age, and experience online) Differences with MENA Region Image courtesy of uak_rock8/Flickr.com
    24. 24. Implications for Discussion Interventions in Support of More Inclusive Access: - Take-up - Skills - Digital Literacy Encourage Greater Use in Business, Government and Commerce Foster Dialogue Across the Spectrum of Opinions Address Uncertainties and Anxieties Image scourtesy of maya picture and digitalart/FreeDigitalPhotos.net

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