Beliefs, Attitudes and Users Shaping Freedom of Expression on the Internet in a Comparative Perspective

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Presentation to the Conference on Freedom of Expression on the Internet, Marrakesh, Morocco, 16 February 2013.

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  • -including respondents from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen
  • -
  • Users in the MENA countries are more involved in content production than those in North America and Western Europe– old Internet countries.
  • Interpersonal benefitsGeneral information seekingDistractionEconomical purposes
  • (This is the sum of answers 5,6,7)****
  • -This is the sum of answers 5,6,7***
  • (Slide 55)Correlations (Pearson): Age(.073** ) Gender (-0.015)Experience (.142**)Skills(.109**)Time of use(.105**) Education(.058**)
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  • Beliefs, Attitudes and Users Shaping Freedom of Expression on the Internet in a Comparative Perspective

    1. 1. Beliefs, Attitudesand UsesUnderpinningFreedomofExpressionandPrivacy Online: A ComparativePerspective William Dutton Oxford Internet Institute, University of OxfordGlobal Values Project: http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/?id=65 Presentation for Freedom of Expression on the Internet, UNESCO, with the Moroccan Internet Society, Marrakesh, Morocco, 16 February 2013
    2. 2. The Global Values Project Focus: Global User Perspectives on Freedom of Expression Researchers: William Dutton, Principal Investigator; SoumitraDutta, Co-Principal Investigator; Ginette Law, Research Associate, Gillian Bolsover, Research Assistant, Isabella Litke, Research AssistantBased at the Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, in collaboration with the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University. Surveys conducted in collaboration with the World Economic Forum (WEF) and comScore with support from ictQatar Administrative support through ISIS Innovation, University of Oxford Online field research conducted by Toluna and comScore
    3. 3. The Global Values Project: The New Internet World1. New online nations are dominant in the New World;2. Users developing a global Internet culture: sharing similar values and attitudes;3. Newly adopting countries are as liberal, if not more so, such as in support for freedom of expression;4. Users in the newly adopting nations are more innovative in some patterns of use, e.g., social networking.
    4. 4. ResearchQuestions• Where does MENA sit in the ‘New Internet World’?• Are there patterns of beliefs, attitudes or use constraining freedom of expression or privacy online in the MENA region?
    5. 5. Methodology• Online survey of Internet users in selected nations of the Middle East and North Africa conducted in two phases, from July through September 2012, fielded by Toluna.*• Merged with online survey of Internet users in selected nations world-wide from July through September 2012, fielded by comScore.• Contextualized by review of related research and literature, including other survey data available to the project investigators.*The survey was suspended during Ramadan.
    6. 6. The Survey SampleComposition: • 11,225 respondents in over 58 countries MENA AFRICA LATIN ASIA EUROPE OCEANIA NORTH TOTAL REGION AMERICA /AUS AMERICA(N) 2,803 595 1,825 2,156 2,025 509 1,312 11,225 (N) = 2,309 (N) = 9,166
    7. 7. MENA REGION GCC NORTH AFRICAAlgeria 229 Bahrain 11 Algeria 229Bahrain 11 Kuwait 197 Egypt 529Egypt 529 Oman 141 Morocco 270Iran 3 Qatar 156 Tunisia 108Iraq 1 Saudi Arabia 511Israel 10 UAE 245Jordan 243Kuwait 197Morocco 270Oman 141Qatar 156SaudiArabia 511Tunisia 108UAE 245Yemen 149TOTAL 2803 1261 1136
    8. 8. Languages Used by Respondents 3% Survey Languages- MENA Region 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 14% 3% Arabic English 5% French 46% 84%11% 21% English Arabic LatAm Span. Chinese French German Japanese Spanish Italian Korean
    9. 9. Number and Proportion of Internet Users by Region 90% 1200 79% 80% 1017 1000 70% 68% 61% Total number of Internet users (Mil.) 60% 800% of Internet users 50% 600 40% 45% 40% 501 36% 30% 26% 400 273 20% 22% 236 14% 200 139 10% 12% 10% 77 24 6% 1% 3% 0% 0 North America Oceania/Australia Europe Latin Middle East Asia Africa America/Carib. Percentage of global Internet population Number of Internet Users (mio.) Internet penetration within region Source: Internet World Stats- www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Penetration rates are based on a world population of 6,930,055,154 and 2,267,233,742 estimated Internet users for December 31, 2011.
    10. 10. Number and Proportion of Internet Users in MENA Region 80% 40,000 36,500 70% 69% 70% 67% 35,000 60% 58% 57% 30,000 Total numbers of Internet users (thou.) 49% 50% 47% 25,000% of Internet ursers 44% 42% 21,692 40% 20,000 36% 15,656 36% 31% 30% 15,000 26% 11,400 20% 21% 10,000 13% 5,263 15% 11% 4,700 10% 3,555 3,857 5,000 11% 4% 2,610 1,741 1,987 564 694 1,100 1,304 5% 4% 1% 2% 1% 1% 4% 2% 5% 3% 1% 0% 0 Israel UAE Qatar Oman Bahrain Morocco Iran Saudi Kuwait Tunisia Jordan Egypt Algeria Yemen Iraq Arabia Percentage of MENA Internet population Number of Internet Users (thou.) Internet penetration within country (%) Source: Internet World Stats- www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Penetration rates are based on a regional population of 349,469,811 and 112,623,669 estimated Internet users for December 31, 2011.
    11. 11. Number and Proportion of Internet Users: North Africa 60% 25,000 21,692 49% 50% 20,000 47% Total number of Internet users (thou.) 40% 15,656 36% 15,000% of Internet users 34% 30% 26% 10,000 20% 13% 4,700 5,000 3,857 10% 10% 8% 0% 0 Morocco Tunisia Egypt Algeria Percentage of North African Internet population Number of Internet Users (thou.) Internet penetration within country (%) Source: Internet World Stats- www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Penetration rates are based on a regional population of 164,097,529 and 45,904,952 estimated Internet users for December 31, 2011.
    12. 12. Patterns of Use •MENA users rely more on the Internet for information & communication than users in North America/Europe. • The Internet is a greater source of entertainment, such as music, in the MENA region. • MENA users more involved in content production than old Internet countries. • However, less reliance on the Internet for work/school and business and commerce in MENA.Image courtesy of uak_rock8/Flickr.com Image courtesy of jannoon028/FreeDigitalPhotos.net
    13. 13. "The Internet is making things better for people like me."60%50% 49%49% 48%40% 39% MENA (n=2727)30% North Africa (n=1102) GCC ( (n=1227) 21% World Average (n=10811)20% 17% 16% 15% 13% 12% 12% 11% 11% 10% 10%10% 9% 9% 8% 7% 5% 5% 4% 4% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    14. 14. Online Content ProductionImages courtesy of digitalart and graurrazvanionut/FreeDigitalPhotos.net
    15. 15. “How often do you use the Internet for the following purposes?” (mean) 2.48 Write a (Web)blog 3.2 Use a distribution list for sending an e-mail 3.71 Post a message on a social media platform MENA Africa Latin America & Caribbean 3.17 AsiaPost messages on discussion forums or message boards Europe Oceania/Aus 3.37 North America Post pictures or photos 3.28 Update or create a profile on a social networking site 1 2 3 4 5 1= Never 2= Less than monthly 3= Monthly 4= Weekly 5= Daily
    16. 16. “How often do you use the Internet for the following purposes?” (mean) 2.84Express an opinion about politics online 2.1 Sign an online petition MENA 2.35 Africa Post a video Latin America & Caribbean Asia Europe 2.12 Oceania/Aus Post a podcast North America 2.69 Maintain a personal website 1 2 3 4 5 1= Never 2= Less than monthly 3= Monthly 4= Weekly 5= Daily
    17. 17. Global Values: Freedom of Expression, Privacy, Trust, …Image scourtesy of maya picture and digitalart/FreeDigitalPhotos.net
    18. 18. Perceptions of Media Freedom in the MENA Region 90% 80%% of respondents who believe that the media has freedom 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Radio Print TV Internet MENA (n=2803) 45% 49% 47% 70% Global Average (n=11225) 66% 65% 65% 82%
    19. 19. Perceptions of Media Freedom in North Africa and the GCC Region% of respondents who believe that the medi a has freedom 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Radio Print TV Internet North Africa (n=1136) 47% 54% 47% 78% GCC (n=1261) 44% 46% 47% 63%
    20. 20. "Access to the Internet should be a fundamental right for all people."70%60% 59% 54%50% 47% 46%40% MENA (n=2694) North Africa (n=1092)30% GCC ( (n=1203) World Average (n=10794)20% 18% 14% 12% 12% 12% 13% 10% 11% 10% 10%10% 9% 5% 5% 5% 3% 3% 4% 2%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    21. 21. "People should be able to say what they feel about their government on the Internet."60%50% 48% 42% 41%40% 33% MENA (n=2639)30% North Africa (n=1078) GCC ( (n=1163) World Average (n=10754)20% 19% 16% 16% 15% 15% 14% 14% 13% 12% 11% 11%10% 9% 7% 7% 6% 6% 5% 4% 5% 3%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    22. 22. "I can express myself freely online."45%40% 39%35% 31%30% 27%25% 23% MENA (n=2700) 22% 21% North Africa (n=1097)20% 19% 19% 18% 18% GCC ( (n=1204) 17% 16% 16% 16% 16% World Average (n=10831)15% 13%10% 8% 8% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6% 5%5% 4% 4% 4%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    23. 23. “I can express myself freely online” Proportions Who ‘Totally Disagree’ (MENA) Gender Skills** 29% 17% Male, 6% Female, 8% 10% 7% 7% 6% 4% 1 Poor 2 3 4 5 6 7 Age** Excellent 8% 8% Time of use** 7% 7% 6% 11% 5% 8% 6% 5% 5% 0% Under 18 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ 0-5 hrs/week 6-10 11-15 16-20 >20 hrs/week hrs/week hrs/week hrs/week 15% Experience** 15% Education** 8% 9% 7% 6% 5% 5% 9% 9% 7% 7% 5% <6 months 6 mo-<1yr 1 yr-<2 yrs 2 yrs-<5 yrs 5-7 yrs >7 yrs
    24. 24. "I feel free to say things online that others might not45% agree with." 42%40% 37%35% 32% MENA (n=2682)30% 27% North Africa (n=1093)25% GCC ( (n=1194)20% World Average 17% 17% (n=10735) 16% 15%15% 14% 14% 13% 13% 11% 11% 11% 11% 10% 10%10% 8% 8% 7% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5%5%0% 1 Totally disagree 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7
    25. 25. “The Internet is a safe place to express my opinions."25% 22% 21% 20% 20%20% 19% 18% 18% 17% 15% 15%15% MENA (n=2803) 12% 11% 11% North Africa (n=1136) 10% 10% GCC ( (n=1261)10% 9% World Average (n=11225) 8% 8% 8% 7% 7% 6% 5%5% 4%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 Dont know disagree
    26. 26. "There are times when people should be able to be anonymous on the Internet."35% 31% 30%30% 28% 27%25%20% 18% MENA (n=2665) 17% 16% 16% North Africa (n=1064) 15% 15%15% 14% GCC (n=1185) 13% 13% 13% 13% 12% 12% 12% World Average (n=10701) 10%10% 9% 8% 8% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    27. 27. "Government authorities should not censor political content on the Internet."30% 28% 27%25% 24% 21%20% 18% 16% 16% 15% 15% MENA (n=2803)15% 14% 14% 14% 13% North Africa (n=1136) 12% GCC ( (n=1261) 11% 11% 11% 10% World Average (n=11225)10% 9% 9% 8% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6% 5%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 Dont Know disagree
    28. 28. “It is OK for people to express their ideas on the Internet, even if they are extreme.”30% 27%25% 24% 23% 20%20% 18% 18% 18% 18% 18% 17% 17% 16% 16% 15% MENA (n=2652)15% 14% 13% North Africa (n=1079) 12% GCC ( (n=1180) 11% 10% 10% World Average (n=10761)10% 9% 9% 9% 8% 8% 7%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    29. 29. Privacy and Data Protection • Users are divided over the conditions under which governments should have any role in monitoring online behavior. • Users express guarded support for monitoring use, but not tracking their own online activity. • Users exhibit uncertainty over who is collecting what personal information about them online. • Many users are worried about putting personal information online.Imagesscourtesy of Salvatore Vuono and adamr/FreeDigitalPhotos.net
    30. 30. "Government authorities should monitor content posted on the Internet."30% 26%25% 20%20% 19% 19% 18% 17% 17% 15% 15% MENA (n=2649)15% 14% 13% North Africa (n=1084) 12% 12% GCC ( (n=1176) 11% World Average (n=10763)10% 9% 9% 8% 8% 8% 7%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    31. 31. "Government authorities should track my online activity."45%40% 39% 38% 35%35% 34%30%25% MENA (n=2803) North Africa (n=1136)20% GCC ( (n=1261) World Average (n=11225)15% 14% Series6 13% 12% 12% 11% 11% 11% 11% 10% 10%10% 9% 8% 7% 7% 6% 6% 6% 5%5% 4%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 Dont Know disagree
    32. 32. 30% "The government monitors what people do on the Internet." 26% 25%25% 22% 22% MENA (n=2803)20% 19% North Africa (n=1136) GCC ( (n=1261) 16% 15% World Average (n=11225)15% 14% 14% 14% 14% 13% 12% 12% 12% 11% 11% 10% 10% 10%10% 9% 8% 7% 7% 6% 6% 6% 6% 5%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 Dont Know disagree
    33. 33. "Government authorities should know with whom I communicate online."35% 33% 32%30% 29%25% 24% 23% 22%20% MENA (n=2659) 17% North Africa (n=1079) 15%15% GCC ( (n=1185) 13% 13% 12% 12% World Average (n=10815) 11% 10% 10%10% 9% 8% 8% 8% 7% 7% 6% 6%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
    34. 34. Over-Arching Themes The MENA Region Reflects the New Internet World - Innovative Uses of the Internet and Social Media - Support for the Internet for Information, Entertainment, Expression, … - Support for Core Internet Values: Freedom of Expression, Privacy, … - But More Sensitive Areas of Expression Concerns over Privacy, Trust, Security, … Spectrum of Regional Opinions between Two Poles: Traditional versus Next Generation Users (education, age, and experience online) Differences with MENA Region Image courtesy of uak_rock8/Flickr.com
    35. 35. Implications for Discussion Interventions in Support of More Inclusive Access: - Take-up - Skills - Digital Literacy Encourage Greater Use in Business, Government and Commerce Foster Dialogue Across the Spectrum of Opinions Address Uncertainties and Anxieties

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