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WATER ISSUES - UPDATE January-2010

WATER ISSUES - UPDATE January-2010

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  • 1. magazine unesco-iheinstitute for water educationdecember 2009 – january 2010 Spotlight TheWaterChannel.tv Interview Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy Education 100th PhD degree Resources Poo UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 1
  • 2. COLOPHON contentsEditorial BoardAndrás Szöllösi-NagyJoop de SchutterErwin PloegerEditorial CommitteeJan Herman KosterAnn van GriensvenHenk LubberdingMarco Schouten SPOTLIGHT 4 TheWaterChannel.tvLindsay Beevers COOPERATION 5 Guiding US investments in waterEditor in ChiefAlida Pham COLUMN 7 BiofuelsSub-editorTheresa Stanton INTERVIEWS 8 András Szöllösi-NagyGraphic DesignPeter Stroo 16 Annemieke NijhofPrintPrints & Proms/Rotterdam 19 Iris Frida Josch de KosakEditorial Contributions HIGHLIGHT 21 St Maarten flood risksBerta Fernández Álvarez, Cecilia Tamara Avellán, Jan Bartacek,Maarten Blokland, Anne van Dam, Larry Elchuck, Abraham MehariHaile, Erick de Jong, Lenneke Knoop, Ewoud Kok, Laura Kwak, EDUCATION 12 100th PhD degreePieter de Laat, Piet Lens, Branislav Petrusevski, Christina Reed,Bart Schultz, Maria Sorrentino, Klaas Schwartz, Assiyeh Tabatabai,Stefan Uhlenbrook, Raymond Venneker, Zoran Vojinovic. ALUMNI 18 Refresher Seminar KenyaWith special thanks to Richard A. Meganck, former Rector ofUNESCO-IHE. BACKGROUND 24 A pinch of saltAbout the magazine E-LEARNING 28 New eCampusUNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education produces a biennial mag-azine called UPDATE. We print 12,000 free copies per issue, whichis sent to our counterparts across the world. UPDATE features institu- CAPACITY BUILDING 29 Irantional information related to water education, research and capacitybuilding activities undertaken by UNESCO-IHE, alumni and partners. RESOURCES 30 Online Water ResourcesWe have tried to make this issue of UPDATE Magazine as eco-friendlyas possible. The paper, Cocoon Offset, is a high-quality uncoated off-set paper. The range is produced using ecological technology at the 32 Publicationscompany’s Greenfield S.A.S. mill in France from 100%-recycled andFSC-certified de-inked pulp. The plastic that is used to cover UPDATEMagazine is made of environmentally biodegradable polymers by thecompany A.V.I. B.V. in Volendam, the Netherlands.About UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water EducationUNESCO-IHE is the largest international postgraduate water educa-tion institute in the world and the only institution in the UN systemauthorised to confer accredited MSc degrees and promote PhDs. Themission of UNESCO-IHE is to contribute to the education and train-ing of professionals and to build the capacity of sector organisations,knowledge centres and other institutions active in the fields of water,the environment and infrastructure, in developing countries and coun-tries in transition. Since 1957, the Institute has provided postgradu-ate education to over 14,500 water professionals from 162 coun-tries, the vast majority from the developing world. Currently over 80candidates are registered PhD fellows, and numerous research andcapacity building projects are carried out throughout the world.Published by UNESCO-IHEPO Box 30152601 DA DelftThe NetherlandsT +31 15 215 1715F +31 15 212 2921E info@unesco-ihe.orgI www.unesco-ihe.orgIn UPDATE there is freedom of expression and opinion. Opinions needto be expressed complete and clear content wise. It should also beclear whose opinion the article represents. The Editorial Committeereserves the right to refrain from publishing articles, editorial contri-butions and letters to the editor or to publish them in consultation withthe author. Rajasthan’s rural revolution The Editorial Committee encourages editorial contributions from Rajasthan, India - Women working on a rainwa-readers. The Column, Op-Ed, and Report from the Field sections areintended to provide a platform for such contributions. Please note that ter harvesting project near the village of Paladieditorial sections are subject to change. Bhopatan. The women work digging channels for underground aquafers to direct water if/UPDATE Magazine is interested in hearing more from the insti- when it rains. The area has been suffering fromtute’s alumni, especially about the projects they are currently a severe drought for the last eight years.working on and the organisations they are attached to. Pleasesend your updates to the editor, Alida Pham at: a.pham@unesco- Photo: Panos/Robert Wallisihe.org.2 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 3. 124TheWaterChannel.tv 100th PhD degree 8 30 Poo András Szöllösi-NagyEditorial Welcome to the first issue of UPDATE Magazine, the We hope to have sufficiently shared with you thatAdapting to Changes first 32-page magazine produced by UNESCO-IHE this new design was driven by editorial concerns, to keep you up-to-date with institutional informa- not by design alone. The Magazine now provides an tion related to water education, research and capacity increased opportunity to share with you the institu- building activities undertaken by UNESCO-IHE and tional developments, thoughts and announcements its alumni and partners. by the board and management, news from alumni “Redesigning a magazine and moving its informa- and partners and our perspectives on emerging is- tion and ideas into a new form feels like building a sues in the water and development sector. Beyond new home and moving,” was said by Mark Winz in this, we aim to encourage global discussions on water Folio, the Magazine for Magazine Management. Loyal issues through relevant opinion pieces, provide in- readers are familiar with former editions of UPDATE spiration, encourage public spirit amongst UNESCO- that previously appeared in a newsletter format. The IHE counterparts and offer an UPDATE where one reason we chose to redesign UPDATE, starting with can read about water issues from a different perspec- this December 2009 issue, is to commemorate and tive, thereby maintaining a vast and expanding net- celebrate a series of events: the arrival of our new work in the international water sector and beyond. Rector, Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy, the celebra- We very much welcome your input and hope you tion of our 100th PhD degree to be awarded in 2010 enjoy reading this issue. and a change in editorship among many other rea- sons. On behalf of the Editorial Committee, Alida Pham Editor in Chief UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 3
  • 4. spotlight | TheWaterChannel.tv www.thewaterchannel.tv is an online video channel on water. Launched in early June, the website received over 20,000 views in November alone, counting around 380 videos rang- ing from instructional videos to Public Service Announcements from various sources. The footage is presented in different categories, including climate change, agriculture and sani- tation & hygiene, among others. The website caters to a large audience, including educa- tors, policy makers, high-school and university students, media professionals, companies and organisations with an interest or active involvement in water issues. TheWaterChannel is a collaboration between MetaMeta, UNESCO-IHE, Cap-Net and Nymphaea. TheWaTerChannel.Tv makes a wide range of video material available for a large public to create awareness and encourage de- bate. To this end, TheWaterChannel.tv team seeks various initiatives with other organisations. Recently, a DVD with a collection of videos from TheWaterChannel.tv was produced for educational purposes to be used in the project: ‘Strengthening Ethiopian Universities in TheWaterChannel.tv Integrated River Basin Management Programme’ commissioned by takes you on a multi- the Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher media tour around Education (NUFFIC). Possibilities to further develop such thematic the world of water DVD productions for other organisations is currently being explored. Theme siTes Currently online is the www.thewaterandclimate- channel.org, a theme site developed as part of TheWaterChannel. tv. The site shows the vital links between water and climate change through videos and documents. In addition, the Arab Water Council and TheWaterChannel.tv developed the thematic site ‘TheArabWaterChannel’. This online resource is meant to be a window on water in the 22 countries that make up the Arab World. It aims to support education and awareness raising activities on all levels with re- December Statistics gard to water management in the region. 410 uploaded videos 24 categories heTWaTerK anaal , is a Dutch spinoff of TheWaterChannel.tv 500 registered members and is a Dutch interactive platform for videos on water related topics in 21,000 visitors (of whom over and about The Netherlands. This Dutch version of the concept was de- 10,000 unique visitors) veloped in cooperation with TheWaterChannel.tv and will be launched Most visits from: Mexico, The Netherlands, through the website in the coming month. TheWaterChannel team United States, India and Canada encourages readers of UPDATE Magazine to upload quality visual ma- terial on water related topics to ensure it finds an audience. As a special service, VHS tapes can be sent in for digitalisation and uploading. ¡ thewaterchannel@metameta.nl W www.thewaterchannel.tv and subscribe to the newsletter.SHORT NEWS | Waterpass Foundation SHORT NEWS | Changes PAST EVENTS | UN KSIMmou waterpass board members unesco-ihe hosts unfoundation IHE Delft Foundation Board Wim Deetman, former Minister of Education and Science was appointed UNESCO-IHE Foundation Board libraries meeting n ServicesUNESCO-IHE signed an MoU with the member. Wim Kuijken, Secretary-General of Ministry of Transport, The UNESCO-IHE Library and Informatio AgencyWaterpass Foundation. This foundation Public Works and Water Management, was appointed UNESCO-IHE hosted the annual United Nations Inter- mationwas newly established by Jan Stuit, the Foundation Board member. Bert Keijts, former Director General Meeting on Knowledge Sharing and Inforformer Chair of the Royal Bank of Scotland of the Directorate Public Works and Water in the Netherlands, Management (UNK SIM) at the end of September. UN agen-in the Netherlands, with the aim to sponsor recently retired as member of the IHE Delft Foundation Board. Around 40 Participants from various developUNESCO-IHE MSc fellowship extensions cies attended the meeting to build and ammes.to allow excellent UNESCO-IHE students Governing Board The UNESCO-IHE Governing Board comprises Know ledge Management networks and progrto write a publication or develop a business a total number of 13 representatives of ministries, universities and Among other topics, special attention was given to rty issues.proposal (i.e. for use in their home coun- the private sector, all appointed by the Director General of UNESCO. the development of intellectual propetries). The foundation pledged an initial Annika Söder, Assistant Director-General of the Food and Agricultural€23,000 and will raise more funds. Organization (FAO) was appointed UNESCO-IHE Governing Board ¡ Patricia Darvis, p.darvis@unesco-ihe.org member in July 2009. John Verbakel, Vice president R&D Europe at Unilever also joined UNESCO-IHE’s Governing Board since July 2009.4 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 5. cooperation | USAIDGuiding US Investments in WaterUNESCO-IHE recently initi- articulated in international agree- The Global Water for Sustainability (GLOWS) programme is a consortium financed by theated advisory and capacity-build- ments and guidance documents, United States Agency for International Development (USAID) working to increase social,ing activities directed at staff of few possess a detailed knowl- economic, and environmental benefits to people of the developing world. GLOWS works on-the-ground to implement water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services,the US Agency for International edge of the many resources in the improve water management practices, and build local capacity.Development (USAID). UNESCO- IWRM toolbox and how to apply The GLOWS Consortium is led by Florida International University and includes CARE,IHE is contributing to the devel- them,” he explains. “Practitioners WaterAid America, Winrock International, World Vision, and the World Wildlife Fundopment of a USAID Water Guide must be able to evaluate their own (WWF). Together the partners possess skills and worldwide experience in water supply/to assist agency project officers management goals in an IWRM sanitation/hygiene, water productivity, and water resources management. UNESCO-IHEin water project design and im- framework and then design a step- is a training partner within the consortium. GLOWS is the freshwater component of USAID’s Global Programme for Integratedplementation around the world. wise strategy to accomplish these Management of Coastal and Freshwater Systems (IMCAFS), which also featuresThese activities are an outgrowth goals. the Sustainable Coastal Communities and Ecosystems (SUCCESS) programme.of UNESCO-IHE’s involvement The training modules that SUCCESS emphasises coastal resources, aquaculture, and fisheries management,as a partner in the USAID Global GLOWS and UNESCO-IHE is under the leadership of the University of Rhode Island’s Coastal Resources Center.Water for Sustainability (GLOWS) jointly developing will be custom-consortium, which is lead by ised for USAID project officers,Florida International University who are tasked with programmingin Miami. In addition to its role an increasing water budget withinin the development of the Water the agency.Guide, UNESCO-IHE is develop- Dr. Sharon Murray, Watering training modules for USAID Resources Programme Manageron Integrated Water Resources on the USAID Water Team, based GLOWS Project SitesManagement and Climate Change in Washington DC, visited theAdaptation and assisting in a Institute in June to learn more Mara River Basin (Kenya/Tanzania) During the dry season, the Mara River is theUSAID-funded Public-Private about UNESCO-IHE programmes only source of water to the Mara-Serengeti ecoregion and its spectacular migration of wildlife. GLOWS is supporting the governments of Kenya and Tanzania in integratedPartnership Iniciative in collabo- and activities. She also briefed vari- water resources management to meet the water needs of developing human communitiesration with the Confederation of ous departments about the work while protecting water needed for Masai-Mara National Reserve and Serengeti NationalIndian Industries, USAID funding that USAID is doing and new US Park. Project activities extend to Lake Victoria, and its artisanal fishing communities.is also providing partial support investments in water develop- Pastaza River Basin (Ecuador/Peru) The Pastaza River Basin drains anfor the thesis projects of three MSc ment. “Encouraging people in Andean subcatchment of the larger Amazon River Basin, in one of the world’sstudents working in East Africa. USAID through supporting higher most biologically and culturally diverse regions. The lives and livelihoods of ba- Dr. Michael McClain, Director education in developing countries, sin residents are intimately linked to the ecosystem services provided by rivers,of GLOWS and Head of the resources and programmes that especially water supply, wastewater assimilation, and fisheries. GLOWS is work-Water Engineering Department exist is very important. Also, I can ing with government agencies and local communities to protect freshwater eco- system services and promote integrated management of water resources.at UNESCO-IHE explains that imagine that linkages with US uni-the lack of capacity and practi- versities in capacity building and Wakal River Basin (India) A semi-arid, extremely seasonal climate charac-cal training are major obstacles to development will be established as terises the Wakal River Basin in southern Rajasthan state, India. Groundwater resources help sustain human communities in the basin, as do centuries-old rain-the application of IWRM in many one of the results of this partner- water harvesting techniques that facilitate storage of rainwater for use during dryareas of the world. “ While many ship. There are parallel efforts in periods. GLOWS is supporting local efforts to increase awareness of integratedinstitutions and practitioners have mutually supporting each other in water resources management as a means for promoting sustainable use of ground-a general knowledge of IWRM as the water sector,” Murray said. water and appropriate implementation of rainwater harvesting techniques.UNESCO CENTRES | ICIWaRMfirst unesco category 2 centre on aegis of UNESCO, around half of which are in the field of freshwater. “Promoting more sustainable freshwater management has been a top priority of my tenure at UNESCO. Thefreshwater in the us creation of this new centre will significantly bolster our implementing capacity in this area”, Mr Matsuura underlined, stating that the new centre would notably increase support to de- veloping countries, especially in Africa.On Thursday 29 October 2009, the Director-General of UNESCO, Koïchiro Matsuura, Major General Don T. Riley congratulated Mr Matsuura on his remarkable achievementssigned with Major General Don T. Riley, Deputy Commanding General of the United at UNESCO. “You can leave knowing that you have made a very big difference to the livesStates Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), an agreement establishing the UNESCO of millions. And with the creation of this new centre, UNESCO will go on to help millionsInternational Centre for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM) in more”, the Major General affirmed.Alexandria, Virginia. Dr Robert Pietrowsky underscored the importance the US attached to UNESCO’s workAlso present at the signing ceremony was Dr Robert Pietrowsky, Director of the USACE in freshwater, noting that collaboration in this area had significantly expanded followingInstitute of Water Resources and member of the UNESCO-IHE Governing Board, and Dr the country’s return to the Organisation in 2003. He referred to the new centre as an op-Eugene Z. Stakhiv, Technical Director of UNESCO-ICIWaRM. portunity to further reinforce this partnership, explaining that good relations had already “Today, we establish the first category 2 centre in the US. It is a very important moment. been established between ICIWaRM and other UNESCO category 2 centres, as well asFor UNESCO to expand its freshwater programme we need the involvement of the US UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education. The Director-General said that this outreachscience community – we need its expertise, its creativity and its entrepreneurship,” the was “a very good indicator of the centre’s future success”, adding that he very much lookedDirector-General said on signing the agreement. He went on to explain that ICIWaRM forward to hearing of ICIWaRM’s achievements.would join a powerful global network of over 40 category 2 centres operating under the W www.iwr.usace.army.mil/iciwarm UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 5
  • 6. FELLOWSHIPS | IWA/UNESCO-IHE congress | Biological Wastegas Treatmentwater supply and sanitationfellowships launchedIWA President Dr David Garman and Professor Damir Brdjanovic ofUNESCO-IHE signed an agreement on IWA/UNESCO-IHE WaterSupply and Sanitation Fellowships at the first International WaterAssociation (IWA) Development Congress, held in Mexico City from15 till 19 November 2009. The agreement is an important milestonein the cooperation between IWA and UNESCO-IHE. Dr Garman invitedpotential donors to contribute to the fund and set up a target of 50 fel-lowships for the next two years. Fellowships will be divided between thethree water supply and sanitation related specialisations at UNESCO-IHE, namely Sanitary Engineering, Water Supply Engineering and WaterServices Management.W www.iwahq.org¡ Damir Brdjanovic, d.brdjanovic@unesco-ihe.orgAWARD | Keizo Obuchiuruguayan wins fellowship án from Uruguay with a KeizoUNESCO awarded Cecilia Tamara AvellObuchi fellowship in 2008. Avell án recently used this fellowship to carry d wetlands for use in Uruguayanout research at UNESCO-IHE in constructe ved annually bydairy farm waste waters. The research fellowship is recei20 candidates worldwide to facilia te the exchange of scientific expertise. mic role in Uruguay and a trend“The dairy sector plays an important econo in the pastis noticeable wher eby milk production has notably increased thedecade. Drastic changes in land use, such as increased herd sizes and hand-in-hand with the uncontrolled implementation of artificial pastures go Also, increased irrigation activities use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. have Biotechniques for as well as the lack of prope r sewage disposal systems of dairy farms ic environments,” Avellán explains. provoked severe deteriorations of aquat uyan native plants (Juncus She therefore studied the abilities of Urug ructed acutus & Cortedeira selloi ana) vs. plants traditionally used in const wetlands in Europe and the US (Phra gmites australis & Typha latifolia) to r the COD and nutrient levels in the release oxygen into the water and lowe well in this artificial waste wate r. Uruguayan plant species performed very short-term experiment increasing the oxygen concentration in the artificial r rates than the traditionally used sewage water more rapidly and to highe in natural treatment plants. This open s up the prospect of using these plants . systems and constructed wetla nds to treat the effluents of dairy farms The 3rd International Congress on Biotechniques for Air Pollution Control was held at UNESCO-IHE end September. Over 110 participants from universities andNEWS | Capacity building in Addis Ababa industries discussed various innovative research aspects of environmental chemistry, environmental engineer- ing and bioprocess technology aimed at improving waste gas treatment. The Congress was co-organised by UNESCO-IHE and the Environmental Engineering group of the University of La Coruña in Spain.The city of Addis Ababa faces a number of challenges due to the vast ex-pansion of the city, such as limited water resources and adequate prac-tices in managing them. The Addis Ababa Water Supply and SewerageAuthority (AAWSA) is trying to achieve its mission of good service de-livery to its customers in the midst of these challenges. A recent tailor-made training course conducted by UNESCO-IHE pro-vided 23 AAWSA employees, from middle to senior level, with a newskill-set to tackle water supply and sanitation issues. The training coursewas held in collaboration with local partners Solomon Sisay in Ethiopiaand the National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) in Uganda. The AAWSA has already been able to implement its newly acquiredknowledge during a critical assessment which it made of a newly de-signed plan for waste-water treatment. In addition, AAWSA recentlyrecruited a number of junior engineers in response to the huge expecta-tions from its customers and to help it cope with the daunting challengesahead. During part of the training programme in Ethiopia, opportunities Please see the website for presentation downloads:were created to include a short training course for the junior engineers. http://www.unesco-ihe.org/Biotechniques-for-Air-Pollution-Control Based on the huge demand for water and sanitation professionals in Copies of the proceedings will be available through the Taylor and Francisthe country, discussions are already underway concerning collaboration UNESCO-IHE series.with Addis Ababa University to strengthen its postgraduate studies. ¡ Piet Lens, p.lens@unesco-ihe.org ¡ Kebreab Ghebremichael, k.ghebremichael@unesco-ihe.org6 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 7. Economic and public pressure Becoming self-sufficient Recovering useful by-products COLUMN | Biofuels In recent years, energy and feed- Consequently, waste gas treat- Sustainable gas treatment con- stock materials for the chemical ment has gradually been integrat- cepts are being developed and A greener planet industry are in increasing demand. ed into process design. Instead can lead to the recovery of useful With constraints relating to the of discharging their waste gases by-products such as energy in the requires a lot of water… availability and use of oil, the into the atmosphere, industries form of biogas, hydrogen or elec- energy and chemical industry is can opt to treat those effluents or, tricity, and chemicals in the form undergoing considerable changes. alternatively, they can attempt to of fertilisers (ammonia, phos- Biomass derived energy is a promising renewable The need to use cheaper and more become self-sufficient and recover phates) or raw materials (elemen- energy sources intended to satisfy the escalating global widely available feedstocks and to compounds from their own waste tal sulphur, sulphuric acid) among energy demand and to limit greenhouse gas emis- develop sustainable and environ- streams or use (upgraded) waste others. Adding value to waste sions. The advantages seem manifold: (i) security of mentally-friendly chemical proc- streams of neighbouring indus- gas by upgrading the recovered supply (renewable energy; can be produced locally), esses is rapidly growing as a result tries as raw material. compounds will only be a reality (ii) usually lower net greenhouse gas emissions, (iii) of economic and public pressure. if it is demonstrated that there is a clean in respect to other emissions (sulfur, carbon fundamental basis and a tangible monoxide and particulates), (iv) well-suited for advantage in using these recov- transport uses, (v) less dependency on fossil fuel ered compounds instead of buying from politically unstable regions, and (vi) support for raw materials and feedstock. agriculture, in particular in many developing countries. The International Energy Association (IEA) estimated that in 2004 more than 13% of the total global energy consumption came from renewable source, and I fully agree that it is the right policy to increase this number further in the years to come. Also a rapid increase in the biomass derived energy is envisaged for the future, in particular considering the recent discussions on carbon trading and the preparations for the crucial Cimate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009. This is still true even if large energy consumers like the EU and USA are reconsidering their own biofuels poli- cies, which were more pro-biofuel only two years ago.Air Pollution Control The opportunities for farmers and forest owners in the South to become energy farmers and “good guys” in terms of climate change mitigation seem very promis- ing! This is especially true because energy efficient production of biofuels is best possible in sub-humid and humid tropical regions, due to often suitable climate and soils. Consequently, biomass production offers great economic chances for developing countries located in these regions. But there is also a downside, which make some people speak of ‘Climate Colonialism’. They pointMain Outcomes The Congress demonstrated that a growing number of young scien- at the recent land grabbing in Africa and Latin America,tists is becoming interested in the field of biological waste gas treatment. Moreover, scientific often through foreign companies and fuelled by lucrativegroups as well as engineering companies from all over the world were present at the Congress. Northern subsidy schemes, which results in large mo-Participants from 28 countries representing all continents (except Antarctica) came to Delft, nocultures in countries such as Ethiopia, Mozambique,indicating that air pollution control has become a widespread concern with a global impact. Peru and Tanzania. This has potentially huge impacts on During the Congress, special attention was given to resource recovery. A lot of space was food security, but also on water and the environmentalavailable to showcase new developments in the field of biological waste gas treatment. The integrity. The availability of water resources is key inmajority of research presented focused primarily on engineering perspectives. Microbiology that respect. I would like to stress that there are manyand modelling were also addressed, but more attention could have been given to research in unknowns in predicting the impacts of such land use changes and a better understanding of the impacts onthese areas. the hydrological processes (i.e. evaporation fluxes, run- off generation mechanism, groundwater recharge) forLegislation alone is insufficient It was noted that legislation in the field of waste gas such interventions is definitely needed. Therefore, con-emission was not sufficient. This may hinder the development of new technologies, because sidering different temporal and spatial scales is essential.the polluting companies are not pushed to invest in waste gas treatment. This becomes evenmore difficult in the case of diffuse and transboundary emissions. Despite the many knowledge gaps, we know already Another outcome of the Congress was that the problem of waste gas production is often that forests (e.g. eucalyptus) and crops (e.g. sugarclosely related to waste water production or waste water treatment. These two problems cane) need a lot of water to grow, and an accurateshould be studied in combination with each other more often. The Dutch engineering consul- analysis of the environmental and societal impacts oftancy company DHV, with their Moving Bed Trickling Filter, may serve as a good example of large-scale biomass production is essential to protectthis trend. water resources and to assure ecological integrity to enable future sustainable development. Thus, water isMore interaction needed The biotechnologies used for waste gas treatment are often vital in this climate change mitigation measure, as it is invery similar to those applied to waste water treatment. The two communities – the waste gas many adaptation measures. This should not be forgottentreatment engineers and the waste water treatment engineers – should interact more intense- when setting the policies, and dividing the hopefullyly. This is valid even though the regulation of waste gas treatment processes is more difficult big cake of the new Climate Change Adaptation fund.to regulate than that of waste water treatment. Finally, it was mentioned that research relating to greenhouse gases was not sufficiently Stefan Uhlenbrookaddressed at the congress. This is because biological processes are not so common in this ap- Professor of Hydrologyplication area. Moreover, people working in this field were not attending the conference. A Water Engineering Departmentfinal recommendation would be to put more effort in attracting scientists working in the field ¡ s.uhlenbrook@unesco-ihe.orgof greenhouse gases emission mitigation to present their work in future congresses. The nextconference will be held in 2011 in La Coruña, Spain. UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 7
  • 8. interview | New Rector Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy took up office as the Institute’s new Rector from mid-September. He follows in the footsteps of Professor Richard Meganck who recently retired from his six-year term as Rector of the Institute. Prior to his new appointment, Professor Szöllösi-Nagy was Director of the Division of Water, Secretary of the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), and Deputy Assistant Director-General of the Natural Sciences Sector of UNESCO. During his tenure, Professor Szöllösi-Nagy was able to significantly reinforce UNESCO’s response capacities in the area of fresh- water through a variety of actions. Due to a reinforced IHP, the establishment of UNESCO-IHE, 23 UNESCO Water Centres and the UN World Water Assessment Programme (UN WWAP), it grew to become the largest, most widely known UN water programme in the world. He was also instrumen- tal in setting up the new UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education in March 2003 and acted as a key player in the integration of the Institute’s education and research programmes in UNESCO. “ The Institute has a dual nature that makes it intellectually powerful” ”It is good to be back in the world of academia. However, I must ad- Consensual mit I never really left the academic world,” said Szöllösi-Nagy. “The “I will continue the outstanding work that Richard Meganck, my International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO (IHP), which predecessor, has started,” he adds. “I very much value what he has I served for 20 years and nine days as its Secretary, is a large-scale done in a rather difficult period of transition. I would like to man- global scientific programme so my relations with academia were age this Institute on a consensual basis and would like to work never really severed. I worked closely in this community over the with the Academic Board, the Management Team, the Personnel years. On the other hand, facilitating international water science di- Council and other bodies that could make a positive contribution. plomacy versus practising and teaching water science, are two very It is needless to say that the Chairs of the Governing Board and the different things. It is a very exciting change and I am looking for- UNESCO-IHE Foundation Board, both very experienced and out- ward to plunging into the UNESCO-IHE pool. Of course, first I have standing politicians, will be my closest partners in setting overall to learn how to swim in this new pool. My first mission, therefore, strategies and policies. I have already started working with them will be that of learning. First of all, what is the shape of the pool? Is and am looking forward to a very successful cooperation.” there enough water in it? How do people swim in it? How should I swim in it and support the others?” Measured outflows When asking the Rector why he got involved in the water busi- To be an insider ness and what kept him so enthusiastic about it for such a long time, Szöllösi-Nagy has indicated that he would like to talk with everyone given the many organisational challenges in this area, he explained: at the Institute and learn from every single individual what she or he “I was about 16 years old when I was working as an observer at is doing. “I want to understand in more detail how this magnificent one of the UNESCO Experimental and Representative Catchment organisation works and how its people are shaping it. I want to un- Areas in Hungary during my summer vacation. This was during the derstand how its scientific departments and support units are work- International Hydrological Decade, so we are talking about paleo- ing, how they are interacting in the daily work in serving the basic hydrology. My job was to carry out field experiments under differ- goals of the Institute. I hope it does not sound too immodest, but I ent soil and slope conditions with a small cylindrical artificial rainfall believe I already know a fair bit about the Institute. I taught there generator and measure how much the surface flow that comes out some time ago and have stayed in regular contact with colleagues; I through a tiny V notch is. Quite a simple job, actually. Of course, I also played a role in transforming it into a UNESCO Institute and, of had no idea about hydrology, as I was much more interested in the course, I have visited it quite often. I love the place immensely. But young local village ladies, but I got very angry that wherever I set up of course it is one thing to be a visitor from outside, and quite anoth- my rainfall apparatus, the results were always very different. Even er to be an insider. I am looking forward to interacting with my new when I relocated my equipment just one metre away and repeated colleagues, learning more about their points of view and listening the experiment the measured outflows were always significantly to their proposals very carefully concerning potential improvements different. It was very frustrating.” and new strategical research directions.”8 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 9. UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 9
  • 10. interview | New Rector What happens to the rain? Institute. “Over the years I have been involved in various networks, “Gradually I got interested in the question: What happens to the from professional NGOs through scientific journals and the in- rain? Was it my fault that the results are so dramatically differ- ternational scientific community to global water policy organisa- ent or is there something intrinsically random in this entire process tions in various functions. I would like to bring those networks in from the rain through to the pore distribution of the soil particles? closer association with the Institute. And I would like to assist my What are the physical laws? Are there any, or is it just chaos? Or colleagues in taking lead roles in the various associations, journals, perhaps both? From then on it was all very straightforward. After a forums, councils and boards in order to enhance our visibility, in- degree in Civil Engineering I became a hydrologist, wrote a couple crease support and generate a great impact. of theses, ranging from applied mathematics to systems science, When it comes to science-based water policy advice, Member and started to passionately develop mathematical models for hy- States as well as potential donors and clients will turn to the drological forecasting (to my greatest surprise some of them even Institute for help and action. Also, I would like to have UNESCO- worked). IHE play a more important role in designing and implementing IHP. A big eye opener were the assignments in various develop- There are already good practices, from urban water management ing countries. I realised the obvious: it is water that needs to be to water-related conflict resolution, but there is still considerable fixed otherwise developing countries will never have the chance to room for improvement. I will work towards bringing the IHE and achieve what we today call sustainable development. This obvious IHP staff much closer together and to build closer relations with the realisation made me join the United Nations as I also realised that rest of the UN system and the Bretton Woods institutions through without international cooperation and development, assistance in UN-Water as well as through bilateral cooperation. I also think it is policy setting, education and building local water management and important that we improve our collaboration with the headquarters science capacities in the third world, as it was called back in those divisions in Paris. UNESCO has a great deal to offer which we need days, there was no possibility that a fair and equitable world could to utilise much more. It is of paramount importance that members ever be built. Serving that cause was the best achievement in my of the Executive Board and the General Conference of UNESCO professional life. Mind you, I still don’t know what happens to the are aware of the role of the Institute in the implementation of the rain… So I am still challenged.” Organisation’s mandate. And I believe it is equally important that our colleagues in Delft are aware of what those bodies are deciding Main focus areas because those decisions are providing the framework for our work. Szöllösi-Nagy also shared his views on the main focus areas in the I will work on ensuring that the staff get to know the ‘big picture’. first biennium. “I would like to further strengthen the position of UNESCO-IHE in water science and education in the international scene with a principal regard to the needs of the developing coun- tries. We have all the opportunities and potential to become a lead- ing institute in the field. Talent is uniformly distributed but we have to find it and help it blossom. Indeed, I believe that the uniqueness of the Institute provides excellent initial conditions to achieve that. I would like to grow our international networks and get the best of the best involved in various activities of the Institute. I would like to establish and strengthen mutually beneficial relations with the lead water resources departments, both at universities and research facilities all over the world, with a special regard for the needs of the developing countries. I would like to attract leading scientists to spend their sabbatical year at the Institute and to contribute to and strengthen the academic life of the Institute. Secondly, I would like to increase the impact of the Institute both in terms of water education and science. I will work with my colleagues towards an improved financial base. We receive such unbelievably generous support from our host government and I would like to see other governments from the ‘developed world’ following suit. We are open to any scrutiny that any government wishes to make to identify how useful this institution is globally, regionally and locally and how much we could serve their foreign policy objectives in building water management capacities in de- Minimising hierarchy veloping countries. I will spare no efforts in convincing UNESCO’s Former staff members have described Szöllösi-Nagy as a vision- Member States that it is not only their moral obligation to support ary leader who is loyal, demanding, enthusiastic, hardworking and UNESCO-IHE but that it is also a good investment from their side. generous; this is how UNESCO-IHP has become so well-known in I believe we still have a great deal of room to mobilise UNESCO’s the water family and what has also kept them united behind him. Permanent Delegations, the UNESCO National Commissions, the But most of the staff and students at UNESCO-IHE are curious IHP National Committees, the IHP Secretariat in Paris, the Regional to know what he expects from them. “It was a great pleasure and Hydrologists at the UNESCO’s Regional and Field Offices and the privilege to work with my former staff at UNESCO and serve them. two dozen Category II water centres that are under the auspices of I worked in and with a wonderful team who were working openly UNESCO, to achieve our goals. and democratically. Hierarchy was minimised within a quite hierar- And thirdly, I would like to help my colleagues be successful. If chical administration in order to increase efficiency and the delivery they are successful then I am successful. If any of them fails, I fail.” of sound results.” He explains: “I saw my role as serving them and not the other way around. I have an open-door policy, whereby Networks anyone can come in and see me. In my opinion, the relative success With over 20 years of experience in the water sector at UNESCO of IHP was based on mutual trust. I would like to continue this ap- alone, Szöllösi-Nagy has a diverse skill-set to share which the proach at UNESCO-IHE as well.”10 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 11. Inaugural Address On 5 November, Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy, was formally installed as the new Rector of the Institute after presenting his inaugural address en- titled: “Learn from you errors - if you can! – re- flections on the value of hydrological forecasting models.” A native of Hungary, Szöllösi-Nagy holdsAlumni are assets a Doctorate of Science in hydrology and stochasticThe Rector also touched upon the importance of alumni. “Alumni systems, a PhD in water sciences, and a Doctoremare real assets for us. They can mobilise additional support for the Habilem in hydrology and water resources, the lat-Institute. Many of the thousands who graduated here earlier are in ter two from Budapest University of Technology.lead positions now and could raise political support that could hope- Dr. Bart Schultz, the senior most member of thefully turn into financial support. Many of our alumni have become Academic Board opened this special academic ses-extremely successful in business. I will approach and encourage sion by noting that the education and research objec-them to help us build a UNESCO-IHE Endowment Fund that could tives of the Institute will remain primordial – drivingsupport our scholarship programme. Anyone could pay into the en- both the production of quality science as well as thedowment and withdraw funds at any given time. In the meantime, development mandates of UNESCO-IHE. The formal address of the new Rector traced some of thethe interest that the fund generates would help to finance scholar- very interesting, if somewhat convoluted, history of hydrological modeling as well as presenting aships. number of challenges relating to predicting extreme weather events such as floods and flood-related Also, I believe alumni could help us a great deal in identify- damage. And he did this in his ‘normal’ style – discussing a serious scientific issue while employing aing young talent that could enroll in the Institute to do graduate degree of irreverent humor. It is also fair to note that while few will doubt the scientific nature of hisand post-graduate work. Alumni could also help identify potential comments, he still manages to get into any number of arguments with well-meaning colleagues whoprojects that we could implement at a later stage. I am confident that fail to grasp the connections to which he refers. After what can only be described as an engaging ad-by having alumni involved in the work of the Institute we will be dress, the former Rector Richard Meganck passed the academic authority of the Beadle and the staffable to generate win-win situations that will help all of the parties of the Institute to the care of the new Rector symbolising the transfer of both the authority and theinvolved.” responsibility of the academic excellence of the Institute.FlexibilityWith increased flexibility in education a new reality, such as onlineand short courses, virtual learning platforms and the introductionof joint degrees with other institutes around the world, UNESCO-IHE is also taking big steps in this direction. “I would like to expandour activities in establishing more intensive relations with lead-ing schools in the world. Joint degree programmes with prestig-ious universities is certainly one of the options we need to examinemore closely. I have already had some discussions in this regard withsome lead universities and have noted a great deal of interest. It goes systems hydrology from him. Once, he survived one of my earlywithout saying that we must maintain the involvement and main- presentations where I advocated that continuous models belongedstreaming of universities in the developing countries in this process to the past and the future was for discrete models only. During theas well. I would like to encourage flexibility in our educational offer- discussion he declared: “hm, interesting idea but it’s junk, youngings. More elective subjects and more choice will certainly help tai- man”. Of course, he was right. I did not know it for many years butlor the courses to specific needs. I am quite certain that an improved Jim often acted as my guardian angel. Then, in my early twenties Iguest lecturer scheme and an expanded sabbatical leave system, by met the late Professor Vujica Yevjevich of Colorado State Universityinvolving the best brains we can have access to, will help a great deal who had a tremendous influence on my way of thinking in terms ofin this regard as well. UNESCO-IHE should also function as a labo- stochastic processes. (Later on somebody told me that my greatestratory of ideas and of new innovative thinking to solve the major achievement in hydrology is that I turned Stochastic Hydrology intowater resources issues in the world today.” Sarcastic Hydrology by occasionally being perhaps a little bit too critical with certain methodologies.) And finally, in my mid twen-Intellectually powerful ties I had the privilege of working at IIASA for some years. ProfessorSzöllösi-Nagy continues: “I think the Institute has a dual nature that Howard Raiffa of Harvard was my boss. He was a charismatic, intel-makes it intellectually powerful. On the one hand, there is a link lectual leader and the top gun in decision theory. He led us by exam-with the developing world through many networks, including that ple and with an eternal big smile, always encouraging and support-of the alumni, that brings in a constant flux of exciting issues that ing new ideas.require novel handling. These things are very real: real catchments,real people and real issues to solve. I believe these issues stimulate Jekyll and Hydethe discovery of entirely new approaches and fresh thinking. On the Szöllösi-Nagy is known by his closest friends as an infamous art col-other hand, the Institute, and UNESCO for that matter, has primary lector. His significant other, Judith Nem’s, is an artist. In responseaccess to the best minds of the world. If there is something untested, to the question how his love for art complements his professionalsomething seemingly too complex to deal with, something we do life, he responds: “Like Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hide. Art is my Mr. Hidenot know how to handle we can always have access to the best side. It is totally independent of my professional activities. When Iprofessional advice and people. That is a tremendous asset that we was young I trained to become a sculptor. But soon enough I recog-should keep alive by increased networking and expanding our rela- nised that I was not talented enough. I also recognised that as theretions further.” were already so many bad artists in my country that adding one more would amount to a national catastrophe. So I gave up doingThree intellectual giants art. I have not drawn a single line ever since, not even on Sundays.When asking the Rector who has been his greatest example, he But anything that is supressed in your childhood comes back laterresponds: “My role model is my late father who was a geographer in adulthood. This is probably why Judith, who is indeed a painter,and a walking encyclopedia with an immense sense of humour and and I started to systematically collect contemporary art some twentyan insatiable appetite for all the good things in life. I miss him a great years ago. The subject matter is very narrow, geometric abstract anddeal. My professional life was very strongly influenced by three concrete art, but the collection became quite sizeable and interna-intellectual giants: Professor Jim Dooge, former Foreign Minister tional by now. In fact we even have paintings on the ceiling of ourof Ireland, Emeritus Professor of Hydrology in Dublin and also the house in Paris. It is not like the Kröller-Müller Collection – yet. Butformer President of ICSU. I consider him my grand master. I learned we are getting there. UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 11
  • 12. education | PhD ProgrammeUNESCO-IHE to award it’s 100th PhD degreeSince its affiliation with UNESCO in 2003, the Institute has made huge velopment focus on Africa, and more in particular Sub-Saharan Africa,steps in further developing its scientific reputation and establishing a a growing number of PhD students at UNESCO-IHE also originate fromsolid academic environment. The NVAO accreditation constituted a first that region.step, but other elements are the sharp increase in the number of peer-re-viewed publications, the appointment of additional scientific staff (PhD gender Twenty six per cent of the registered students in 2009 are fe-and professor level), the acquisition and allocation of more funds to re- male. This is nearly the same as the overall Dutch average of 27% in thesearch and recently the membership of the SENSE Research School. This science area. (Vereniging Samenwerkende Nederlandse Universiteiten,resulted in a spectacular growth in the number of PhD fellows: from the VSNU)late nineties until 2003, the number was stable at around 50 registeredstudents. In 2003 the number started to grow steadily from 48 in 2003 aver age dur aTion The average duration of a PhD study atto 89 in November 2009. When adding the number of staff members UNESCO-IHE is 5.45 years including the time between the approval ofdoing a PhD, the current enrollment reaches 95. the thesis and the date of the public defense, and 5 years if this time is excluded. This figure does not significantly deviate from the average ofappliCaTions When looking at the number of PhD applications, a universities in the host country, and also aligns with PhD programmes inpeak can be observed in 2008. In that year the Institute kicked-off an other countries. This is remarkable as the majority of PhD’s at UNESCO-ambitious research programme sponsored by the Netherlands Ministry IHE are done in a sandwich format, and students are often claimed byfor Development Cooperation. It was also the year in which the Institute their employer for part of their time.decided to allocate a larger portion of its base subsidy to co-funding ofresearch projects acquired through competitive calls. The Institute’s number of promoTions and disTinCTions Since the firststrategy is to maintain this high volume of research activities in the years graduation in 1994, 93 researchers obtained a PhD degree throughto come. UNESCO-IHE. The number of promotions is expected to reach 20 per year by 2012. Out of the 93 successful promotions, six candidates re-regional baCKground A prerequisite to be admitted in the ceived a PhD degree with cum laude. This is a remarkably high percent-UNESCO-IHE PhD programme is obviously the quality of the research age, exceeding the average of regular universities.proposal. In practice, an important bottleneck is the availability of fund-ing. Most of UNESCO-IHE’s students depend on sponsoring from na- ¡ Erick de Jong, e.dejong@unesco-ihe.orgtional governments or multilateral agencies. Due to the international de- W www.unesco-ihe.org/Education/PhD-programme Number of PhD applications Number of PhD promotions and admitted students of UNESCO-IHE 13 125 11 10 100 Number Number 75 7 7 7 6 6 6 50 Finally 5 5 admited 25 3 Academically admitted 2 2 2 0 1 2003/5 2004/8 2005/9 2006/10 2007/11 2008/12 2009/13 Total number 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 of applications Academic Years Academic Year12 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 13. peer review evaluation | Sense Visitation The SENSE Research School for Socio-Economic and reConsider organisaTional sTruCTure Natural Sciences of the Environment is a joint venture It was also suggested that UNESCO-IHE consider es- of the environmental research institutes of ten Dutch tablishing a small external Academic Advisory Board universities. SENSE strives to be a high quality school to provide guidance in strategic research issues and to for researchers, where disciplinary and multidisci- provide recommendations on appointments. plinary approaches are being developed and taught Although the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water for the support of scientifically based and effective Education is organised along educational lines with environmental policies. UNESCO-IHE invited SENSE seemingly very efficient collaboration among the Research School to conduct a peer review evalua- core groups, it was recommended by the SENSE as- tion in order to obtain full participation and member- sessment committee that the Institute re-evaluates ship into the SENSE Research School. To this end, the its organisational structure of departments and core SENSE assessment committee looked at UNESCO- groups, which is at this time geared towards the MSc IHE’s past performance (2003-2008) and future programmes rather than research. potential. In addition, the Committee pointed out that UNESCO-IHE boosts the careers of many profession- als as a consequence of its mandate for capacity build-SENSE Research School ing in developing countries and should therefore mon- itor these career improvements in order to measure the societal impact and relevance of its research. Thewelcomes UNESCO-IHE added value behind this exercise is that the Institute’s alumni can facilitate ways to access a supplementary source of potential funding via their current employ- ers.SENSE Research School for The general result of the SENSE visitation is that: “The ConClusions The Institute has an excellentSocio-Economic and Natural UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education is highly interdisciplinary PhD programme and many individualSciences of the Environment is a visible and well regarded internationally with very rel- staff members already comply with the membershipjoint venture of the environ- evant research and societal evident high impact.” criteria. Thereby, SENSE welcomes UNESCO-IHE.mental research institutes of tenDutch universities. It promotes The group concluded that UNESCO-IHE is an in- The SENSE Peer Review Committee is convinced thatan integrated understanding of stitute in transition and that the number and quality of the future prospects for the UNESCO-IHE Instituteenvironmental change in terms research and publications has increased considerably for Water Education are very strong. The Institute is inof the mechanisms that cause it in the timeframe under revision. Interdisciplinary re- good shape and can build on its currently strong posi-and the consequences that result search is well developed and the PhD fellows are very tion to continue serving international water researchfrom it. To fulfil this mission, enthusiastic about their training with frequent super- and water management.the combined programmes ofresearch and education within vision and social integration with staff and participantsSENSE are aimed at the develop- alike. ¡ Berta Fernández Álvarez,ment and further improvement b.fernandezalvarez@unesco-ihe.orgof scientific concepts and seT Clear sTr aTegiC researCh prioriTies W www.sense.nlmethods that are required for an The Committee recommends that UNESCO-IHE de-effective disciplinary and multi- velop a coherent research strategy with the appropri-disciplinary understanding ofenvironmental change. Research ate incentives to increase scientific quality and pro-and education in SENSE are ductivity. The Institute should have a plan establishingdedicated to developing high its medium-term and long-term research priorities. Itquality scientific results, which would be useful to define clear and transparent bench-may be applied to practically and marks for the quantity and quality of research, forcritically inform environmen- example the SENSE criteria, as well as to create incen-tal policy perspectives. tives for research and high-level publications. PUN MEDIA CONSULTATION | Climate Change SHORT NEWS | Collaboration with American water utility international media grant for reverse consultation on adaptation osmosis desalination strategies to water and UNESCO-IHE will undertake research projects in reverse osmo- climate change sis desalination in conjunction with The American Water Works Company, the largest investor-owned U.S. water and waste-water util- International journalists, experts and a number of other participants from more ity company. The partnership has been made possible due to a grant than 35 countries took part in a 2-day seminar organised by the United Nations. of USD 490,000 that was recently awarded to the company. The seminar focussed on the role of the media and communicators and took “This research project will use novel methods to measure organic carbon in sea place at the end of September in Zaragoza, Spain. Conclusions from the meeting water that can cause plugging of the reverse osmosis membranes,” said Dr. Orren point out that the role of the media and communicators as information multipli- Schneider, senior environmental engineer for American Water and principle inves- ers is paramount to public advocacy and awareness-raising. The seminar was tigator for this project. “The study will also use advanced techniques to measure organised by the United Nations Office to Support the International Decade the surface charge of particles in sea water. Neutralization of this surface charge is for Action ‘Water for Life’ 2005-2015 (UNO-IDfA) and brought together important for particle and organic carbon removal in the pre-treatment process.” around 50 opinion leaders, communicators, UN representatives, and experts The American Water Works Company was founded in 1886, and has its from Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America. headquarters in Voorhees, N.J. The company employs more than 7,000 professionals who provide drinking water, waste-water and other related ¡ Ulrike Kelm, kelm@un.org services to approximately 15 million people in 32 states and Ontario, Canada. W www.amwater.com UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 13
  • 14. COOPERATION | Armenia and Georgia partners agreement | Research and capacity buildingseeking to reinforcethe potentialsThe State Agrarian University of Armenia (SAUA), the Georgian StateAgriculture University (GSAU) and UNESCO-IHE have agreed to continuetheir collaboration on a number of joint education and capacity building activi-ties and trainings through tailor-made courses, regular short courses andrefresher seminars. The bilateral Memorandum of Agreements was one ofthe results of a succesful tailor-made training, held in 2008 and early 2009.Project leader László Hayde explains: “The training has substantially contrib-uted to the capacity building of university staff in Armenia’s and Georgia’swater sector. Eventually this will contribute towards increased socio-economicbenefits from the available water resource base and their long-term sus-tainability through better educated professionals. The training provided apromising opportunity for networking and sharing of information amongthe professionals involved, fostering the collaborative approach for par-ticipatory water resource development and management at local levels. Hayde continues: “The participants of the training are already showing inter- The International Spate Irrigation Networkests in strengthening and furthering the newly established professional contactsand collaborations which will only strengthen in the time ahead. The training also (SpN) and UNESCO-IHE have signed a formalhelped local resource persons, in addition to the exchange of know-how, build upcloser contacts with each other and with the trainers from UNESCO-IHE, which Cooperation Agreement to jointly explore oppor-will in turn facilitate continuous exchange of ideas and advice. Furthermore, tunities in research, projects and capacity build-this training has already stimulated communications with UNESCO-IHEwith regard to various capacity building opportunities in Netherlands as ing for the sustainable development and manage-well as for conceptualising and conducting joint research projects.” ment of flood-based irrigation systems, waterMultilateral strategy At the end of the training, Professor Gela Javakhishvili, and environmental resources management.Rector of the Georgian State Agricultural University (GSAU) and ProfessorDaniel Petrosyan, Pro-Rector of the Armenian State Agrarian University (ASAU)visited the Netherlands to discuss further cooperation possibilities, to determinethe long-term multilateral strategy for scientific cooperation development andto work out the details of an agreement among the participating institutions. “The collaboration between the State Agrarian University of Armenia(SAUA) and UNESCO-IHE and its outcomes are essential for Armenian Spate Irrigation: understood andspecialists. They will get the unique opportunity of capacity building andtrainings in Europe as well as explore the innovative technologies currentlyapplied in the field of water resources management. In the production field48 Water Users Associations and over 250,000 consumers of our Republicwill seek to reinforce the potentials of technological management. The cooperation agreement will open prospects to carry out further jointresearch based on the most sophisticated technologies in the field of sustainablewater resources management. The agreement will also develop opportunitiesfor masters and post-graduate participants, engaged in the agrarian educa-tional programme of Armenia, to gain knowledge concerning the applica- Over the past two years, the SpN has contributed as a co-fundingtion of innovative technologies and methodologies,” Dr Petrosyan added. and professional partner in several projects and tailor-made train-¡ László Hayde, l.hayde@unesco-ihe.org ing courses, including Spate Irrigation Improvement in Yemen, an Options Paper on Spate Irrigation and Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change, Global Guidelines for Spate Irrigation Improvement, and Spate Irrigation Training in Ethiopia. Promoting an exchange of experiences The central mis- sion of SpN is to promote an exchange of experiences through re- search and training courses with regard to the sustainable develop- Summit ment and management of spate irrigation and other flood-basedSWITCH | Global CityWater Futureslearning alliances for change by irrigation systems (flood recession farming, flood plain irrigation, inundation canals). it, hosted This is to improve food security in water-scarce areas as well as to TThe Global CityWater Futures Summ ning of October fulfill various environmental functions including preserving biodi- SWITCH at UNESCO-IHE, at the begin d 2009, broug ht together over 50 experts from aroun versity, stabilizing river systems, mitigating flood peaks and recharg- the world with 100 pract itioners from cities in Africa, ing groundwater. le East, and Europe, South America, Asia, the Midd organi- Australia as well as donor groups, international Unpredictable and unreliable Traditional flood-based ir- sations and media exper ts to join forces in accelerating r City of the rigation systems, which harness unpredictable, unreliable and often change toward a more sustainable wate destructive floodwater in ephemeral environments, have existed for d the world Futur e. Representatives from cities aroun actively stepping up and taking action presented innova- centuries as a major source of livelihoods for mainly economically jumpstarted by tive and local solutions. Discussions were disadvantaged communities in arid and semi-arid regions of sub- by a science media from India, Ghana and Yemen. The Summit was preceded Saharan Africa, Asia and the Middle East. exchanged ideas over a 3-day period meeting whereby experts interacted and Despite being among the oldest water resource management sys- including workshops and an innovation through a series of interactive events reports from tems, they remain the least studied and least understood and docu- marketplace. Visit the SWIT CH Water Summit Blog for videos and mented. Most investments have been channelled into the perennial the event http://switchwatersumm it.wordpress.com. irrigation systems because these were perceived as having relatively reliable water sources, a higher sustainable return, and fewer risks ¡ Carol Howe, c.howe@unesco-ihe.org and uncertainties with regard to crop and livestock production.14 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 15. agreement | Flood Mitigation Cooperation with Viet Nam onleast studied, flood mitigationdocumented Under the watchful eye of Tineke Huizinga, Vice Minister for Transport, Public Works and Water Management in the Netherlands and Vietnamese counterpart Nguyen Thai Lai, a cooperation agreement was signed on 5 October 2009, between Viet Nam and the Netherlands to cooperate on im- proving flow forecasting of the Red River. A satellite-based flow forecasting system developed by UNESCO-IHE and Improving food security With growing water variability and EARS Earth Environment Monitoring will be used to gener- scarcity in semi-arid and arid regions a reality, a renewed interest in ate relevant data. flood-based irrigation systems has emerged. Such systems are in- The Red River, originating in China’s Yunnan province, creasingly seen as practical solutions to supplement food production is about 1,200 kilometres long. Its main tributaries, the Lo and improve food security in areas where water is scarce and variable. River, the Clear River and the Black River, contribute to its The political will to support these systems has been growing incre- large water volume, which averages 4,300 cubic metres per mentally over the past decade and, accordingly, some substantial in- second. Backed by the steep forested highlands, the down- vestments have been made. stream part, including Vietnamese capital Ha Noi, rises only a few metres above sea level. The area is subject to frequent Achieving a balance The success of these renewed initiatives flooding; at some places the high-water mark of floods is and investments will largely depend on identifying and implement- fourteen metres above the surrounding countryside. ing optimal approaches and techniques for the sustainable design and Although a variety of infrastructure works have been management of flood-based systems to achieve a balance between carried out in the Vietnamese part of the Red River basin, providing for human requirements and ensuring the holistic needs floods incur massive economic losses, estimated at five bil- of the river ecosystems and downstream water uses. The SpN and lion USD over the past 20 years. The most recent flood, UNESCO-IHE will jointly contribute to meeting these challenges which occurred last year in November, covered an area of through the development of tailored scientific research projects and 2600 square kilometres and claimed 120 victims. demand-driven training courses. Sufficient and timely data from the entire basin are es- sential to take preventive measures and to warn local inhab- ¡ Abraham Mehari Haile, a.meharihaile@unesco-ihe.org itants about the flood risk. The new technology proposed, W www.spate-irrigation.org uses near real-time satellite-derived rainfall and evaporation data fields in combination with numerical weather predic- tions to drive a hydrological flow simulation and forecasting model. Recently, a similar system has successfully been putWhat is Spate Irrigation? Spate irrigation is an ancient form of water harvesting and managing into operation for the Yellow River in China.unpredictable and sometimes-destructive flash floods for crop and livestock production. The Operational implementation takes place at the Nationalsystem is unique to semi-arid and arid areas where it has existed for over 70 centuries. Today, Hydro-Meteorological Service of the Ministry of Naturalspate irrigation is still the major source of livelihood for many poor communities in South Asia, Resources and Environment. The cooperation also involvesthe Middle East and North Africa, whereas the area under spate irrigation is on the increase in the the Water Resources University in Hanoi, and includes aHorn of Africa and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Despite being the oldest type of irrigation, substantial capacity building component.however, it is still the least studied, understood and documented. ¡ Raymond Venneker, r. venneker@unesco-ihe.org UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 15
  • 16. interview | Dutch National Water Plan UPDATE Magazine interviewed ANNEMIEKE NIJHOF, Director-General of Water at the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management about the Dutch National Water Plan, its international scope, and her role in this process. “The plan is the result of numerous discussions, consultations, and research studies by many parties in the water sector. The ministry steered this process and shaped the conditions under which the plan could be made. Under the supervision of the State Secretary of Water, Tineke Huizenga, I was responsible for making it.”The Directorate-General for Water Affairs(DGW), headed by Director-GeneralAnnemieke Nijhof, is responsible for ar- Flood protection has our focusranging for and maintaining a sustainablewater system at socially acceptable costs,guaranteeing vital functions in rural andurban areas, including safety, the economy,housing, agriculture, recreation and nature. DGW favours a combined effort frompublic and private parties in dealing withnational water-related issues. Societal Why was there a need for a water plan? A considerable part of the water plan is about educationacceptability in terms of costs and benefitsdetermine what can, must and will happen. Mainly because of the changing climate in recent years, and communication. Why is this important?DGW has developed its own long-term the realisation gradually dawned on us that we had to rethink For many Dutch citizens good water management is a giv-vision, mapping out its water policy until far our water-related policies in the Netherlands. The new Water en; they tend to forget that water management is somethinginto the 21st century. Its primary aims are Law, an outcome of this, stipulates that every six years the they should not take for granted as it needs continuous effortsto ensure the sufficient availability of good main elements of the national water policy need to be formu- and investments. Therefore a number of actions described inquality water and to provide protection lated in a plan. the plan focus on raising awareness among the general public.from, and anticipate, possible problemsrelated to floods and flooding. Furthermore, we want people to feel part of the policy The Ministry of Transport, Public Works Does the plan have a predecessor? and process and that is what we have achieved with the waterand Water Management is one of the It follows the Fourth National Policy Document on Water plan: think along with us, because plans become better whenthirteen ministries that make up the Dutch Management of 1998 and a number of other documents so, citizens are involved in the discussion. In addition, the manygovernment. The Ministry consists of the in a sense, it is a continuation of existing practice but in a bet- projects that will be executed in the coming years might causepolicy departments and executive depart- ter, more comprehensive way. inconvenience to our citizens, therefore we would like peoplements, as well as the Directorate-Generalfor Water Affairs. to understand why. The first National Water Plan describes What is new in the plan? As far as education is concerned, we developed numer-all national water management activities Ten years ago an integrated approach in the water sector ous study materials for all levels of the school system aboutin the Netherlands for the 2009-2015 itself was a novelty, whereby aspects of safety, quality and the future and past of water management. It is also of utmostplanning period. It also outlines the central quantity were combined in one policy. However, the new importance to stimulate interest among secondary school stu-government’s longer-term ambitions in plan takes this one step further by involving spatial planning dents to become water professionals as we will have 16,000sustainable and climate-resistant flood pro-tection and defense, and freshwater supply. aspects. The plan provides a legal framework for the spatial vacancies in 2012 when we execute our plans. Without the consequences of water management strategies for different inflow of sufficient qualified water professionals the ambi- areas such as the IJsselmeer lake and the North Sea coast. tions of the water plan can never be achieved. How do people outside of the Netherlands Does the water plan look beyond the Dutch borders? perceive this approach? Although the name is the National Water Plan, there is an My experience is that internationally this approach is still important international component. First of all, we cooper- relatively undiscovered. Many people I meet consider the wa- ate intensively with neighbouring states, for example where ter sector to be one of many stakeholders in spatial planning it concerns the North Sea and the rivers Rhine and Meuse. whereas we think that in most cases it should be given a more Secondly, we noticed that apart from technological aspects, central role. there is a lot of foreign interest in how, politically, legally and We have brought this insight to Copenhagen where the financially, we have set up our water management policies in United Nations Climate Change Conference was held. Our the Netherlands. Therefore we would like to share our expe- State Secretary of Water will state that taking short-term and riences with governments and people who live under similar long-term water management requirements into considera- circumstances elsewhere in the world. We studied a number tion during spatial development is essential for a sustainable of low-lying delta areas and inventoried the cooperation and climate-resistant water system. potential which resulted in the preference for cooperation with five deltas; the Jakarta, Mekong, Ganges/Brahmaputra, Incomati and the Nile delta. We are now trying to intensify existing collaboration and start new initiatives through a number of long-term cooperation agreements. These part- nerships will have a special focus on climate adaptation and on contributing towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals.16 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 17. The first National WaterPlan describes all na-tional water manage-ment activities in theNetherlands for the2009-2015 planningperiod. It also outlinesthe central government’slonger-term ambitions insustainable and climate-resistant flood protec-tion and defense andfreshwater supply. Illustratie © Bureau StromingCould you give examples of the Dutch water Tomorrow’s water leaders study at UNESCO-sector learning from practices abroad? IHE, what message do you have for them? We have been seeking help in China to find out I think good leadership means being authentic, havinghow strong the dykes along the largest lake in the your own story to tell. Furthermore, leadership entailsNetherlands, the IJsselmeer, should be. Since 2006, we involving the people you work with by listening andhave been cooperating with our Chinese colleagues on openly communicating to them. I believe in the conceptthe Taihu Lake, monitoring the surge flow. This lake is of value creation, meaning that in decision-making proc-very similar to the IJsselmeer, although many typhoons esses with every step you take you ask yourself whetheroccur on the Taihu Lake. As a result, we can quickly it contributes to the creation, or the destruction, of value.gain crucial knowledge about surges and storms on the Within this process it is important to aim for mutualIJsselmeer. Another example is Indonesia, where many benefits by assessing views and weighing the interestsnatural hazards such as cyclonic storms occur. They of all parties involved. I believe that this approach willhave a wealth of experience with human behaviour in ultimately lead to finding the most cooperation, progressthese situations which has helped them to better instruct and sustainable development.their citizens on how to act in these situations. TheNetherlands can learn from this.Is the Netherlands preparing for the worst? Although we still consider the Netherlands to bea very safe delta area, we are thinking beyond what NEW INITIATIVES | Dutch Delta Design 2012needs to be done to prevent the country from floods.Of course, flood protection has our main focus but since Tempting the world with waterwe can never guarantee one hundred percent safety, we Dutch Delta Design 2012 is a new ambitious project to position the Netherlands as a globalstudy what-if scenarios and make strategies for these platform for water. The project was launched on 1 July 2009 and aims to share knowledge andsituations. expertise between countries, thereby providing a means for the Dutch to strengthen their lead- ing position on global water expertise in an international arena.Getting back to collaboration with other Dutch Delta Design 2012 or DDD2012 is located within the Netherlands Waterdelta areas, do you see a role for UNESCO- Partnership organization (NWP), an independent coordinator and information source for theIHE and its network of partners? Dutch water sector. The DDD2012 board consists of NWP professionals, as well as experts I think that the alumni of UNESCO-IHE in particular from other Dutch organisations, such as the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works andcan help us to build bridges between Dutch organizations Water Management. Currently, DDD2012 includes 30 project partners, ranging from govern-and their counterparts elsewhere in the world. When we mental organizations, including Water Boards and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, toinvestigated the delta areas in search of cooperation op- private organizations, such as IBM Benelux and the Technical University of Delft.portunities, we talked with many UNESCO-IHE alumni.I noticed the openness and friendliness of our discus- Living in a Deltasions and, in particular, the keenness from both sides to The term ‘Delta’ in Dutch Delta Design 2012 refers to the Netherlands being a delta in whichcooperate. several rivers, such as the Rhine and the Maas, come together before reaching the sea. Living in a delta requires the Dutch to factor water into their everyday lives. Dutch Delta Design 2012 aims to show other countries in the world how this is done by providing best practices on creat- ing a stable and safe water environment for its inhabitants. W www.ddd2012.nl UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 17
  • 18. alumni | Regional Refresher Seminar A Refresher Seminar entitled ‘The Ecology of Livelihoods in African Wetlands’ was held in Kenya at the end of August for UNESCO-IHE alumni in Sub- Saharan Africa. Thirty-three participants from 12 countries took part. The semi- nar was organised in close collaboration with the Department of Biological Science of Egerton University and the Eastern Africa Water Association.UNESCO-IHE organisesannual refresher seminarsin Europe, Africa, Asia,Latin America and theMiddle East, primarily forUNESCO-IHE alumni. Theseminars cover themes thatare of direct relevance andimportance to the regionand the participants. Thegoal of these seminars isto facilitate an exchangeof experiences betweenalumni from differentcountries facing similarissues and problems in their The Ecology ofprofessional capacities,strengthen relationships,and to adapt and improvethe approaches and contents Livelihoods inof UNESCO-IHE courses onthe basis of the experiencesand practices of profession-als working in developingcountries. Opportunities will African Wetlandsalso be explored to establishand strengthen local andregional knowledge centresthat are part of regional andglobal networks for capacitybuilding in water, environ-ment and infrastructure. phd researCh on The ‘Ecology of Livelihoods’ con- A session on policy making for wetlands was chaired by Mr. cept is based on the notion that ecology and livelihoods are Paul Mafabi, Commissioner of the Wetlands Management strongly linked. ‘Ecology’ in this case represents natural eco- Department of the Ugandan Ministry of Water and systems (e.g. wetlands) with their biodiversity, water, nutri- Environment. Other organisations present included the ent and energy cycles. ‘Livelihoods’ represents the develop- Kenya Wildlife Service represented by Dr James Njogu, the ment of human societies. National Environmental Management Authority represent- ed by Ms Miriam Wainaina, and WaterNet represented by need for susTainabiliTy In Africa and elsewhere, Dr. Innocent Nhapi. people’s livelihoods are often directly dependent on wet- lands, notably through the provision of food, water and field visiT After introductions by UNESCO-IHE biomass. Because of the human usage of wetlands for liveli- alumna Dr. Margaret Abira of the Kenyan Water Resources hoods, wetlands are under pressure and in many cases show Management Authority and others, participants got their signs of degradation or decline. The relationship between feet wet in the papyrus wetlands during a field visit to the ecology and livelihoods is affected by a multitude of natu- Nyando Wetland in Kisumu, at the edge of Lake Victoria. ral factors, such as climate change, for example, but also The trip was hosted by VIRED International, a Kisumu- by socio-economic and institutional influences. The large based non-governmental organisation. VIRED International number of activities in the wetlands (agriculture, fishing, has been active in wetland conservation and sustainable papyrus harvesting, livestock grazing) underscores the need management projects in the Nyando wetlands for almost for sustainable management solutions for these wetlands. ten years. Dr. J.B. Okeyo-Owuor, VIRED Director and na- tive to the Nyando wetland, showed the participants around presenTaTions Professor Jude Mathooko, Deputy- his home area. Vice Chancellor for Research and Extension at Egerton University, officially opened the seminar. He welcomed folloW-up aCTions As a follow-up activity to this the participants to Kenya and expressed his support for re- seminar, participants agreed to develop papers on case stud- search projects and capacity building for the wetlands. This ies presented at the seminar. Input from the participants was followed by a number of presentations about innova- will be used in the forthcoming publication entitled Ecology tive research methods for wetlands: Bayesian Networks of Livelihoods in African Wetlands. It is expected that this by Dr. Julius Kipkemboi, SWAT modelling by Dr. Ann publication will provide a focus for continued interaction van Griensven, and Environmental Water Allocation by and collaboration with this group of wetland professionals Professor Jay O’Keeffe. in the coming year. ¡ Anne van Dam, a.vandam@unesco-ihe.org18 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 19. interview | Iris Frida Josch de Kosak “Through the Institute I found a way to keep myself updated on global water issues” UPDATE Magazine is UPDATE Magazine interviewed Iris Frida How do you feel Argentina should interested in hearing Josch de Kosak, UNESCO-IHE Alumna. address environmental issues, more from the institute’s Currently she is the National Manager of concerning poor water and air quality, alumni, especially about Hydraulic Projects and Public Works for deforestation and soil degradation? the projects they are cur- the Under Secretary of Water Resources, The Argentine Republic has important legis- rently working on and Secretary of Public Works in the Ministry lation at the national level that addresses envi- the organisations they of Federal Planning Public Investments ronmental issues. It even appointed a Secretariat are attached to. Please and Services in Argentina. She holds a of Natural Resources in charge of water quality, send your updates to the Masters of Engineering degree in Rivers air quality, deforestation and soil degradation. editor, Alida Pham, and Navigation Works from UNESCO-IHE As we are a federal country the provinces a.pham@unesco-ihe. 1967 – 1968. dictate their own regulations. In all cases, when org. a municipality or a province asks the National Which current projects are you Government to finance an hydraulic public currently working on? work, the main pre-requisite of the project is to All the projects I work on are related to hy- have the provincial technical and environmental draulic works: you may find urban and rural approval. pluvial nets, flood control systems, hydropower In addition, it is vital to raise people’s aware- dams, irrigation dams, irrigation nets, drinking ness about the importance of preserving water water dams, margin sea and river protection, resources to address pressing threats to the among many others. I lead a group of 60 per- preservation of Argentina’s natural resources, sons: 22 engineers, 5 lawyers, and technical particularly its water resources. and administrative staff. Our actions are divided into 4 stages: first, we supervise and approve Are you in touch with other IHE alumni, hydraulic projects (hydraulically, environ- professionally or privately? Did you make mentally and economically). These hydraulic friends at UNESCO-IHE who are still projects are submitted by the provinces and/ friends or professional contacts today? or municipalities. Secondly, we programme the I am one of the founding members of the feasibility of the construction of the reported Asociacion Argentina de Ex Alumnos de projects according to the general scheme of the Holanda (ACANEB), the Dutch alumni associa- Ministry. Thirdly, we prepare the agreement tion in Argentina. This enables me to remain in between the province or municipality and the close contact with many professionals through national government and, finally, we supervise the different activities organised by ACANEB. and pay the construction of the public work.The theme of the course ‘The How did your time at UNESCO-IHEEcology of Livelihoods’ (or contribute to your professional life?ECOLIVE) is also the name The technical preparation I received atof a new interdisciplinary UNESCO-IHE has been of great importance inresearch programme, funded the development of my professional life becauseby the Directorate-General in Delft I learned the modern ways of planningfor International Cooperation and designing water resources projects, paying(DGIS/UNESCO-IHE attention to some new (for me) variables such as What role do you see yourself, or others in yourPartnership Research Fund sediment transport problems and environmen- position, playing in promoting UNESCO-IHE?(UPaRF). The programme is tal issues. Through the Institute I found a way to As you have seen, my experience as a resultthe result of a joint collabora- keep myself updated on global water issues. of my course at UNESCO-IHE was of great im-tion between UNESCO-IHE, portance, because at the Institute I was exposedthe University of Amsterdam, Of which achievement in your professional to most of the topics I had to develop during myEgerton University and VIRED career are you most proud? professional career. Not only from a technicalInternational. ECOLIVE con- I am very proud of two important con- point of view, but also from an organisationalsists of three PhDs and one courses in the development of my profes- perspective with regard to working groups ac-post-doctoral researcher who sional career. In La Plata National University, tive in the field of managing water resources.will investigate the hydrologi- Engineering Faculty, where I was awarded the In this respect, I am comitted to promotingcal, ecological and social as- place of Titular Professor of Fluvial Hydraulics UNESCO-IHE as an Institute for research, edu-pects of papyrus wetlands used and when I was appointed National Manager cation and capacity building. The only constraintfor livelihoods support. of Hydraulic Projects and Public Works in the nowadays is that Argentina does not provide Under Secretary of Water Resources (Secretary many fellowship opportunities for studentsW www.unesco-ihe.org/the- of Public Works, Ministry of Federal Planning interested in studying water management atecology-of-livelihoods-ecolive Public Investments and Services). UNESCO-IHE. UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 19
  • 20. grants programme | Information Meeting on Water Education “strengthening capacities is a tangible way to address critical water issues”The UNESCO Tertiary Water UNESCO-IHE presented its contributions to water education Decade of Education for Sustainable Development Aline Bory-Education Grants Programme to UNESCO Member States Delegates. The briefing was held Adams, Chief of the Coordination Team for the United Nations(UNESCO-TWEGP) is an activ- at the end of June during an Information Meeting on Water Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), furtherity to strengthen the capacities Education at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France. highlighted how UNESCO is contributing to strengthen humanof human resources working capacities to address water issues, noting the crucial role of edu-on water issues in UNESCO Marcio Barbosa, Deputy Director-General of UNESCO, addressed cation for the sustainable management of water resources. In par-Member States. The UNESCO- the delegates by expressing his concerns for water issues around ticular, she showed how IHP, UNESCO-IHE, UNESCO-UNEVOC,TWEGP accepts extrabudgetary the globe, stating the need for water education and highlighted UNITWIN and UNESCO Chairs and the Associated Schools Networkgrants to support students in UNESCO’s cross-sectoral efforts over decades. Barbosa gave a com- of UNESCO (ASPnet), among others, are collaborating on waterMSc, PhD, Short and Online prehensive overview of the four pillars of UNESCO’s freshwater ac- education in the context of the DESD.courses on water issues at tions collaborating to deliver water education challenges: WWAP,the UNESCO-IHE Institute UNESCO-IHP, UNESCO-IHE and UNESCO water-related centres Strengthening capacities During the meeting, UNESCO an-for Water Education. These and chairs. He stressed the importance of UNESCO-IHE as the larg- nounced the UNESCO Tertiary Water Education Grants Programme,capacity building efforts are est postgraduate water education facility in the world and the only a scheme whereby UNESCO Member States can support students inin support of the Millennium institution in the UN system authorised to confer accredited degrees. MSc, PhD, Short- and Online Courses on water issues at UNESCO-Development Goals (MDGs) He asked permanent delegates to fully support UNESCO-IHE. IHE. “Strengthening the capacities of human resources workingand within the framework of on water issues is a tangible way to address critical water issues inthe United Nations Decade Cross-sectoral efforts András Szöllösi-Nagy, the then Director of the developing world,” Richard Meganck, the then UNESCO-IHE’sof Education for Sustainable the Division of Water and Secretary of the International Hydrological Rector told the audience.Development (DESD) and Programme of UNESCO, went into further detail explaining the var-the International Decade for ious cross-sectoral efforts UNESCO is making in the fields of water Student presentation Carmen Almeyda (29) from Peru, JonasAction: Water for Life. education and noted the critical need for adequately trained profes- Heita (27) from Namibia and Mohanasundar Radhakrishnan (28) sionals in the water sector. In this context, he urged Member States from India represented their fellow students at the Information to further strengthen their commitment to achieve the Millennium Meeting in Paris by giving a joint presentation on the water chal- Development Goals (MDGs). lenges in their respective countries and how studying at UNESCO- IHE allows them to tackle these challenges. SMAP Background The Short and Medium-Term Priority project outcomes | ALAMIM Project Environmental Action Programme (SMAP) constitutes the environmental The Alexandria Lake component of the Euro Mediterranean Partnership. It builds on the Barcelona Declaration, which recognised the importance of reconciling economic devel- Maryut Integrated opment with environmental protection, of integrating environmental concerns into the relevant aspects of economic policy, and of mitigating any potential negative Management project environmental consequences. SMAP sets five priorities for national and donor interventions: Integrated Water Management, Integrated Waste Management, Hot Spots (including polluted ar- eas and threatened biodiversity zones), Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Combating Desertification. The SMAP III EU-funded ‘Alexandria Lake Maryut Integrated Management (ALAMIM) project’ was recently concluded. UNESCO-IHE provided support in the development of mathematical models of the hydrodynamic and ecosystem dynamics in the lake.20 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 21. highlight | FLOOD MANAGEMENTAddressing St. Maarten’s transboundary flood risksUNESCO-IHE was recently commissioned to under- measures for improvemenT For this par-take a flood-modelling study of a transboundary catch- ticular project a number of structural as well as non-ment area on St. Maarten. In recent decades, this small structural improvement measures will be evaluatedisland in the Caribbean has incurred extensive tangible and compared. Some examples of such measures in-damages, unprecedented losses and social disruption clude: the amplification of the existing drainage net-due to tropical storms and hurricanes. St. Maarten cov- work, the construction of detention ponds (in areasers an area of land that is 87 km²; 53 km² of which is such as parks, sport fields and other open space are-under the sovereignty of France, and 34 km² under as), the provision of designated overland flow paths,the sovereignty of the Netherlands. The Belle Plain/ the development of disaster management actionsBelvedere stormwater catchment area contains trans- and post-event recovery plans, and the developmentboundary waterways, which have been managed sepa- of an automated real-time controlled flood warningrately by the two administrations. system. The project will also include the develop- ment of joint policies based on the delineation ofConneCTing TWo governmenTs The project flood hazard areas, and raising public awareness andaims to connect the two governments in the process of capacity building in the area of flood managementidentifying the most suitable structural flood protec- and control. Final recommendations will be basedtion measures and to help them develop joint policies on the following activities: the sourcing of data andand urbanization guidelines for this catchment area. So local knowledge, field measurements, model build-far, the stormwater management practices have paid ing, model verification, and identifying sustainablelittle regard to the infrastructure and development policies of the neigh- flood management strategies. In addition, tools will also be developed tobouring areas. During the past four years, UNESCO-IHE has been ac- improve communications with stakeholders and involve them in the de-tively involved in various flood-modelling activities on the Dutch side of cision-making process. The project was scheduled to take approximatelythe island. In May 2009, UNESCO-IHE was commissioned to undertake twelve months and is expected to end in early 2010.a flood-modeling study of the Belle Plain/Belvedere area. ¡ Zoran Vojinovic z.vojinovic@unesco-ihe.org In Alexandria, the ALAMIM work that began in 2006 prediCTing poTenTial ouTComes The mod- was centred on Lake Maryut, a shallow closed lake, els, developed by UNESCO-IHE, were calibrated to not directly connected to the sea and located on the existing conditions and were used to predict poten- Mediterranean coast of Egypt. The quality of the lake tial outcomes of different management scenarios that is deteriorating due to anthropogenic pressures, such eventually supported the development of the action as the discharge of domestic sewage and industrial and plan. The management scenarios were specified by agricultural wastewater. These pressures influence the stakeholders and covered a wide range of future strat- ecological state of the lake and result in the deteriora- egies for the lake. tion of environmental conditions. During a final meeting in Alexandria at the offices of the Governate, results of the project were officially promoTing inTegr aTed managemenT announced to the Governor. The models were handed The project aimed to promote a sounder and more over to the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency sustainable development pattern of the Coastal Zone (Ministry of Environment) and the National Authority of Alexandria by promoting the integrated manage- for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS), ment of the Lake Maryut Zone and the adoption of a where they will be installed for central use in the new- participatory integrated development action plan for ly established management and monitoring unit. this zone, encompassing environment protection, eco- nomic development and the needs and interests of all projeCT Team The ALAMIM project includ- stakeholders. ed partners from the Centre for Environment and The action targets the Alexandria Governorate, Development for the Arab Region and Europe, the Regional Bureau of the Egyptian Environmental the Alexandria Governorate (CEDARE), the Affairs Agency (EEAA), local and national authorities, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (Ministry local industries, local communities and NGOs, private of Environment) EEAA, the National Authority sector, investors, and visitors. for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS), Ville of Marseille, the Department of Housing and inTegr aTed aCTion plan The main activities Environment - Regional Government of Catalonia, the included the actual drafting of the action plan, thereby Coastal Union (EUCC) and UNESCO-IHE. involving all stakeholders; the design and institutional- ization of Lake Maryut Management and Monitoring W http://smap.ew.eea.europa.eu/fol120392/prj885304/ units at the Alexandria Governorate and at the re- ¡ Lindsay Beevers l.beevers@unesco-ihe.org gional bureau of EEAA; developing methodological, technical and financial capacities and instruments for implementation of the plan; and capacity building ac- tivities and public awareness programmes for local and provincial authorities and stakeholders. UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 21
  • 22. graduation | Double Degree Master Programme The first ten graduates pro- duced a range of MSc theses on various aspects of lowland development and management: Ms. Resza Dwi Artha Water Management for Acid Sulphate Soils in Lowland Areas. Case Study in Patra Tani Muara Enim Mr. Akbar Saefudin Land and Water Evaluation of Lowland Areas. Case Study: Lowlands in North Eastern Muara Enim Region, Indonesia Ms. Dewi Sartika* Water Management Service Fee for Optimal Operation and Maintenance of Canal Systems in Tidal Lowlands. Case Study Telang I, South Sumatra Mr. Ahmad Fadilan Regeneration Options for Peat Forest. Case Study Marang Kepayang, South Sumatera, Indonesia Mr. Rahmadi* The Effect of Climate Change and LandFirst ten graduates in The programme is especially suited for government staff at the Ministry, Provincial, District and Municipal level Subsidence on Water Management Zoning in Tidal Lowlands. Case Study Telang I, South SumatraIntegrated Lowland who are involved in lowland development and manage- Ms. Wiwin Estiningrum ment planning - both rural and urban - in Indonesia. The Impact of City DevelopmentDevelopment and programme will be conducted for several years to come on Urban Drainage and Flood Protection in Metro City and is supported by the Indonesian National Development Mr. Taufik Syahzaeni Planning Agency BAPPENAS and the NUFFIC NESOManagement Planning Urban Drainage and Flood Indonesia. Protection in Tangerang City Ms. R.A. Marlina Sylvia Options for Water Management loWland areas In Indonesia large lowland areas exist and Flood Protection of Agropolitan along the coasts, in river floodplains and as inland depres- Gandus for Agricultural Development Ms. Eka GustiniThe first group of Indonesian students who graduated sions. Most of these lowlands are still in their natural state; Palembang Urban Drainage andfrom the Double Degree Master Programme on Integrated parts have been reclaimed, primarily for agricultural land Flood Protection Development.Lowland Development and Management Planning (DD- use. Urbanisation and industrialisation take place, especially Case Study JakabaringILDM) received their degree from Professor András in the lowlands in densely populated areas. Ms. Flora Prima Syntha Optimizing Operation andSzöllösi-Nagy, UNESCO-IHE’s new Rector, during the Because of its population growth, the increase in the Maintenance for Urban Drainageawarding ceremony held at UNESCO-IHE on 15 October. standard of living, the need for food self-sufficiency, and System. Case Study: Sub The ceremony was also attended by Professor Badia the ongoing urbanisation for which agricultural lands often Catchment Bendung Palembang City, South SumateraPerizade, Rector of Sriwijaya University in Palembang, are taken out of exploitation, the Indonesian governmentIndonesia, Professor Dr. Kamaluddin, Director of the Post is putting a lot of effort into the future development of the *Ms. Dewi Sartika and Mr.Graduate Programme, Ir. Eddy Santana Putra, Mayor of lowlands based on an integrated approach. Rahmadi obtained their MSc Degree with distinction.Palembang and UNESCO-IHE alumnus, and Margreeth de However, there is a substantial shortage of skilled staffBoer, Chair of the UNESCO-IHE Foundation Board. to manage the development of the required policies and The MSc programme is jointly organised by the approaches, the resulting plans and planning and the actualUNESCO-IHE Land and Water Development Core and design, implementation, operation, maintenance and man-the Post Graduate School on Environment Management, agement of the required programmes and projects.Integrated Lowland Development and ManagementPlanning of Sriwijaya University. ¡ Bart Schultz, b.schultz@unesco-ihe.orgPILOT PROJECT | EXACT-DUPCchromium removal pilot in israel put into operationA chromium removal plant in Holon, Tel Aviv in Israel, was officially put University in Israel.into operation on 17 September by the Head of the Water Authority of Recently, an MSc student from the Hebrew University was appointed toIsrael, Professor Uri Shani and the Netherlands Ambassador in Israel continue the chromium research with the new pilot plant. The pilot will al-Michiel den Hond. low the field-testing of two chromium removal technologies, namely the re- The design and construction of the pilot plant for the removal of chro- duction, coagulation (precipitation), filtration and reduction and adsorptivemium from contaminated groundwater is the result of joint cooperation chromium removal with Iron Oxide Coated Sands (IOCS).between UNESCO-IHE, the Water Authority of Israel, the Mekorot Water Until 1985, the Holon-8 well produced approximately 1.5 Million m3Company and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, under the framework of drinking water annually. Thereafter, the well was taken out of produc-of EXACT, the steering committee of the Multilateral Working Group on tion due to high levels of chromium. It is expected that the new pilot willWater Resources (MWGWR). The Multiculture Working Group on Water be instrumental in establishing an effective and affordable approach for theResources (MWGWR) aims to enhance cooperation on water-related issues treatment of chromium-contaminated water from the Holon-8 well.between the Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian core parties. The Netherlands After the pilot plant in Baq’a (Jordan) for the removal of iron from ground-is a donor of the MWGWR and in 2002 UNESCO-IHE was asked to ex- water and the upgrade of the slow sand filters in Aqbat Jabr (near Jericho),ecute the 2.2 million euro project. this is the third and final pilot plant to be completed within the EXACT- The design of the pilot plant is a spin-off of the UNESCO-IHE strate- DUPC project.gic research line on the removal of metals and is based on MSc and PostDoctoral research studies conducted at both UNESCO-IHE and the Hebrew ¡ Branislav Petrusevski, b.petrusevski@unesco-ihe.org22 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 23. events | UNESCO-IHE activitiesThe 2009 World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden from16 to 22 August, themed ‘Accessing Water for the CommonGood’ had a special focus on Transboundary Waters. The 2009WWW will be the first under a new three-year niche entitled“Water: Responding to Global Change”. True to tradition,UNESCO-IHE was also present through a variety of activities.Stockholm World Water Week 2009Water Footprint Network As one of the founding organisations boundary water management, for example through capacity building ef-and as a member of the supervisory council UNESCO-IHE, represented forts. The session emphasised the importance of analysing, understand-by Joop de Schutter, took active part in the Water Footprint Network ing and dealing with tensions that may arise between countries thatsession ‘Water footprint: A new entry point for water policy and corpo- cooperate on water, underscoring the relevance of training and educa-rate water strategy?’. The session was organised by the Water Footprint tion in transboundary issues.Network (WFN), World Business Council for Sustainable Development Two PhD students at UNESCO-IHEs MAI Department were able(WBCSD), World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Swedish to contribute by presenting their work at the Water Week Conference.Water House (SWH). David Love presented his paper entitled ‘Storing and Sharing Water in Sand Rivers: A Water Balance Modelling Approach’. And Mr ShilpIWRM for Climate Change Adaptation UNESCO-IHE was Verma gave a keynote address ‘Securing India’s Water Future 2050: Canone of the convenors of the session ‘IWRM as a practical approach Domestic Virtual Water Trade Play a Role?’to climate change adaptation’. During this session Erik de Ruytervan Steveninck presented the training package ‘IWRM as a Tool for Advanced river flow management vital to facing climateAdaptation to Climate Change’. challenge Improved river flow management will be vital to pro- Other activities during this session included case studies presented tecting communities from the worst impacts of climate change and toby GWP, a presentation and interactive discussion on risk assessment achieving international goals on poverty reduction, according to a newand a panel discussion on the usefulness of IWRM as a framework for report issued in Stockholm.adaptation to climate change and the need for capacity building in this The report, developed in collaboration between major global insti-area. A number of contacts were made to explore future cooperation tutions draws on the latest research and practices on environmental(IUCN, Wetlands International and WWF/Danube-Carpathian pro- flows and their significance. Partners include the Water Week organisergramme). the Stockholm International Water Institute, Swedish Water House, UNESCO-IHE, the International Union for the Conservation of NatureCooperation as Conflict? UNESCO-IHE also actively con- (IUCN), UNEP- DHI, Deltares and NGOs such as WWF, Conservationtributed to a workshop entitled ‘Cooperation as Conflict? Towards International and The Nature Conservancy.Effective Transboundary Water Interaction’, convened by the King’sCollege London Water Research Group (LWRG) and the Universities Securing Water for Ecosystems and Human Well-beingPartnership on Transboundary Waters (UPTW), of which UNESCO- The Importance of Environmental Flows also finds that river flow man-IHE is an active member. agement should be funded through appropriate valuation of the ecosys- Pieter van der Zaag presented a paper together with Lynette de Silva tem services provided by healthy rivers to meet diverse environmentalof Oregon State University on ‘Educational Strategies: An Integrative and human needs. These include maintenance of groundwater levels,Approach to Water Relations’. The focus of the presentation was on flood and drought mitigation, and contributions to human livelihoods,the important role that knowledge institutes have in improving trans- nutrition and health. UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 23
  • 24. background | Identifying absolute salinity Rather than taste sea water to determine its salinity, oceanographers electrocute their samples and measure how easy it is for the electricity to flow through the water. This measurement of con- ductivity accounts for the electrolytes from dissolved salts but misses other dissolved material in seawater. Now, a more accurate way of identifying ‘Absolute Salinity’ has been devised and in- corporated into a ‘Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater’. The new equation is set to become the next oceanographic standard as of 2010, after becoming an industrial standard in 2008. Any company interested in providing drinking water for desert The shorTfalls of The ConduCTiviTy meThod cities near the coast, for example, will use the new method of cal- The conductivity method, or ‘Practical Salinity Scale,’ has been used culation in building sea water desalination plants. The thermody- by marine scientists since 1978. UNESCO incorporated the scale namic equation will also make climate models even more accurate into the 1980 equations for calculating the density of seawater. than at present. Experts attending the 25th assembly of UNESCO’s The conductivity method established in 1978 improved accuracy, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) last June, as it tracked all the ions in the sea and not just chloride. But calculat- recommended that the entire oceanographic community adopt the ing salinity from conductivity, as opposed to oldfashioned chemical thermodynamic equation and the use of Absolute Salinity. analysis, required sacrificing the definition of salinity. This is be- cause conductivity measures only free-floating ions or electrolytes, inConsisTenCies “I was not familiar with sea water 20 years the same dissolved salts that are found in power drinks. In fact, any ago,” says Rainer Feistel of the Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung nonconductive material, such as dissolved silicon dioxide and car- in Warnemünde (Germany). But the mathematician and physicist bon dioxide, ‘is simply ignored’ when it comes to practical salinity, had a good handle on energy conservation, thermodynamics and Feistel says. The Baltic Sea is a prime example of seawater with an the maths behind complex systems. In the late 1980s, after nearly a unusual composition, far different from the North Atlantic standard. decade in Berlin, Feistel moved back home to the Baltic Sea region It has electrolytes that conduct electricity but they are not the typi- and started applying his skills to oceanography. The equations he cal sodium chloride. found himself navigating worked fine for the open ocean but devel- The vast rivers of Poland and Russia drain into the Baltic Sea, oped inconsistencies in regions that were strongly influenced by riv- bringing with them dissolved calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from the er drainage, evaporation, precipitation or extremes in temperature. limestone river beds. When CaCO3 dissolves, it dissociates into the “As you go to points where there are sensitivities, it’s a real conductive ions Ca2+ and CO32–. These ions prefer to be bound mess,” Feistel says. The Baltic Sea was one such region. “I was sur- together but, if they can’t be, they will often bind to other mole- prised,” he says. “There was a missing mathematical component, cules floating in sea water, changing the mass of the molecules and a ‘Gibbs function’ which physicists had determined for all sorts of wreaking havoc with conductivity measurements. various fluids, except apparently sea water.” Named after American mathematician Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839–1903), the ‘Gibb’s The sWiTCh To absoluTe saliniTy Feistel’s re-evaluation function’ defines a fluid in terms of its energy and heat transfer, or of the 1980s equations provided sea water with a ‘Gibbs function’. thermodynamics. The previous mathematical equations for determining the proper- ties of sea water had not accounted for water’s ability to transfer heat from warmer to cooler currents. Nor did the old equations set a standard for comparing how difficult such a transfer of energy might be, based on the water’s inherent pressure and volume. The thermodynamic equation of seawater chews up all of the old Being able to measure salinity equations and spits out a neat new bundle of computer algorithms is important, as salinity levels are that modellers crave. In 2010 for the first time, the algorithm for measuring salinity will incorporate more than dissolved salt into the indicators of climate change. conductivity conversion. Millero, who worked on the 1980 equa- tion of sea water, and Feistel are helping to bring about the change. They have been working with modeller Trevor McDougall of the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research in Hobart as part of an international team established in 2005 by the Scientific WhaT’s in a salT? “In chemistry, any positive and negative Committee on Oceanic Research and the International Association ion bound together is called a salt,” explains molecular geneticist for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean. They are incorporating the and chemosensation (taste and smell) expert Hiroaki Matsunami location of the conductivity measurements with chemical analysis of Duke University in the USA. In the ocean, salts dissolve into from those regions into the new Absolute Salinity calculation. The free-floating negative and positive ions, also known as electrolytes. team has also redefined how the properties of seawater are calcu- These charged particles are what make it possible for electricity to lated using this new Absolute Salinity method and combining it with flow through water. The same ions that make up the salt used in the principles behind thermodynamics to form a single new ther- foods – sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl –) – account for more than modynamic equation for seawater. 86% by weight of the 11 major ions in the sea and are what gives the ocean its salty taste. Dried, these ions form table salt and get saliniTy levels are indiCaTors of ClimaTe Change sprinkled over food. After chloride and sodium, the ocean’s next The fundamental properties of sea water – salinity, temperature and most common ions are sulfate (SO42–) and magnesium (Mg2+). pressure, along with the freezing and boiling points, heat capacity, For a century, oceanographers calculated salinity based primarily on speed of sound and density – are intricately tied together. Being able measurements of the most common salt ion: chlorine. to measure salinity is important, as salinity levels are indicators of24 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 25. A pinch of saltclimate change. They indicate how much freshwater is evaporating computer algorithms that generate the models take weeks to run.from the oceans. Parts of the Atlantic Ocean appear to be getting Climate change models, which incorporate the ocean’s ability tosaltier, for instance. One possible explanation could be that trapped transport heat, take even longer.heat from higher atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is causing “To see what model works best, what fits with the Earth’s cli-more sea water to evaporate than before, leaving the salt behind. mate record from the past then run the model forward a century or Secondly, salinity levels affect water density. Density especially two can take the best part of a year,” McDougall says. To incor-determines whether a current rises towards the surface or sinks porate nonelectrolytes into the equation for salinity then mergetowards the seafloor, as the denser the sea water, the deeper it will the various other equations for different sea water properties intosink. Density depends on temperature, pressure and the amount of one, McDougall’s team has relied on the theories of Josiah Gibbs.dissolved material in the water. Knowing the density of sea water is They are mixing 19th century theory with 21st century computercrucial to monitoring the Earth’s climate. algorithms. Based on what they have run so far, McDougall esti- mates the new equation will show a 3% change in how the oceanoCean Conveyor belT The ocean transports heat via cur- circulates heat from the equator to the poles. The other change herents collectively called the ocean conveyor belt in a process known is noticing is a 0.5°C difference in the surface temperature of theas thermohaline circulation. In the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, cool equatorial Pacific Ocean in both the east and west.and salty waters sink to form deep water currents. Over thousandsof years, these currents travel around the world until they reach aCCur aTe as possible Off the coast of Peru, trade windsareas of upwelling, which bring them to the surface. Once at the drive warm surface water away from the shore and cold, nutrient-surface, the sun-warmed, rain-freshened currents head back to the rich, deep water upwells to fill its place. The warm water poolspoles where the formation of ice allows the cycle to continue. A further to the west, warming the air above it and increasing pre-massive input of freshwater, such as from melting polar ice caps, can cipitation over Indonesia. During El Niño years, the reduction in theprevent the surface water from sinking and slow down or even stop strength of the trade winds allows the warm, nutrient-consumedthe ocean conveyor belt, potentially causing great changes to the water to stay closer to the Peruvian shore. The winds push the rainEarth’s climate. “Every climate model worth its salt depends on our only as far as the central Pacific and Indonesia experiences droughts.ability to know if hot water goes up and cold water down, as well as The new thermodynamic equation for sea water allows modelshow far and how fast,” observes Keith Alverson, head of the Ocean to account better for changes in density and for heat transfer as a re-Observations and Services section of the . sult of rain falling on the Earth’s surface. “The main reason to do this work is to make these models as accurate as possible,” McDougallmixing CenTuries Several factors influence ocean circula- concludes.tion patterns: wind, rain, seafloor topography, the conditions ofthe surrounding water, as well as the moon and the rotation of the Adapted from: Reed, Christina (2009) A pinch of salt. A World of Science, volEarth. Ocean circulation models include all of these factors and the 7, no 3, July. Accessible at: www.unesco.org/en/a-world-of-scienceWater UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 25
  • 26. staff changes Recently appointed personnel Giuliano di Baldassarre, Researcher/lecturer in Hydroinformatics HIKM Selda Akbal, Secretary of Dept MAI Iris Peereboom, Secretary of Director, OR RETIREMENT | RICHARD MEGANCK Pieter de Laat, Associate Professor of Land and Water Development WE Durga Lal Shrestha, Post-Doc HIKM Au-revoir to former Carlos Lopez Vazquez, Lecturer in Sanitary/Wastewater Engineering HIKM Berta Fernandez Alvarez, Quality Manager, OD Miroslav Marence, Associate Professor, WE Richard Ashley, Professor of Flood Resilience, WE Rector Richard Meganck Changed positions Jan Willem Foppen, Associate Professor of Hydrology (formerly senior lecturer in Hydrology) Jan Herman Koster, Head of Department, Urban Water and Sanitation, UWS Michael McClain, Head of Department, Water Engineering, WE Departed staff Pieter de Laat, Acting Head of Department WE Jan Peter Buiteman, Senior Lecturer in Sanitary Engineering WE Gary Amy, Professor of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation UWS, Elise Steenbergen, Secretary of the Director, OD, Vincent Becker, Producer Videoconferencing & Videos, CS ICT Professor Richard Meganck, Rector of UNESCO-IHE, celebrated his of- ficial retirement early July with staff and students, after having served a six-year period as the first Rector at the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education in Delft, the Netherlands after its transition from IHE to UNESCO. “Retiring is different than being assigned to a new post in a new country. There is a degree of permanence in verbalising those IN MEMORIAM words,” he said. From 1 January onwards Professor Meganck assumes a one-day per week chair at his Alma Mater Oregon State University in dr. o.braadbaart (1960 - 2009) the water resources management group. “I already have two graduate students and will teach a PhD-level seminar on international water policy On 5 June Dr. Okke Braadbaart passed away Braadbaart Okke Diederik and institutions. And I know for a fact that my wife Janet will have me at the age of 49. Dr. Braadbaart worked Rijswijk, 16 maart 1960 Hoogland, 5 juni 2009 quite occupied in our gardens and orchard and with our grandchild.” at UNESCO-IHE from September 1995 Jolien Zevalkink to February 2003. In his final years at the Jonas, Lieke Institute he was senior lecturer in Water Als een spin in het web van de wereld, Mieke & Freek Braadbaart-Verheem Dr. Meganck continues: “Looking back at the years I spent at the Institute, I weefde hij met kennis, kunde en empathie Wendy Braadbaart & Gerry inspirerende, originele patronen, Oscar, Milou, Casper Services Management. Those of us who waarbij hij altijd zijn hart volgde. Marijn Braadbaart & Sara Isabel, Kai have tried to dance in wooden shoes, ate more types of cheese than I knew Dinanda Zevalkink & Edwin worked with him remember him as a very Like a spider in a worldwide web, Nadia, Detlev he wove knowledge, skill and empathy Ad & Ben Zevalkink-Sinke existed, listened to accordion music at a funeral and tested more than 30 dif- into inspiring, original patterns, intelligent, industrious, friendly and witty col- always following his heart. Okke is thuis. Liever geen bezoek aan huis. ferent brands of beer. I have sat in the back of classrooms where, I admit that league. In 2003, Dr. Braadbaart left to work for our sister insti- De crematie vindt plaats op woensdag 10 juni om 15.30 uur in au van Crematorium Amersfoort, Dodeweg 31 te Leusden. I was lost in the technical nature of the subject. I have chaired 56 Academic Gelegenheid tot condoleren ter plekke. tute IHS. Later, he worked for the WUR University. Since 2003, Kinderen zijn ook welkom. Board meetings and 116 Management Team meetings. Six Governing however, he remained involved as guest lecturer and as a coun- Correspondentieadres: Hamseweg 52A, 3828 AE Hoogland, The Netherlands Board meetings and about 14 Foundation Board meetings were held. I have terpart in the SWITCH Programme. Last year, Dr. Braadbaart met participants from more than 120 nations and embarrassed my wife on was diagnosed with a braintumor that proved incurable. numerous occasions by wearing my cowboy outfit to many UNESCO-IHE In his 8-year career at UNESCO-IHE, Okke worked in the Sector and Utility Management Group, the predecessor of functions. the present Water Services Management Group. At that time Okke’s background was quite unconventional with Master de- I have served beer and have had students admit that they were afraid to ap- grees in Economic Anthropology and in Sociology and a PhD in proach the bar for the first time to take a beer from their Rector. I have given Social Sciences, all from the University of Nijmegen. His PhD re- seven closing ceremony addresses and conferred more than 1000 Masters search was on the Indonesian engineering and textile industries. degrees, and jointly conferred 49 PhD diplomas. It has been a life-changing His scientific work was mostly on the industrial performance of experience. I know that Delft and this Institute are part of me, part of my utilities. He recently published on topics such as ‘benchmarking DNA. I can only hope that I am part of Delft and UNESCO-IHE for the long of the Dutch water supply utilities’, ‘managerial autonomy with- haul. As George Harrison of the Beatles said “Life is what happens while in water utilities’ and ‘the Jakarta water concession contracts’. Just before he fell ill, VITENS agreed to sponsor a Professorship you are busy making other plans. And life is what happened during these for him at Wageningen University. past six years. But no one can deny the progress we have made as it can be proven through fact, figures, and physical outputs. I will not repeat them now, but you know them.”26 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 27. IN MEMORIAM RETIREMENT | Pieter de Laatdr. m.m.a. shahin(1932 - 2009)Dr. Mamdouh Shahin passed away on “ The future is bright for the institute”14 November 2009 at the age of 77,some 12 years after his retirement as Dr. Pieter de Laat retired from UNESCO-IHE awarded in 1988. Since that time researchAssociate Professor in Water Resources in May 2009, after a tenure spanning 37 years gradually increased in importance, largelyEngineering at IHE. Dr. Shahin graduated from the Cairo – a record for UNESCO-IHE. Dr de Laat was catalysed by the need that each MSc studentUniversity in 1955 and obtained his involved in the Institute before a formal MSc prepares a thesis. Even in the latter years ofPhD degree from the same university programme was established, before research his active career Dr. de Laat continued to seein 1959. Before joining IHE in 1972 was a focus for the academic staff and even an increase in the importance of research ac-he worked with the Cairo University, prior to the full impact of working in a devel- tivities. Eight new Professors were hired inthe Ministry of Irrigation of Egypt and opment context with field projects was fully the years after IHE joined UNESCO and spe- in The Netherlands understood. Shortly before his retirement Dr. cifically with the arrival of Dr. Uhlenbrook with the Dienst Zuiderzeewerken. He De Laat gave a review of his distinguished ca- in early 2005, hydrological research took on is also an IHE alumnus, reer and we are happy to provide a few of his new importance according to Dr. de Laat. since he participated in insights into the three pillars of the Institute – “Soon after his arrival, he developed a re- two diploma courses education, research and projects. search strategy for the section and started to Dr. Shahin developed attract funds for research, which has boosted an excellent scientific eduCaTion As a hydrologist Pieter’s entire the scientific output of the core significantly.”career in the field of arid zone hydrol- professional life was intimately linked withogy in particular related to Africa and the projeCTs “In the early 1980s IHE wasArab world. His book Hydrology of the the development of the programme on hy-Nile Basin written in 1985 at the request drology. From the beginning of this effort the more or less forced to be involved in capac-of Elsevier is considered the standard text first courses had an international aspect “de- ity building projects” according to Dr. de Laat.on this subject. He wrote more than 30 veloped to train participants with different These projects “were developed to set uppapers many of which have been pub- backgrounds in the field of hydrology.” Early post-graduate education in the field of wa-lished in internally refereed journals. He courses were taught by renowned (guest) lec- ter at a local university or institution and tocontinued publishing after his retirement. turers and as the curriculum was adapted to train local staff up to PhD level.” Most of theHis latest book appeared two years ago: the developments in the field of hydrology, early project efforts involved placing staff inWater Resources and Hydrometeorologyof the Arab Region. His scientific quali- the list of courses expanded and so did the in- the field for extended periods of time. Todayties did not remain unnoticed. In 1989 tegrity of the programme through the “devel- the Institute no longer uses that modalityhe received the prestigious Arid Lands opment of textbooks, teaching aids, curricula but rather uses local staff as consultants toHydraulic Engineering Award from the and syllabi in hydrology.” Dr. de Laat’s early projects that support both capacity buildingAmerican Society of Civil Engineers. experiences continued to impact the com- activities as well as research activities of the For almost 25 years Dr. Shahin position of the present hydrology specialisa- Institute. Dr. de Laat made numerous con-lectured at IHE, but also at our sister tion as well as the lives of untold numbers of tributions to the capacity building projects.institute in Brussels and many otherplaces in the world. His favourite topic, other participants who were exposed to his He continues as the director of the EXACTStatistical Hydrology was considered a vast well of knowledge on all aspects of hy- project, which aims at enhancing coopera-tough subject by many of the students, drological science and techniques. His activi- tion of countries in the Middle East on waterbecause Dr. Shahin wanted the subject ties in the education realm have not stopped related issues.to be fully understood. His lecture notes with retirement as he continues involvementappeared in the form of a book entitled in the EXACT project and in lecturing at the As is obvious, Dr. Pieter de Laat has quiteStatistical Analysis of Water Resources Institute. literally seen it all – at least in terms of theEngineering, which triggered the start ofthe IHE lecture note series. development of IHE and its transition as an researCh From the time when IHE was integral component of UNESCO. He claims For a quarter of a century Dr. Shahinwas the IHE representative in the field of established until at least the mid-1980s, that the future is bright for the Institute andarid zone hydrology and water resources research was not a focus for academic staff. we couldn’t agree more with this icon of hy-in Africa. He will be remembered as an Education continued to be the core of the drology in Holland who has impacted his dis-expert in this field and a dedicated lec- Institute’s activities. Even in 1983 when cipline in the far corners of the globe.turer on many topics, but in particular on the Institute advertised for a Professor ofStatistical Hydrology. Hydrology, research activities were optional as the position description referred only to “a willingness and ability to carry out research.” Pieter was somewhat of an exception in this regard as he had research interests dating from before he was hired at IHE in 1972, which lead to his PhD degree on modelling unsatu- rated flow in 1980. Hydrological research, particularly that undertaken by participants was initiated with the first MSc in Hydrology UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 27
  • 28. education | E-Learning Moodle selected as new Virtual Learning Environment New eCampus!UNESCO-IHE is well un- From mid April 2009 till about February Dr. Larry Elchuck from Dr.Tech and Associatesderway in its goal to pro- 2010, the Institute is undergoing a demon- Learning Designers in Canada, was working strator phase of the transition to Moodle. The at the Institute as the Project Manager for thevide more and improved phase involves the piloting of three ‘official’ Moodle Implementation initiative. “UNESCO-e-learning services for it demonstrator modules. The objective of the IHE faculty are enthusiastic about the enhancedin-house participants and demonstrator projects was to introduce and learning opportunities, that Moodle offers, demonstrate this VLE as UNESCO-IHE’s new for both their online learning options and theirfor our distant education educational support environment for online face-to-face MSc programmes,” Dr. Elchuckparticipants. The eLearn- and face-to-face (blended learning) education, said. The project was guided by a Steeringing services are based on as well as to support project collaboration. In Committee and Programme Consultative 2010, it is anticipated that faculty will move ex- Group, with Mr. Carel Keuls acting as the inter-the Moodle Platform and isting online and blended learning courses over nal Project Coordinator. “Learning about waterwill replace in due time to Moodle. and its various dynamics needs an interactivethe current system LMS. learning system and an active learning ap- The focus of the initial phase of the implemen- proach from teachers ánd participants. MoodleMoodle is the most popu- tation plan is to develop, test, demonstrate and enables and supports these needs perfectly,”lar open-source virtual learn from the demonstrator courses, through says Keuls in addition. Two permanent part-learning environment in which the institution acknowledges and shows time positions (Moodle eLearning Advisor and its commitment to its strategic objectives: a) Moodle Trainer) will be advertised early in thethe world and is deployed education and research in (global) partner- new year to sustain the momentum of the pi-in over 56,000 sites, with ships, b) flexible educational offerings, and lot project. The system itself will be managedmore than 750 sites in c) new pedagogical approaches and meth- by our IT staff. To augment the three official ods. The courses/faculty initially selected to demonstrator modules, as many as 8 unofficialthe Netherlands alone. participate in the demonstrator phase included modules and project environments have also the modules of the Groupwork St. Maarten, started; and another twenty are slated to begin the Limnology and Wetland Ecosystems and in the new year. Wetlands Management. A growing number of staff is trained in the use and didactical features ¡ Carel Keuls, c.keuls@unesco-ihe.org of Moodle.28 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 29. capacity building | Iran Due to the success of the Training and Capacity Building Programme for the Water and Wastewater Sector of Iran (TCBWI) , the project has been extended by another six months and is expected to conclude mid 2010. The project out- put will increase by 50 percent, whereby 34 additional courses will be deliverd in Iran and the number of study tour particiants will increase from 260 to 390. 3500 Iranian water professionals trained through capacity building project Currently, sixty companies are By the end of the project, UNESCO-IHE in col- be seen clearly in the promoting of the service quality responsible for the provision of water laboration with the Power and Water University of to the customers,” Mr Namjoo said. He is the former and wastewater services to the Iranian Technology in Tehran, Iran, will have trained around Chairman of the National Water and Wastewater people. Evenly spread over Iran’s 3500 Iranian professionals in water and wastewater Engineering Company (NWWEC) and has recently thirty provinces, each province has one urban and one rural water and technologies, planning and management through the been appointed Minister of Energy in Iran. During one wastewater company. All water and TCBWI . The training that commenced in 2008, is of the study tours conducted at the end of last year, he wastewater companies are supervised aimed at building the knowledge and skills required to was one of the visiting officials. The NWWEC sec- by the Ministry of Energy, under the face the many andincreasing challenges in the water retariat, under the Ministry of Energy, supervises all secretariat of the National Water and sector in Iran. Focusing particularly on the provision water and wastewater companies in Iran. Wastewater Engineering Company of sanitation to rural communities, the application of (NWWEC). The water and wastewater emerging, innovative water and wastewater technolo- sector in Iran is facing a multitude of gies and improving the performance of conventional problems. Almost everyone in urban systems, the programme =will also improve general Iran has access to safe potable water and financial management of water and wastewater (98%), while in rural areas about companies. 61% of the population has access. However, the coverage of wastewater Tr aining progr amme The programme consists services is substantially lower. In rural areas there is practically no provision of a series some 64 different training courses, some of of wastewater services (0.5%), while which are conducted twice, bringing the total number in urban areas 20% has access to of courses to 104. In addition, 24 study tours for wastewater services. technical and financial specialists and general manag- In particular the ongoing popula- ers, as well as a number of workshops are executed. tion growth provides a substantial challenge to contain or even increase The 1-week training courses are held at the PWUT coverage rates. The government of campus in Tehran, by international and Iranian experts Iran has acknowledged this and has from UNESCO-IHE, Vitens, Evides, SWO, PWUT, embarked on an ambitious plan to University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, improve the water and wastewater Amirkabir University of Technology, and other ex- provision in the coming years. perts working in the field. The 10-day study tours are Iranian water professionals visiting a drinking In urban areas more than 11 million people need to be connected held in Western Europe, and consist of technical visits water treatment plant on field visit in France. to a wastewater system in the next 5 to Dutch, German, French, Belgian and Luxemburg years. In rural areas about 5 million water and wastewater companies. By June 2010 the people will need access to water programme will be concluded with an Expert Group sCienTifiC and pr aCTiCal revenue During services in the coming 5 years, and Meeting on Continuous Human Resources develop- the project, the managers and engineers were trained another million need to be connected ment for the Iranian water and sanitation sector, which and exposed to European practices and experiences. to a rural wastewater system. aims to set the agenda for a more structural cap build- Mr. Namjoo said that holding the training courses and ing approach. also participating in the different courses in Europe, meanwhile visiting the dynamic and active leading main goals and poliCies “Trained human companies in the water and wastewater sector world- resources are considered as one of the main advan- wide, brought very scientific and practical revenue for tages of every organisation and as a modern manage- the experts and the managers of the water and waste- ment tool it needs to receive special care. The new water sector in Iran. “However, b ased on the current methods of training human forces at the moment of situation within the country and the status of water employment while increasing staff efficiency, causes and wastewater sector in Iran, which is at a starting the organisation to advance as well. In our country, point, I recommend including a series of training es- trained employees in the water and wastewater sec- sentials in the programme, whereby the content is tor has become one of our main goals and policies. As translated into local actions, giving practical transla- this project is the largest training and capacity build- tions to the staff working in this sector,” he added. ing project that has ever been presented within the Ministry of Energy, and welcomed significantly on the ¡ Jan Herman Koster, j.koster@unesco-ihe.org part of the participants, it is expected that, its results UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 29
  • 30. online water resources | At your fingertipsThe internet has become an increasingly important source of information. A diverse range of online re-sources on water, infrastructure and the environment can provide useful tools for water profession-als and others interested in water-related teaching materials, scientific research findings, the sharing ofbest (and worst) practices from the field, and much more. In this issue of UPDATE Magazine we wouldlike to share three online resources with you. Send an email to the editor at a.pham@unesco-ihe.org if youwish to share any of the websites, blogs, twitter streams, networks or communities with our readers. Online Water ResourcesThe HEC-RAS Blog is a collection of tips, The India Water Portal is an open, in- Circle of Blue is an international networktricks, experiences and general help related to clusive, web-based knowledge and social plat- of leading journalists, scientists and com-the hydraulic software program HEC-RAS. form for exchanging knowledge, experiences munications design experts that reports andHEC-RAS stands for Hydrologic Engineering and ideas on water issues in India. The portal presents the information necessary to respondCenters River Analysis System. There are intends to share water management knowl- to the global freshwater crisis. It is a non-profitmany users of this specialized software around edge amongst practitioners and the general affiliate of the internationally recognized wa-the world, several of whom are undoubtedly public. It aims to draw on the rich experience ter, climate and policy think tank, the PacificUNESCO-IHE alumni. Unfortunately, there is of water-sector experts, package their knowl- Institute. Circle of Blue makes the complexitiesvery little technical support to help users work edge and add value to it through technology, of the global freshwater crisis relevant and per-with the program. Through the blog, the au- and then disseminate it to a larger audience. sonal. Circle of Blue reports and collects infor-thor Chris Goodell - UNESCO-IHE alumnus The ultimate objective of the portal is to ad- mation and data, and presents it in coherent,of the Hydraulic Engineering Class of 2000 dress equity and sustainability issues in the accessible and connected forms. The website- aims to share his experiences and expertise water sector. Arghyam - a non-profit trust provides a highly visible forum for response,using the HEC-RAS software with other users. that works in the area of water - coordinates and through communications design, extendsIt is an open source platform to share and ex- the India Water Portal. They see the knowl- awareness into action. In most cases, the solu-change information. Suggestions for topics and edge asymmetry amongst stakeholders of the tions to solve the global freshwater crisis exist.any tips, tricks and commentary about HEC- water sector as a critical factor hampering the What is lacking is the awareness and will toRAS are more than welcome on the blog. sustainable management of India’s water re- respond. Circle of Blue’s reporting captures theW www.rasmodel.com sources. The portal seeks to address this asym- heart through exceptional fact-based storytell- metry by sharing best practices, advocating ing, making water issues personal and relevant sustainable approaches, bringing transparency while providing a hub for data visualisation, to public data and information, and by spread- aggregation, and integration. ing awareness. W www.circleofblue.org W www.indiawaterportal.org RESOURCES | Sanitation Poo ‘Poo’ is a comic book about sanitation. The author, Sourabh Phadke, is a school teacher in India who teaches ecology to pre-primary children. With this publication, he hopes to focus more attention and dialogue on the issue of sanitation. He explains: “The topic of sanitation deserves all the attention it can get since current paradigms beautifully demonstrate a focus on misplaced priorities. It is only when we discuss the problem that we can begin solving it. Some of us have the luxury of labeling poo-related discussions as ‘yucky’, ‘juvenile’, ‘crass’ or even a ‘waste’ of time. The fact is that there needs to be a discussion on sanitation. One larger than ever before. Because there are billions without access to basic sanitation facilities. And that is no toilet humour.” ‘Poo’ is freely available for downloading in English, Hindi and Marathi. A blank version of the comic book is also downloadable and can be translated into any language. ¡ soar.hub@gmail.com W www.sourabh.tk30 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010
  • 31. education | COURSE INFORMATIONInnovative learning at the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education equips professionals with the research, managerial and techni-cal skills needed to deal with challenges in the fields of water, the environment and infrastructure in their countries. For the latest informa-tion on the above courses, including content, dates, duration and tuition fees, please see our website: www.unesco-ihe.org/education.Master Programmes Short CoursesMSc in Environmental Science Coastal Systems ............................................................................ 11 – 29 January- Environmental Science & Technology Coastal and Port Structures I ........................................................... 8 – 26 February- Environmental Planning & Management Limnology and Wetland Ecosystems Conventional Surface Water Treatment ............................................ 8 – 26 February- Water Quality Management Water Quality Assessment .............................................................. 8 – 26 FebruaryMSc in Municipal Water and Infrastructure Coastal and Port Structures II ..............................................................1 – 19 March- Sanitary Engineering Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment ..................................1 – 19 March- Urban Water Engineering and Management Environmental Engineering .................................................................1 – 19 March- Water Supply Engineering Environmental Policy Making ..............................................................1 – 19 MarchMSc in Water Management Groundwater Resources and Treatment ................................................1 – 19 March- Water Quality Management Negotiation and Mediation for Water Conflict Management ...................1 – 19 March- Water Services Management Advanced Water Treatment Technology ................................................. 6 – 23 April- Water Resources Management Environmental Monitoring and Modelling............................................... 6 – 23 April- Water Conflict Management Environmental Planning and Implementation ........................................... 6 – 23 AprilMSc in Water Science and Engineering Financial Management of Water Organisations ........................................ 6 – 23 April- Hydrology and Water Resources Groundwater Exploration and Monitoring............................................... 6 – 23 April- Hydraulic Engineering and River Basin Development Hydrological Data Collection and Processing .......................................... 6 – 23 April- Hydraulic Engineering - Coastal Engineering and Port Development Integrated Asset Management Systems .................................................. 6 – 23 April- Hydraulic Engineering - Land & Water Development Nanotechnology for Water Technology* ............................................... 6 – 23 April- Hydroinformatics - Modelling and Information Systems for Water Management River Basin Modelling .......................................................................... 6 – 23 April Service Oriented Management of Irrigation Systems ................................ 6 – 23 April Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Reuse ......................................... 6 – 23 AprilJoint Programmes Water Resources Planning .................................................................... 6 – 23 AprilUNESCO-IHE has several joint MSc programmes, developed together with partner International Port Seminar ..................................................................12 – 29 Aprilinstitutions. Please see below our current joint programmes: Integrated Coastal Zone Management ..................................................19 – 29 April- Hydroinformatics and Coastal Engineering programme, in collaboration with Hohai Cleaner Production and the Water Cycle ........................................26 April – 14 May University in China Tracer Hydrology and Flow System Analysis ...................................26 April – 14 May- Limnology and Wetland Ecosystems specialisation, iIn collaboration with the Austrian Urban Flood Modelling and Disaster Management ..........................26 April – 14 May Academy of Sciences Institute for Limnology, Mondsee and Egerton University in Kenya Water and Environmental Law and Institutions................................26 April – 14 May- Lowland Development, in collaboration with the University of Sriwijaya in Indonesia Water Transport and Distribution I ................................................26 April – 14 May- Urban Water Engineering and Development, in collaboration with Asian Institute of Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment...............................3 – 14 May Technology in Thailand Applied Groundwater Modelling ...................................................... 14 June – 2 July- Water Conflict Management specialisation, in collaboration with the University of Aquatic Ecosystems: Processes and Applications ................................. 14 June – 2 July Dundee in the UK and the UNESCO programme Potential Conflict to Cooperation Environmental Systems Modelling .................................................... 14 June – 2 July Potential (PCCP) Flood Risk Management ................................................................ 14 June – 2 July Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Residuals ................................. 14 June – 2 July Managing Water Organisations ...................................................... 14 June – 2 JulyOnline Courses Urban Water Systems Modelling ..................................................... 14 June – 2 JulyService Oriented Management of Irrigation Systems ................... 15 January - 15 May Water Treatment Processes and Plants ............................................. 14 June – 2 JulyFlood Modelling for Management ................................................ 1 March - 10 May Decentralised Water Supply and Sanitation .............................................. 5 – 23 JulyPolicy and Management in Developing Countries* ........................ 1 March - 21 June Public-Private Partnerships in the Water Sector ........................................ 5 – 23 JulyWetland Management ................................................................ 1 March - 28 June Solid Waste Management and Engineering .............................................. 5 – 23 JulyWater Quality Assessment* ........................................................ 1 March - 30 June Water Transport and Distribution II ......................................................... 5 – 23 JulySanitation-related Urban Groundwater Pollution ............................... 1 March - 1 July Watershed and River Basin Management ................................................ 5 – 23 JulyEcological Sanitation ...................................................................... 1 March - 2 July Remediation and Handling of Contaminated Sediments* ..... 30 August – 3 SeptemberIntegrated Coastal Zone Management ............................................. 1 March - 2 July Climate Change in Integrated Water Management ......................... 6 – 17 SeptemberIntegrated River Basin Management ................................................ 1 March - 2 July Spate Irrigation and Water Management under Drought and Water Scarcity 6 – 17 SeptWater & Environmental Law and Policy ............................................ 1 April - 14 July Morphological Modeling using Delft3D* ................................... 13 – 17 SeptemberWater and Climate Change .............................................. 30 August - 26 November Sustainable Sanitation* ............................................................ 13 – 17 SeptemberPublic Private Partnerships ........................................... 1 September - 17 December World History of Water Management* ....................................... 13 – 17 SeptemberSolid Waste Management ............................................ 1 September - 31 December Soil and Water Assessment Tool* ............................................... 20 – 24 SeptemberCleaner Production and the Water Cycle ........................ 1 September - 31 December Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Treatment* ........................ 4 – 8 OctoberConstructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment ........... 1 September - 31 December GIS Modelling SWAT .................................................................. 1 – 12 NovemberWater Transport and Distribution I ........................ 6 September - 25 February 2011 GIS and Remote Sensing .............................................................. 1 – 12 November UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010 | 31
  • 32. resources | Publications capacity pilation of existing expertw knowledge and capacity UNESCO-IHE Editors t, with a digest of lessons capacity development for improved water management opics presented range from M.W. Blokland G.J. Alaerts development the running of training-of- s and Europe. The authors J.M. Kaspersmars, capacity developers and UNW-DPC Editor M. Hare for improved t up in four parts and 17hallenges in knowledge andferent tools and techniquesn response to the prevailing water management cases that cover capacity tors, including experiences rth part concludes the book and capacity developmentroduced at the Fifth Worldpport of the various sessionsment Strategies”. Capacity Development for The New Presence of China in Africa Innovative Practices in the African Water: A Way of Life Improved Water Management Meine Pieter van Dijk Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Lidya Schelwald-van der Kley M.Blokland, G.Alaerts, Amsterdam University Press Marco Schouten, Edwin Hes and Linda Reijerkerk J.Kaspersma, M.Hare (eds.) ISBN 978-9089-641366 & Zvikomborero Hoko Taylor & Francis Group Taylor & Francis Group SUN PReSS ISBN 978-0-415-55104-5 ISBN 978-0-415-57398-6 This book analyses China’s growing ISBN 978-1-920109-96-7 range of activities in Africa, espe- How can water management projects This publication is a compilation of cially in the sub-Saharan region. The Africa continues to struggle to make be made more successful and sustain- expert knowledge on water-related three most important instruments progress in supplying water and sanita- able? Why is it that large infrastruc- capacity development. Jointly edited China has at its disposal in Africa are tion to its people. Often the chal- tural water works often encounter by UNESCO-IHE and UNW-DPC, it development aid, investments and lenges can feel overwhelming and the opposition? Is it perhaps, among other discusses how knowledge and capacity trade policy. The Chinese government, looming threats of climate change, things, the lack of attention for the cul- development can contribute to im- which believes the Western develop- increased urbanization and expan- tural context? proved, effective water management, ment aid model has failed, is looking sion of urban slums make action all the The reader is taken on a water with a digest of lessons learned in the for new forms of aid and development more urgent. journey through time and across the areas of tools and techniques, applica- in Africa. China’s economic success Innovative practices in the African world’s continents. Along the way, we tions and evaluation. Topics presented can partly be ascribed to the huge Water Supply and Sanitation Sector is discover the past and present ways in range from e-learning and networking, availability of cheap labour, which is a must read for practitioners who are which different cultures around the to community knowledge management primarily employed in export-oriented interested in getting started on the world, both traditional and modern, and the running of training-of-trainers industries. China is looking for the re- path towards more sustainable water view and manage water in response to courses, and includes examples from quired raw materials in Africa, and for management. It is a rich collection of their own respective environment. Asia, Africa, the Americas and Europe. new markets. practical African case studies cover- As beliefs and values are at the The authors represent a diverse and Investments are being made on a ing innovative ways to approach such heart of every culture, the views of the representative group of prominent large scale in Africa by Chinese state- diverse topics as financing, capacity world’s major religions about water practitioners, capacity developers and owned firms and private companies, building, community ownership and and its use are also highlighted. academics within the field of water- particularly in the oil-producing coun- management through to water loss related capacity development. tries (Angola, Nigeria and Sudan) reduction and health risk prioritisation This book is an expanded version and countries that are rich in minerals provide a variety of entry points for of the collection of chapters first intro- (Zambia). A review of China’s aid for governments and NGOs to take action. duced at the Fifth World Water Forum and investment in Africa, and the trade Donors should take notice, as replica- held in Istanbul, Turkey, from 16–22 policy it is conducting, is analysed and tion and upscaling of local initiatives March 2009, in support of the vari- compared with that of Europe and the such as those presented are the way ous sessions organized under the topic United States. to success for water and sanitation in “Education, Knowledge and Capacity The concluding chapter considers Africa. Development Strategies”. whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be expected from Chinese companies - and if this is desirable - and to what extent the Chinese model in Africa can act as an example – or not – for the West and for Africa. PhD Student Thesis ISBN number Dissertations Mr. Marco Schouten Strategy and Performance of Water Supply and Sanitation Providers: Effects of Two Decades of Neo- 978-0-415-55129-8 Netherlands Liberalism Full text versions of most of the Mr. Giles Lesser An approach to medium-term coastal morphological modelling 978-0-415-55668-2 UNESCO-IHE PhD dissertations are New Zealand available through NARCIS. NARCIS Mr. Carlos Lopez Vazquez The competition between polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and glycogen-accumulating organisms: 978-0-415-55896-9 provides access to 163,228 full-text Mexico Temperature effects and modelling publications and research output from all Ms. Hong Li Spatial pattern dynamics in aquatic ecosystem modelling 978-0-415-55897-6 Dutch universities, KNAW, NWO and a China number of scientific institutes Mr. Gerald Corzo Perez Hybrid models for hydrological forecasting: integration of data-driven and conceptual modelling techniques. 978-0-415-56597-4 www.narcis.info/repositories/re- Colombia pository/UNESCO/Language/nl/ Mr. Durga Lal Shrestha Uncertainty analysis in rainfall-runoff modelling: Application of machine learning techniques 978-0-415-56598-1 Nepal Alternatively you can also purchase Ms. Aya Lamei A Technical-Economic Model for Integrated Water Resources Management in Tourism Dependent Arid 978-0-415-55898-3 the dissertations from CRC Press / Egypt Coastal Regions; the Case of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group Mr. Richard Buamah Adsorptive Removal of Manganese, Arsenic and Iron from Groundwater 978-0-415-57379-5 www.crcpress.com Ghana Mr. Schalk-Jan van Andel Anticipatory Water Management: Using ensemble weather forecasts for critical events 978-0-415-57380-1 Netherlands Ms. Dima Nazer From Water Scarcity to Sustainable Water Use in the West Bank, Palestine 978-0-415-57381-8 Palestine Mr. Nahm-Chung Eco-hydraulic Modelling of Eutrophication for Reservoir Management 978-0-415-57382-5 Korea 32 | UPDATE UNESCO-IHE | DEC 2009 – JAN 2010