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U N M A S Annual Report 2008


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  • 1. 2008 CONTENTS ANNUAL REPORT FOREWORD 3 HEADQUARTERS COORDINATION AND THEMATIC ACTIVITIES 4 Frameworks 5 Normative Frameworks 5 Operational Frameworks 12 Assisting Victims and Survivors 15 Treaties 18 Shaping Policy and Legal Frameworks for Mine Action 18 Promoting the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 27 Communicating to the Public and Other Constituencies 37 International Mine Action Standards 39 Developing and Applying New Technologies 41 Photo: Arne Hodalic
  • 2. 2008 2008 CONTENTS ANNUAL REPORT COUNTRY PROGRAMMES 43 FOREWORD Afghanistan, Islamic Republic of 44 As Chair of the Inter-Agency Coordination Group for As a result of close cooperation with Lebanese authori- Mine Action, I am proud to present to you the inspiring ties, UNMAS handed over management responsibility results achieved by UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) for the mine and ERW threat in south Lebanon to the Chad 54 and simultaneously to highlight the great value UNMAS Lebanon Mine Action Centre on 31 December. In brings to peacekeeping and humanitarian relief efforts. October, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees pre- sented the Lebanon programme with the prestigious In 2008, mine action operations supported by UNMAS Nansen Award, emphasizing that “(o)ne of the most Democratic Republic of Congo 57 enabled hundreds of thousands of people and local com- heroic types of humanitarian work is to demine or dis- munities to resume normal lives and reclaim their liveli- mantle these devices in order to allow people to go back hoods by regaining access to previously contaminated home and resume their lives.” Eritrea and Ethiopia 61 lands. The clearance of thousands of kilometres of mined roads and essential infrastructure has contributed to the The remarkable success of UNMAS field operations and protection and empowerment of men, women, girls and headquarters-based policy guidance and coordination Lebanon 64 boys in the nine countries or territories where UNMAS services would not have been possible without the gen- operates and in other countries and territories supported erous voluntary contributions of 19 donors, which by UNMAS. totalled US $92.5 million in 2008. Nepal 70 One of the more remarkable achievements of the year The significant role UNMAS plays in the peace and was the clearance of 84,000 anti-personnel mines in security sector as the mine action focal point in the UN Afghanistan, which is more than double the average system was consolidated throughout the year under the Somalia 77 annual amount cleared between 1989 and 2007. This Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI). accomplishment is an indicator of increased coordination OROLSI was established in Afghanistan. It highlights how the Mine Action in 2007 and hosts UNMAS; Sudan 80 Programme in Afghanistan (MAPA) has increased effi- the Police Division; ciency and improved aid effectiveness. the Criminal Law and Judicial Advisory Western Sahara 91 In accordance with the goals of the United Nations Inter- Section; the Disarmament, Agency Mine Action Strategy: 2006-2010, UNMAS Demobilisation and assisted a number of countries in meeting their obliga- Reintegration Section; and tions under the Anti-Personnel Mine-Ban Treaty and the Security Sector Reform UNMAS Support to other Programs 95 other mine-action-related treaties and in developing capacity. national institutions to manage their residual mine or I congratulate UNMAS for its efforts in 2008. explosive remnants of war (ERW) threats. Drawing on its expertise in dealing with unexploded sub-munitions, FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE 97 UNMAS provided critical field-based advice to states throughout their deliberations on the Convention on Alain Le Roy Cluster Munitions, which was adopted in Dublin on 30 UN Under-Secretary-General for May and opened for signature on 3 December in Oslo. Peacekeeping Operations Photo: Arne Hodalic 3
  • 3. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 FRAMEWORKS UNMAS Highlights Mine action concerns were integrated across the UN Headquarters system. A critical short-notice situation assessment for Georgia was delivered. Coordination and Rapid response capacity was strengthened through an expanded planning exercise. Seven mine action programmes from the Africa and Thematic Activities Asia regions developed gender-sensitive action plans that should inform the way they conduct routine business in the coming year. NORMATIVE FRAMEWORKS Photo: Arne Hodalic Integrating Mine Action Concerns Across the UN System presented information substantiating child rights During 2008, the UN Secretary-General explicitly violations in six categories as requested by the referred to mine action in 22 key reports to the UN Security Council. In 2008, the Security Council Security Council, including those on Afghanistan, learned that landmines and ERW kill and maim Burundi, Chad, Cyprus, Eritrea and Ethiopia, Nepal, ?children in Chad, particularly in the north of the Somalia, Sudan, Sudan (Darfur) and Western country. After 30 years of war, Chad counts among Sahara. Several drew on inputs from UNMAS. They the top 10 countries in the world in terms of victims included specific sections that updated the Security of landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Council on the implementation of the mandates of Marking the location of mines in Chad is currently specific mission, which may include clearance of very difficult given the lack of data, and movement landmines and ERW, verification of routes required move due to rainfall and shifting sands. for mission deployment, provision of mine risk education, training of national staff, and the compila- The report on children and armed conflict in Somalia tion of data on casualties and accident rates. emphasized the persistent danger to children from landmines and ERW, explaining that these devices The Secretary-General submitted two reports to the are responsible for an increased number of accidents Security Council Working Group on Children and involving children in and around Mogadishu follow- Armed Conflict in Chad and Somalia. The reports ing the bombardment of the capital in April 2007. Photo: Mark Craemer 5
  • 4. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 The report highlighted the UNMAS assessment Effective Coordination: The UN Inter-Agency The United Nations Inter-Agency Mine Action Coordination and Consultation Mechanisms mission in Mogadishu. Following the report’s Policy for Mine Action Strategy: 2006-2010 recommendations, a mine action centre was established in Baidoa. In June 2005, the principals of the IACG-MA Vision Highlights approved the document “Mine Action and Effective Coordination: The United Nations Inter- The vision of the United Nations is a world free of the Effective coordination of UN efforts related to cluster Mine Action on the Agendas of the Agency Policy.” It replaced a previous threat of landmines and ERW, where individuals and munitions took place through the IACG-MA Cluster Munitions Working Group. General Assembly and Security Council inter-agency policy approved in 1998 and communities live in a safe environment conducive to amended in 1999. development, and where the needs of mine and ERW The UNMAT approach to resource mobilization was UN mine action is conducted on the basis of UN victims are met, and they are fully integrated into promoted. General Assembly and Security Council resolutions, The policy reconfirms the role of UNMAS as focal their societies. Significant mine action concerns were discussed and including the biennial General Assembly resolution point for mine action within the UN system, defines solutions identified at the 11th International Meeting of on assistance in mine action, the most recent of the vision and core commitments of UN mine National Mine Action Directors and UN Advisers. which was adopted on 13 December 2007 action, outlines the legal framework, and describes Strategic Goal (A/Res/62/99). This resolution reiterated that coordination mechanisms and the roles of the 14 UNMAS is designated to act as the focal point for UN mine action actors. UNMAS coordinates the The United Nations will work with national authori- The Inter-Agency Coordination coordinating mine action in the UN system, including IACG-MA and its activities in line with the ties and in partnership with non-governmental Group for Mine Action operational coordination in the field. It called for UN inter-agency policy. organizations (NGOs), the private sector, interna- support to buildnational capacities, reaffirming tional and regional organizations, and others to UNMAS and its parent organization, the Department Strategic Objective 4 of the United Nations Inter- reduce the humanitarian and socioeconomic threats of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), are responsible Agency Mine ?Action Strategy: 2006-2010. The United Nations Inter-Agency Mine Action posed by landmines and ERW, to the point where for convening and chairing meetings of the IACG- Strategy: 2006-2010 UN mine action assistance will no longer be necessary. MA. In 2008, the group met monthly at the working In 2008, General Assembly Resolution level, under the chairmanship of UNMAS, and in Strategic Objective 1: Reduction of death and injury 62/741, on strengthening the capacity of the The United Nations Inter-Agency Mine Action February and November at the principals’ level, by at least 50 percent. United Nations to manage and sustainpeace- Strategy: 2006-2010, adopted in 2006, focuses on under the chairmanship of the Under-Secretary- keeping operations, referred to mine action. the expected impact of UN mine action by 2010. Strategic Objective 2: Mitigate the risk to community General for Peacekeeping Operations. UNMAS is working closely with UN Mine Action livelihoods and expand freedom of movement for As in previous years, UNMAS closely followed the Team (UNMAT) members to monitor strategy at least 80 percent of the most seriously affected The monthly meetings provide a forum for discussing negotiation and adoption of General Assembly implementation with a view to improving both communities. current issues and exchanging information on rele- resolutions referring to mine action or related prioritization and results measurement. A task vant updates, including ongoing monitoring of threat treaties. These included resolutions on the force has been established to combine and draw Strategic Objective 3: Integration of mine action levels. They also help in preparing for upcoming Convention on the Rights of Persons with on comparative advantages of UNMAT mem- needs into national development and reconstruction meetings and activities. The group agrees on Disabilities and the Optional Protocol (A/Res/63/192), bers. The World Bank has lent expert support, plans and budgets in at least 15 countries. language for UNMAT speeches and interventions the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons which will inform the work of the task force in Strategic Objective 4: Assist the development of delivered at meetings of states parties to mine- (A/Res/63/85), the Anti-Personnel Mine-Ban 2009. At the 64th session of the General national institutions to manage the landmine/ action-related treaties. In 2008, it organized the 11th Treaty (A/Res/63/42) and the recently signed Assembly, the Secretary-General will submit a ERW threat, and at the same time prepare for International Meeting for National Mine Action Convention on ClusterMunitions (A/Res 63/71). report on progress. residual response capacities in at least 15 countries. Directors and UN Advisers, and coordinated advoca- 6 7
  • 5. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 cy events in connection with the 4 April anniversary include the collection of verifiable indicators on the of the mine-ban treaty, the Ninth Meeting of States sectors mine action supports, such as agriculture, Parties to the treaty and the International Day for water and sanitation, and economic development. Persons with Disabilities. The outcome of the discussion was an effort to for- malize evaluation training, which will be implement- UNMAS continued to lead coordination efforts ed in coordination with the Geneva International around cluster munitions, including by convening Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) in regular meetings of the IACG-MA Cluster Munitions 2009. Working Group. It worked at the principals’ level to forge agreement on a UN position on cluster munitions, and coordinated high-level participation The Mine Action Support Group and interventions at the Dublin Diplomatic Conference under the Oslo Process and the On behalf of UNMAT, UNMAS continued to provide Convention on Cluster Munitions signing conference substantive, logistical and technical secretariat in Oslo, as well as at all meetings related to the support to the Mine Action Support Group (MASG), Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. the group of donors concerned about the humanitar- Overall, the principals worked to ensure that UNMAT ian, peace-building and development impacts Photo: Mark Craemer spoke with one voice on the matter of cluster of landmines and ERW. This support was particular- munitions, and supported and promoted processes ly significant in facilitating consistency and for both conventions. momentum, since the new system of a rotating the mine-ban treaty, the development of mine action and/or supported mine action programmes to chairmanship on a trimester basis was transition strategies and progress achieved and chal- nationalauthorities. It also discussed how to measure UNMAS also convened meetings of the IACG-MA introduced in 2008. lenges faced by the Afghanistan and Senegal mine the positive impacts of mine action on beneficiaries, Communications Working Group and the IACG-MA action programmes. The second MASG meeting was along with operational achievements and financial Steering Committee on Gender and Mine Action in Under the chairmanship of the Representative of hosted by the Government of Switzerland in Geneva gaps in the Afghanistan programme. 2008. No meetings of the Geneva IACG-MA Sub- France, UNMAS worked to organize the first joint on 4 June, and discussed progress accomplished Group took place. MASG-UNMAT press conference in Paris. A press during the Dublin conference on cluster munitions, release was issued on 3 April in advance of the the relevance of the new Convention on the Rights of Portfolio of Mine Action Projects International Day for Mine Awareness and Persons with Disabilities to mine action, victim assis- The Committee on Mine Action Assistance in Mine Action. A press conference tance activities in Sudan, land release, and support to UNMAS launched the 12th edition of the featured a panel including the chairman and states with mine clearance obligations (Article 5 of Portfolio of Mine Action Projects in New York on 4 A session of the Committee on Mine Action was held representatives from the UN Children’s Fund the mine-ban treaty). December. The Assistant Secretary-General of at the 11th International Meeting for National Mine (UNICEF) and UNMAS. Reporters from a variety of OROLSI led the event. The portfolio is an annual Action Directors and UN Advisers. The discussion international media outlets participated, fielding The third MASG meeting, chaired by the publication, coordinated among UN agencies, focused on measuring the impacts of mine action many questions on operations in the Democratic Representative of the United Kingdom on 26 national authorities, NGOs and donors, with activities, in the short term and over a 5-to-10-year Republic of Congo. The first MASG meeting of the November in Geneva, coincided with the Ninth guidance from the Headquarters Portfolio Team, period in regions where mine action began more than year took place in Paris on 4 April. Discussions cov- Meeting of States Parties to the mine-ban treaty. It comprising representatives from UNMAS, a decade ago. Obstacles to measuring impacts ered achievements and outstanding requirements of took stock of progress in transitioning UN-managed the UN Development Programme (UNDP) 8 9
  • 6. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 and UNICEF. The portfolio provides an overview of and continues to allow updates throughout the year. was requested for 12 mine action projects alone. By information on participants and facilitate the how affected countries plan to address the problems Overall, the 2009 edition appealed for US $459 the end of the year, 31.8 percent of the total funds issuance of visas. The foreign affairs ministries in posed by landmines and ERW. The 2009 edition million, of which US $437 million remained unfunded requested had been committed (US $22.6 million). Croatia and Slovenia provided valuable support. includes submissions from 33 countries, territories at the time of the launch. or missions, spanning 300 projects. Africa accounts In August, donors offered generous bilateral support The meeting agenda comprised plenary sessions for the largest number of projects at 125. National to mine action activities through the Georgia Crisis and workshops. Programme-related plenaries NGOs submitted about 20 percent of all projects, Integrating Mine Action into Flash Appeal. discussed UN roles and responsibilities, land release either individually or as partner appealing agencies. Humanitarian Appeals through actions other than clearance, and national Additional chapters or projects may be added to Of the 12 consolidated appeals that constitute the capacity development and transition. Policy-related the online version on the Electronic Mine Information In 2008, mine action portfolio country team Humanitarian Appeal 2009, which was launched in sessions covered topics such as victim assistance, Network (E-MINE) website, which allows donors and members continued to participate in humanitarian November 2008, mine action projects were included the rights of survivors of and persons affected by stakeholders to monitor funding needs for each appeal working groups to promote the inclusion of for countries such as Chad, the Democratic Republic ERW, and meeting the obligations of Article 5 of the project. mine action projects in humanitarian and of Congo, Somalia and Sudan. mine-ban treaty. Updates were provided on gender development plans and the consolidated appeals action plans, GICHD, the standing committees of the Input to the 2009 portfolio was provided via process. The 2008 Sudan Work Plan constituted the treaty and Article 7 reporting, mine risk education web-based entry forms. The automation of the largest appeal, with 959 projects and a total funding 11th International Meeting of National Mine emergency kits and cluster munitions. Three site preparation process was further improved in 2008 request of US $2.3 billion. Just under US $71 million Action Directors and UN Advisers visits took place to the Slovenian Institute for Rehabilitation and Mine Victim Assistance Institute, The 11th International Meeting of National Mine and the Cerovac and Gaj testing sites. Surveys Portfolio of Mine Action Projects: 2004–2008 Action Directors and UN Advisers was held from 13 completed by participants indicated that the meeting to 18 April in Ljubljana, Slovenia, and Sibenik, Croatia. was a success and provided valuable information. It was organized by UNMAT in partnership with the 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Photo: Julia Goehsing International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Participating Countries 32 Countries 30 Countries 30 Countries 29 Countries 33 Countries Victim Assistance (ITF) in Slovenia and the Croatian and Territories 4 Territories 3 Territories 4 Territories 3 Territories 4 Territories Mine Action Centre (CROMAC) in Croatia. UNMAS chaired and hosted the meeting. Following feedback from the previous year, the annual event was held in Appealing Agencies 83 91 103 124 110 a mine-affected region for the first time and featured the first field demonstrations in situ. Over 220 mine Number of Projects 307 313 353 347 383 action stakeholders participated to assess progress and future challenges. The participants included Funding Appeal us$352 million us$378 million us$459 million us$453 million us$404 million senior national directors of mine action programmes, UN mine action staff, representatives from Funding Received us$175 million us$241 million us$240 million us$310 million us$39 million international NGOs, experts from donor govern- ments and other mine action implementing partners. Shortfall us$177 million us$136 million us$219 million us$143 million us$365 million UNMAS worked extensively with ITF and CROMAC on an online registration system to track logistical 10 11
  • 7. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORKS Integrating Mine Action into Humanitarian framework guides the deployment of appropriate Building Rapid Response Capacity and To best participate in this approach, UNMAS and Development Programming resources and creates an environment conducive to the Cluster Approach Headquarters is a full member of the Global longer term planning. It can be implemented in Protection Cluster Working Group, which is led by Mine action programmes overseen by UNMAS response to either emergency humanitarian or In June, UNMAS held its fifth annual rapid response the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). continued to be integrated into development peacekeeping operations. Due to support from the training exercise in Sweden in conjunction with its The cluster has responsibility for a wide range of assistance planning, as well as country assessment Government of the Netherlands, UNMAS was able to use standby logistics support partner, the Swedish Civil activities aimed at ensuring respect for the rights of mechanisms where they exist. In 2008, the UN Mine fewer unearmarked funds in 2008 for this coreactivity. Contingencies Agency (MSB), formerly known as the all individuals, regardless of their age, gender, or Action Office (UNMAO) in Sudan and the Mine Swedish Rescue Services Agency (SRSA). This social, ethnic, national, religious or other back- Action Coordination Centre for Afghanistan Photo: Arne Hodalic activity focused on setting up a mine action ground. This requires a collaborative and coordinated 1 (MACCA) provided inputs to the UN development coordination centre in an emergency environment. response by various national and international actors assistance frameworks (UNDAFs) in each country. with diverse mandates, expertise and experience. Additionally, these and other programmes UNMAS enjoyed UN agency participation in the The cluster seeks to assist protection actors on the contributed to the ongoing development of new rapid response exercise on a level similar to that in ground to maintain more effective and predictable UNDAFs and common country assessments (CCAs), 2007, with the main gain in 2008 being the atten- responses. In the past, representatives of the cluster as well as relevant World Bank poverty reduction dance of representatives from the Mines Advisory team in Geneva have also attended the rapid strategies and notes. Mine action in Afghanistan Group (MAG) to provide NGO perspectives. The response exercise to familiarize themselves with also remains fully integrated into the Millennium internal assessment component of the exercise was mine action crisis response. Development Goal (MDG) strategies of the country, developed to provide a competency-based frame- with regular progress updates provided under the work for measuring attendees’ abilities to deploy on In the field, UNMAS programmes are also part of the framework of the Afghanistan National Develop- an operational activation. This process helped with cluster system, where it is in place (for example, ment Strategy, and the Joint Coordination and the development of a register of trained participants. Afghanistan and Lebanon). This is usually under the Monitoring Body. Planning is underway for the 2009 exercise, with one auspices of the UN Office for the Coordination of aim being to develop the scenario to allow for greater Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). UNMAS engagement participation by UNMAS’ OROLSI partner agencies. is largely through the Protection Cluster, but may The Framework for Mine Action Planning include other sectors where there is a requirement and Rapid Response Inter-agency representation allowed the simulation for more integrated operations and planning, such as of the coordination mechanisms prescribed within emergency shelter, emergency education, early The Framework for Mine Action Planning and Rapid the Protection Cluster, which emerged following the recovery, health, food security and agriculture, and Response was developed as part of the 2001 mine Humanitarian Response Review of the global inter-cluster coordination. action strategy. It provides an overarching structure humanitarian system. It proposed using a “cluster and approach, within which UNMAS and members approach” in international responses to humanitari- of the IACG-MA monitor mine and ERW threats an emergencies to address gaps and strengthen Rapid Response globally, identify and plan appropriate responses effectiveness through partnerships. The approach with members of UNMAT, and facilitate the rapid ensures predictability and accountability by Rapid emergency responses and effective planning deployment of assessment missions, coordination clarifying the division of labour among organizations, are key to UNMAT’s efforts to mitigate threats from capacity and operational assets. Designed to address and better defining their roles and responsibilities landmines and ERW, and assist freedom of move- mine action requirements in emergency phases, the within the different parts of the response. ment, as called for under Strategic Objective 2 in the 12 13
  • 8. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 United Nations Inter-Agency Mine Action Strategy nition. It found that actors already in place could Mine Action Planning and Inter-Agency Assessment cal missions. The evaluation team briefed in New 2006–2010. meet immediate needs for mine action. Mine risk Missions York prior to and after the evaluation and the recom- education was being provided by the International mendations were included in the newly operational UNMAS tapped unearmakrked funding to launch a Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and the HALO UNMAS continued to provide regular tracking of recommendations tracking database. The team vis- short notice mine action needs assesment afterthe Trust had rapidly expanded its pre-existing emerging and evolving threats to the IACG-MA, and ited a number of locations and implementing conflict in Georgia in 2008. On 15 August, the UN operational capacities. There was no substantial led an assessment mission to Niger in November. partners and the areas it identified informed the later Resident Coordinator in Georgia requested mine capability gap that UNMAS could usefully fill, a view inter-agency evaluation in October as well as action technical assistance from UNMAS as a result shared by the Resident Coordinator. Conflict in the north of Niger has resulted in mine additional measures taken by UNMAS and the of the conflict there and the resulting potential threat and ERW contamination, mainly on transportation programme to increase the effectiveness of the of ERW. The IACG-MA met and dispatched an The outcome of the assessment mission was that routes. This has disrupted transportation, the admin- programme. The results of the evaluation were UNMAS-led fact-finding team to establish the level UNMAT elected not to activate the operational istration of government offices and the delivery of shared with implementing partners. of ERW contamination within the wider Georgia aspects of the Framework for Mine Action Planning humanitarian aid. The Government has accumulated area; to render necessary advice and assistance to and Rapid Response to mobilize financial, human and a stockpile of over 5,000 anti-tank mines and more An inter-agency team from UNMAS and the UN the Resident Coordinator, the UN Country Team and technical resources to support mine action in than 1,000 anti-personnel mines, which impacts its Office for Project Services (UNOPS) carried out the UN Department of Safety and Security; and to Georgia. UNMAS continued to monitor the situation obligations related to the mine-ban treaty. UNMAS evaluation focused on the operational issues raised develop an initial response plan if required. over the remainder of the year with a view to identi- undertook a technical assessment mission at the in the prior evaluation. Meetings were held with fying any longer term capacity development needs. request of the Government with a view to determin- senior managers of the UN Mission in the ing options for a stockpile destruction programme. A Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) as well as response utilizing MSB explosive ordnance disposal senior representatives of UN agencies. While all Threat Monitoring (EOD) teams was planned for November 2008, stated that the programme was meeting all their but had to be postponed until 2009. The mission requirements on matters related to ERW, the Team One of the roles of the IACG-MA is to monitor also identified options for further engagement to recommended restructuring to provide rapid deploy- global threats from mines and other ERW through enhance national capacities for ammunition man- ment EOD teams to support humanitarian activities the Threat Monitoring Matrix (TMM). The TMM is agement and humanitarian demining. in the east, and increase support to national NGOs managed by the UNMAS Planning Officer, and and mine clearance and survey activities in the south updated every two weeks through the monitoring of and west. agency field reports, the media, and other informa- Programme Evaluations tion from donors and partners. An updated TMM is sent to the IACG-MA one week before each UNMAS remains committed to monitoring the man- Assisting Victims and Survivors, monthly meeting. This gives them the chance to agement of its mine action programmes and and Reducing Risks Photo: Mark Craemer review and request further updates or amendments commissioned an independent evaluation of the prior to the meeting. Each potential threat is Programme in the Democratic Republic of Congo in In line with Strategic Objective 3 of the UN mine discussed and a response agreed upon, whether April 2008 and undertook an additional inter-agency action strategy,2 UNMAS continues to help increase The team determined that the ERW threat was very through a technical assessment mission to a new evaluation of the programme in October 2008. The resources for survivors disabled by landmines and limited in coverage and intensity, with the primary country, a change of policy or direction for an exist- independent evaluation was undertaken by two ERW, and ensure that their needs are met within threat being posed by limited contamination by UXO, ing programme, or the decision to take no immediate female consultants. The aim was to identify national programmes and facilities for persons with primarily cluster munitions, and abandoned ammu- action besides monitoring a situation closely. challenges and inform future evaluations and techni- disabilities. In Sudan, UNMAS took the lead in 14 15
  • 9. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities implementing the inter-agency victim assistance UNMAS supports mine risk education pro- project funded by the Government of Japan through grammes primarily through UNICEF and other the UN Trust Fund for Human Security (UNTFHS). humanitarian agencies. These programmes aim The project helped the national authorities in to reduce risks for civilian populations by provid- developing the national victim assistance strategic ing messages that focus on safe behavior in framework as well as a work plan, conducted needs mine- and ERW contaminated areas, particularly assessments, provided mine risk education, and for refugees and internally displaced persons implemented pilot projects to support mine and UXO (IDPs). victims. Details of project activities and achievement can be found on page 89. UNMAS continues to encourage all agencies and organizations in the UN system to integrate Since assisting victims and survivors goes beyond landmine and ERW safety training into their gen- the mine-ban treaty, UNMAS supports links with eral safety briefings. This is largely accomplished other legal frameworks such as Protocol V on ERW in the field through the mine action coordination of the Convention on Certain Conventional centres and UN security personnel. At headquar- Weapons, and, notably, the Convention on the Rights ters, UNMAS liaises regularly with the of Persons with Disabilities. UNMAS advocated for Department of Safety and Security to ensure that the universalization and full implementation of the mine and ERW safety training and general safety Convention in 2008 at the 11th International training are complementary, and that mine and Meeting of National Mine Action Directors and UN ERW safety training tools are used as part of Advisers, the Ninth Meeting of States Parties to the security training in countries without mine action mine-ban treaty, the Second Conference of High coordination centres or a UN mine action Contracting Parties to Protocol V (see below), and presence. the discussions on cluster munitions in the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons’ The Department of Safety and Security circulated Group of Governmental Experts. a landmine and ERW safety training DVD released by UNMAS in March 2007 throughout In collaboration with UNDP, UNICEF and UNOPS, the United Nations. UNMAS had intended to UNMAS organized a photo exhibition entitled work with the developers of the DVD at the “Rebuilding the lives of landmine victims in University of California at Los Angeles to produce Sudan” in the Palais des Nation in Geneva during it in languages other than English and make the the meeting on the mine-ban treaty. An opening product available on the Internet, but this effort ceremony featured speeches by the officer stalled due to a lack of funding. Subject to avail- in-charge of UNMAS, the Permanent able funding in 2009, UNMAS intends to publish Representative of Sudan and the representative the Landmine and Explosive Remnants of War Safety of the Director General of the United Nations Handbook in Arabic, French, Russian, Dari and in Geneva. Pashto. Photo: Arne Hodalic 16
  • 10. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 SHAPING POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORKS FOR MINE ACTION Highlights Treaties Meeting of States Parties made decisions on 15 The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons requests by states parties to extend clearance The Anti-Personnel Mine-Ban Treaty entered into a obligations under Article 5; many of them currently The 1980 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions new phase: Decisions were made on Article 5 Advocacy receive UN mine action support. This is the first time on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which extension requests, and states parties started a meeting of states parties has undertaken this kind of May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to preparation for the Second Review Conference to be held in Cartagena, Colombia from 30 November to 4 Mine action advocacy goals are woven into the action. It thus sets a precedent for similar requests in Have Indiscriminate Effects is also known as the December 2009. United Nations Inter-Agency Mine Action Strategy: the future. The meeting also decided that the Second Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 2006-2010. Advocacy remains a key pillar of mine Review Conference of the mine-ban treaty would be Two of its protocols are relevant to mine action: The international community took urgent action action in general. Most UNMAS activities related to held in Cartagena, Colombia, in 2009. Amended Protocol II on mines, booby traps and against the threats posed by cluster munitions with support from the United Nations. The Convention on legal frameworks for mine action, including those other devices, and Protocol V on ERW. Established Cluster Munitions was adopted in Dublin on 30 May in 2008, have an advocacy component. UNMAS To assist affected countries to understand their implementation mechanisms include regular and signed in Oslo on 3 December. strongly advocates for the universalization of Article 5 obligations for clearing and destroying meetings of states parties. As with the mine-ban The Convention on the Rights of Persons with existing legal frameworks, and encourages UN anti-personnel mines, the 11th International treaty, these two protocols provide UN mine action Disabilities entered into force on 3 May, providing an Member States to expand those regimes and Meeting of National Mine Action Directors and UN with effective guidance, as indicated in the UN appropriate framework for protecting the rights and develop new international standards to further Advisers organized a full session on this topic and a inter-agency policy. dignity of landmine and ERW survivors, and other protect civilians from the scourges of landmines and presentation by the Director of the Implementation persons with disabilities. ERW, as was the case with the Convention on Support Unit of the mine-ban treaty. In 2007, the Group of Governmental Experts was Significant progress occurred in integrating gender Cluster Munitions this year. In 2008, UNMAS also established to negotiate a proposal urgently to considerations into mine action: A stocktaking work- strongly advocated for the universalization of the At the inter-sessional meetings of states parties to address the humanitarian impacts of cluster muni- shop on good practices and lessons learned in Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities the treaty in April and at the Ninth Meeting of States tions, while striking a balance between military and mainstreaming gender in mine action programmes as a framework for delivering victim assistance. Parties in November, UNMAS coordinated the humanitarian considerations, and to report on promoted a regional and nationally owned gender learning cycle. delivery of statements by UNMAT. It also coordinated progress made to the next meeting of the group in With funds from Italy, UNMAS in 2008 inputs from the United Nations to the Geneva November 2008. provided grants to the Italian Campaign to Progress Report, adopted by the meeting. The inputs Photo: Arne Hodalic Ban Landmines to support their advocacy and reflected the general contribution of UNMAT to the UNMAS participated actively in all meetings related awareness activities, as well as to Geneva Call for implementation of the treaty. UNMAS prepared to the convention in 2008, and coordinated the advocacy with non-state actors. reports on the inter-sessional meetings and the participation of and delivery of statements by Ninth Meeting of States Parties, and circulated them UNMAT at the meetings of states parties on to the IACG-MA. Amended Protocol II and Protocol V in November The Anti-Personnel Mine-Ban Treaty 2008. The main outcomes and achievements are In the field, UNMAS continued to assist programmes explained below. UNMAS continued to support universal ratification in complying with their obligations under the treaty, and full implementation of the Anti-Personnel including with the preparation of reports as required by The Sponsorship Programme to promote participa- Mine-Ban Treaty in 2008. This important framework Article 7, and with the development and execution of tion in convention-related meetings was fully imple- for mine action remains a key instrument for national mine action plans. Several states parties mented in 2008. The UNMAS Liaison Office promoting the achievement of UN strategic goals. responded to UNMAS demarches to encourage in Geneva served as an observer to the programme’s The year was crucial for the treaty. The Ninth the submission of Article 7 initial reports. Steering Committee. 18 19
  • 11. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 Explosive Remnants of War an ERW database for assistance and cooperation. tivating mechanisms, should not be fitted with UNMAT actively participated in this process and Together with the ICRC Physical Rehabilitation anti-handling devices, and should not have sensitive attended the Oslo Signature Conference on 3–4 Protocol V provides a framework for post-conflict Programme, UNMAS organized an event in Geneva fuses that allow explosion through contact by or in December. Meanwhile, a parallel process leading to remedial measures for unexploded and abandoned on victim assistance in the context of Protocol V. proximity to a person. the possible development of a legal instrument on explosive ordnance, as well as for generic and cluster munitions under the Convention on Certain voluntary prevention measures. So far, 48 countries Experts from the mine-ban treaty Implementation Conventional Weapons has also continued and been have agreed to be bound by Protocol V. In July 2008, Support Unit, the Office of the High Commissioner Universalization monitored closely by UNMAT. much in advance of the Second Conference of for Human Rights (OHCHR) and ICBL were invited to High Contracting Parties to Protocol V, the President- deliver presentations at the event, which informed In 2008, UNMAS actively supported UN regional Under the leadership of UNMAS, the IACG-MA designate (the Ambassador of Lithuania) undertook participants on the components of victim assistance seminars to promote the universality of the successfully contributed to the process that led informal consultations, appointed coordinators and widely supported aspects of this pillar. Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, an states to adopt the Convention on Cluster Munitions. for specific items and chaired a group of experts. initiative of the Office for Disarmament Affairs In coordination with UNMAT members, UNMAS UNMAS will continue ensuring UN support for the financed by the European Union through a European is responding to the new treaty mandates and UNMAS participated in many of these consultations, implementation of Protocol V and the universaliza- Council joint action. With its own resources, UNMAS emerging realities on the ground by providing providing technical advice and inputs to the tion of the treaty in 2009. prepared and delivered presentations at all regional technical assistance and advice to initiatives coordinators on national reporting and an Article 4 seminars and chaired some of their sessions. aimed at destroying cluster munitions and stockpiles electronic template (initiated by UNMAS in 2006), Seminars were held in Santo Domingo, Lomé (two in countries beyond those in which it is currently victim assistance, generic prevention measures, and Mines Other Than Anti-Personnel Mines sub-regional seminars), Almaty, Rabat and operational. UNMAS is also preparing to provide Kathmandu. effective assistance and expert advice to the entity The UNMAS-coordinated statements of UNMAT to designated to serve as the secretariat for the states the Meeting of States Parties to the Convention on The universalization of the convention, particularly of parties to the convention. Certain Conventional Weapons and to the 10th Amended Protocol II and Protocol V, represents an Annual Conference of High Contracting Parties to important advocacy objective for UN mine action. UNMAS extensive knowledge of ERW helped it Amended Protocol II in November 2008 highlighted UNMAS plays a leading role in UNMAT in assisting to provide expert technical advice throughout 2008 the need to enhance existing international rules for the advocacy initiatives of other partners in both to the Oslo Process and to the discussions on anti-vehicle mines and other mines not categorized the IACG-MA. cluster munitions by the Convention on Certain as anti-personnel. These new rules could be Conventional Weapons’ Group of Governmental established either by amending Amended Protocol II Experts. This expert advice included the participation or through a new protocol to the convention. The The Legal Framework for Cluster Munitions: of the programme manager of the Mine Action statements also supported the proposal of the The Convention on Certain Conventional Coordination Centre-South Lebanon (MACC-SL), President of Amended Protocol II to establish an Weapons and the Oslo Process awarded for its achievements in cluster munitions informal open-ended group of experts to consider clearance, in all relevant meetings in 2008. matters arising from national reports and the Since the 2007 UNMAS Annual Report, much has development of technology. happened in the arena of cluster munitions. UN These inputs were commended and widely Member States supporting the Oslo Process on appreciated by delegations and participants in the The agreed position of UNMAT is that these mines cluster munitions met in Wellington (18–22 various processes. In particular, during the Oslo Photo: Arne Hodalic should be detectable by commonly available means, February) and in Dublin (19-30 May), where they Process, UNMAS support included clarifying the should be fitted with self-destructing and self-deac- adopted the Convention on Cluster Munitions. characteristics and effects of different kinds of 20 21
  • 12. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 sub-munitions, thus facilitating the identification provides post-conflict remedial measures and some In terms of participation, the Convention on Certain The Oslo Process of an adequate definition of cluster munitions and generic preventive measures of a non-legally bind- Conventional Weapons includes all major military sub-munitions that cause unacceptable harm ing nature. It does not outline restrictions on the use powers, and the main users and producers of cluster In 2006, the Norwegian Government announced to civilians. of any weapon, nor does it require cluster munitions. It may capture important states parties its intention to establish a new international munitions to achieve a low failure or “dud” rate. not participating in the Oslo Process. Fewer states process to agree on a treaty on cluster bombs. A During negotiations on cluster munitions under the Thus, it does not address the effects of cluster affected by cluster munitions are involved in the conference was convened in February 2007 in Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, munitions at the time of use or the dangers for Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Oslo, where 46 nations agreed to a declaration UNMAS actively engaged with country delegations, civilians caught in a cluster munitions attack. Cluster process, however. At the Group of Governmental committing to concluding a treaty banning either in session or on a bilateral basis, to inform munitions account for a high percentage of UXO Experts meeting held from 14-18 January 2008, cluster munitions in 2008. The group of states them about field-based technical inputs to consider in post-conflict areas. They require a more specific many delegations noted that the convention and the spearheading the Oslo Process has included when seeking a realistic definition of cluster legal regime than the one provided by Protocol V Oslo Process are complementary and mutually Austria, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway munitions, and determining their post-conflict to address comprehensively all the problems reinforcing (as had been stated earlier by the UN and Peru. impacts on civilians versus their military utility. they cause. Secretary-General). Some argued that the Oslo Process should be supplementary to the work of the States that subscribed to the Wellington Declaration In 2008, states parties began to negotiate a propos- convention and recognize the military necessity of in February 2008 were able to participate in treaty The Convention on Certain Conventional al in the Group of Governmental Experts to address cluster munitions for certain states. negotiations at the Dublin Diplomatic Conference Weapons Process the humanitarian impacts of cluster munitions, while from 19 to 30 May. The Convention on Cluster balancing military and humanitarian considerations. Munitions was adopted by 107 states following The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapon At the April meeting of the group, an increasing negotiations there, and opened for signature in aims to protect military troops from inhumane number of delegates began referring to the final Oslo on 3 December. injuries and prevent civilians from being harmed by outcome of this process as a new protocol banning certain types of arms. When the original convention at least certain kinds of cluster munitions and The signing conference concluded on 4 December entered into force in December 1983, it applied to regulating the use of these weapons. with close to 100 state actions, including 94 incendiary weapons, mines and booby-traps, and signatures, 4 ratifications and 1 provisional weapons designed to injure through very small At the November meeting in Geneva, Chairperson application. The convention will be open for signa- fragments.1 Since then, states parties—now totaling Ambassador Wigotski of Denmark produced the text of ture at UN Headquarters in New York, until it enters 108—have added provisions to ban the use of a draft protocol on cluster munitions to serve as the basis into force after the 30th instrument of ratification is blinding laser weapons, and address lingering for negotiations. The group informed states parties that deposited. dangers posed by unexploded munitions and it did not conclude its negotiations on the text and abandoned explosive ordnance. Protocol V on ERW recommended additional negotiations in 2009 without There are 20 states that are not party to the was negotiated by the convention’s Group of prejudice to any present or future proposals. To date, Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Governmental Experts in 2003 and adopted by this process has been less dynamic and ambitious than participating in the Oslo Process, making the meeting of states parties the same year. It that of the Oslo Process, which has negotiated a it a globally representative forum. Participants cover entered into force on 12 November 2006 legally binding treaty. The lack of agreement on a new all world regions and include representatives from and currently has 40 states parties. Although the protocolleavesthe Convention on Cluster Munitions as 19 producer states, 7 states that have used cluster protocol is a step towards reducing the impacts the only international instrument that specifically deals munitions, 34 states that have stockpiles Photo: Mark Craemer of unexploded sub-munitions, the instrument mainly with these weapons. and 11 states affected by the weapons. 22 23
  • 13. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 Similarities and Differences Between fewer than 10 explosive sub-munitions and those Alternatively, some states have sought exclusions by taining particular technical features should not be the Convention on Certain Conventional equipped with an electronic self-destruction or proposing that weapons with 10 or fewer defined as cluster munitions because they meet the Weapons and the Oslo Process self-deactivating mechanism. sub-munitions or weapons with sensor-fusing should humanitarian requirements that the Oslo Process not be considered cluster munitions at all.4 Yet these seeks to achieve. The UN common position on this issue, based on states have offered little proof as to how such Definitions its work on the ground, is that all cluster features would limit the humanitarian impact during munitions cause unacceptable harm to civilians or after attacks. In principle, exempted weapons fall UN Assessment Defining cluster munitions was critical for the and should be prohibited. under the definition of cluster munitions, whereas purpose of a ban, as this directly affects the clas- those excluded from the definition are not regarded Based on the experiences of UN agencies, all cluster sification of weapons and the designation of as cluster munitions for the purpose of a specific munitions used so far, and those that are stockpiled, exemptions or exceptions. Before 2008, there Exemptions vs. Exclusions instrument. cause unacceptable harm to civilians. was no universally agreed-upon definition. Generally, any weapon that releases multiple Some states, particularly those that produce cluster explosive sub-munitions may be considered a bombs, have called for exemptions that will permit Restriction vs. Total Ban Interoperability form of cluster munitions. them to keep some of their own weapons systems. Those seeking exemptions from a ban argue that the This matter is closely tied to the issue of definitions, Interoperability, like the definitions of cluster muni- In defining cluster munitions that have caused most modern bomblets have self-destruct systems, since some states that are not signatories of the tions, has been an issue that received much extensive humanitarian problems, the ICRC uses which are designed to eliminate the long-term risk to Convention on Cluster Munitions may be able to attention during the Oslo Process meetings. The the terms “inaccurate” and “unreliable.” Specific civilians if they fail to detonate. avoid regulation if a particular type of weapon United Nations consulted with its Office of Legal factors that could be included in defining escapes classification as prohibited. The different Affairs on the implications of a possible cluster weapons are: dud rates/failure to detonate upon Photo: Mark Craemer positions are briefly outlined below: munitions treaty, asking if the convention raised impact, inaccuracy, malfunctioning, the number issues of interoperability for UN operations—for of sub-munitions and the ability to be targeted example, a situation in which a state party partici- accurately. 3 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Process pates in a UN peacekeeping operation or other authorized |operation together with states that are The development of a definition for cluster muni- Restriction on use will focus on failure and reliability not party to the convention, and which use or trans- tions was pivotal in the negotiations of the thresholds or rates to limit the use of cluster fer cluster munitions in that operation. The outcome Convention on Cluster Munitions. In Dublin, munitions that are more likely to cause humanitarian of the discussion was that the United Nations was states parties were able to determine which harm. not in a position to interpret the provisions of the weapons pose humanitarian problems and which convention or an individual state’s obligations. possess characteristics that warrant exclusion or Rather, it is up to the state party to “decide whether exemptions from the ban. Article 2 of the conven- Oslo Process their mere participation in the operation (hypothet- tion defines cluster munitions as “a conventional ically using cluster munitions) would be in violation munition that is designed to disperse or release It advocated for a total ban on cluster bombs that of their treaty obligations not to ‘assist,’ ‘encourage’ explosive sub-munitions each weighing less than cause unacceptable harm to civilians. The or ‘induce’ such use. The operation, however, would 20 kilograms, and includes those explosive sub- Government of Norway expressed the notion that not be considered to be in violation of any munitions.” It excludes, inter alia, weapons with weapons capable of engaging point targets and con- international law principle if the use of cluster 24 25
  • 14. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 ?munitions was otherwise lawful.” At the Stockpile Destruction and Transition Periods marking of ERW, mine risk education and victim participating in the Oslo Process in favor of the Wellington Conference in February 2008, a assistance—and international cooperation and Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons.2 group of like-minded states emerged and Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons process: assistance. Some countries together with the expressed their concerns about interoperability One advantage of this process is that it captures ICRC have called for the addition of victim assis- with regard to joint operations with states not the major users and/or producers of cluster muni- tance provisions in a new protocol, while others Promoting the Rights of Persons party to the convention. Some countries tions, a number of which are not participating in the prefer not to see victim assistance provisions with Disabilities advocated for the inclusion of language that Oslo Process. But some proposals have included a repeated in a new protocol. would enable them to participate in the joint transition period during which states can continue The Convention on the Rights of Persons with planning or execution of military activities with to use, with certain limitations, any cluster muni- Oslo Process: For clearance and risk mitigation Disabilities and its Optional Protocol were opened states that are not parties, and that engage in tions they choose, even outdated ones with high activities, the Convention on Cluster Munitions for signature on 30 March 2007. The convention activities prohibited under the new convention. dud rates. instructs states parties to take into account inter- entered into force on 3 May 2008, and by the end of The possibility of states introducing reservations national standards, including the International 2008, some 42 states had ratified it, including some to the convention on this issue was discussed. Oslo Process: Transition has been a contentious issue Mine Action Standards (IMAS). Mine action affected by landmines and/or ERW. Twenty-five The subject remained unresolved at the during negotiations. Some countries have proposed a is nevertheless comprehensively addressed by states had ratified the Optional Protocol. The conclusion of the Wellington Conference. transition period allowing continued use of the the convention. convention provides explicit guidance to countries weapons for years after they have been banned. At affected by landmines and ERW regarding the rights The Wellington Declaration introduced language the Wellington Conference, a number of states pro- of survivors. It will help states fulfil victim assistance to accommodate the divergent views of posed transition periods for the entry into force of Next Steps obligations pursuant to Article 6 of the mine-ban delegations on this and other issues. Signed by specific obligations restricting the use, development, treaty and Article 8 of Protocol V of the Convention 82 states, it affirmed the objective of concluding production, acquisition, retention and transfer of the The successful conclusion of the Oslo Process at on Certain Conventional Weapons. In addition, at the Dublin conference a legally binding prohibited cluster munitions. the Dublin Diplomatic Conference put added Article 5 of the new Convention on Cluster international instrument prohibiting cluster pressure on states participating in the Munitions contains victim-assistance-related obliga- munitions that cause unacceptable harm to At the Dublin conference, proposals for transition Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons to tions along with the principle of non-discrimination civilians. The declaration was signed by a periods allowing states to use the weapons for reach a new accord by the November 2008 meet- against victims—including those who are not cluster number of the like-minded countries, but some between 7 and 12 years were quashed by affected ing of states parties.6 The meeting did not reach a munitions victims. UNMAS participated in the first expressed disappointment at the “lack of trans- states. Stockpiles of existing weapons must be decision on a protocol on cluster munitions, how- session of the Conference of the States Parties to the parency” in the management of the Oslo destroyed within 8 years.3 ever, indicating how polarizing the issue is. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Process. Interoperability, transition periods, Group of Governmental Experts on cluster muni- from 31 October to 3 November 2008 in New York. definitions, deadlines for stockpile destruction, tions will continue its negotiations in 2009. and retention of cluster munitions for training Clearance and Risk Mitigation, Victim Assistance and Although an agreement is unlikely to result in UNMAS, as the DPKO representative in the Inter- and research purposes were the key issues that International Cooperation a limitation on cluster munitions that is as Agency Support Group (IASG) on the Convention on arose in the Committee of the Whole during the comprehensive as that negotiated under the Oslo the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, participated Dublin conference, 5 with some countries citing Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Process, many hope that a legal instrument, in the second meeting of the group, held in Geneva interoperability concerns to justify non-signa- process: Many delegations stressed the impor- possibly of a more technical nature than the on 19-20 June. It prepared a report on DPKO ture of the convention. Interoperability has not tance of linking a new protocol on cluster muni- Convention on Cluster Munitions, will be developments related to the convention, which was been addressed by the Convention on Certain tions to Protocol V with regard to provisions on negotiated by cluster munitions stockpilers and submitted during the meeting. The IASG was estab- Conventional Weapons process. mine action activities—such as clearance and producers, since they have largely refrained from lished to promote and assist in the implementation 26 27
  • 15. Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 of the convention. UNMAS has emphasized the by UNMAS in coordination with OHCHR, UNHCR, importance of the treaty for the work of many UNICEF and other UNMAT members, and with peacekeeping operations, and recommended that the assistance of Survivor Corps (previously guidance and training materials be developed to known as the Landmine Survivor’s Network). It is ensure coherent UN support for implementation. available for download online. The toolkit is tar- UNMAS continues to consult actively with DPKO geted to all UN staff members and will be used, in field colleagues to inform guidelines for UN coun- particular, by UNMAT members to disseminate try programming in coordination with IASG mem- information on the convention and the Optional bers. In May, UNMAS submitted a questionnaire Protocol, to promote understanding of them and to UN colleagues at headquarters level and in field to assist states parties in implementing their obli- missions seeking an update on implementation gations—as well as to sensitize states that are not and advocacy efforts related to the newly adopted yet party to the convention. The toolkit was pre- convention. Staff who replied came from a wide sented at the 11th Annual International Meeting of variety of offices and areas of work, including National Mine Action Directors and UN Advisors mine action, child protection, human rights and held in March 2008 and is now available online to the rule of law, and gender. They represented UN country offices, national partners, civil society peacekeeping or political missions, such as the groups and interested UN Member States. UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), MONUC (Democratic Republic of Congo), the UN Mission In 2008, the report of the Secretary-General on in Nepal (UNMIN), the UN Mission for the the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO), the Disabilities and the Optional Protocol referred to UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) and the UN the advocacy work of UNMAS and the new toolk- Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). it. The report also noted that the toolkit will raise 7 awareness of the importance of improving the The feedback indicated a general awareness of the accessibility of UN facilities and services. adoption and/or entry into force of the convention and its provisions. Many respondents viewed the UNMAS continues to update the Human Rights convention as an opportunity to address the Treaty Monitoring Database on its website to help specific needs and rights of persons with disabilities mine action programmes ensure that relevant in their particular contexts. The range of activities information is included in reports to donors and described demonstrated concern for several key the various treaty bodies. principles of the convention, especially participation, non-discrimination and accessibility. Colleagues also gave examples of awareness-raising Engaging Non-State Actors initiatives and advocacy efforts towards the ratification and implementation of the convention. A Anti-personnel mines and other victim-activated new convention advocacy toolkit was developed arms are still being used by non-state actors in a Photo: Arne Hodalic 29
  • 16. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 number of countries and territories. The 2008 year, but some past signatories have undertaken Republic (Lao PDR), and a representative from Gender Stocktaking Workshop Landmine Monitor Report chronicled the use of mineaction activities, including stockpile destruc- the National Committee for Demining and these weapons by non-state actors in Afghanistan, tion, during the year. Throughout 2008, UNMAS Rehabilitation in Jordan. The fact that men were In September 2008, interested UNMAT members, Colombia, Ecuador, India, Iraq, Myanmar, Pakistan, provided a grant to Geneva Call with funds from the among the panellists demonstrated their with the assistance of UNMAS and the UN Logistics Peru and Sri Lanka. Non-state actors stopped using Government of Italy to ensure the continuity of their necessary role in mainstreaming gender. The Base, convened a global workshop to take stock them in Lebanon and Chechnya during the same core activities. By the end of the year, discussions presence of senior staff underscored their of the wealth of experiences gained since the period. UNMAS supports efforts to encourage were held with respect to the provision of new grant responsibility for advancing the roles of women launch of the “Gender Guidelines for Mine Action armed non-state actors to make and uphold commit- funds provided by the governments of Italy and the and men, girls and boys as active participants of Programmes” and the National Gender Action Plan ments relevant to landmines and ERW, including Netherlands. mine action programmes. model. The meeting brought together a small group halting the use of anti-personnel mines. UNMAS of field practitioners who have been engaged in commends the efforts in this field by Geneva Call, an mainstreaming gender in their programmes, and who international NGO dedicated to urging non-state Gender and Mine Action Good practices and lessons learned included: have measured successes or encountered challenges actors to respect international humanitarian norms in designing and implementing such programmes by signing a “Deed of Commitment for the To implement the provisions of paragraph 28 of The benefits of women’s participation in the prioritiza- over the past four years. Participants came from Adherence to a Total Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines “Mine Action and Effective Coordination: The tion process for identifying the gender impacts of UXO OCHA, UNDP, UNICEF, UNMAS, UNHCR, several contamination; and for Cooperation in Mine Action.” There were no United Nations Inter-Agency Policy” and the NGOs, and the national mine action authorities of new signatories to the Deed of Commitment this “Gender Guidelines for Mine Action Programmes,” The need to target mine risk education messages Cambodia and Lao PDR. Resource persons experi- UNMAS has organized several activities to promote and approaches to high-risk populations and/or enced in training and gender capacity issues also gender equality in mine action this year. behaviours; attended. Discussions from workshops in Dubai in The benefits of providing employment opportunities 2006 and Nairobi in 2007 were elaborated in a for clearance and other mine action personnel to both stocktaking session that collected good practices Updates on National Gender Action Plans women and men;8 and lessons learned. The group also reviewed the The need to review national standards to ensure that current “Gender Guidelines for Mine Action During the 11th International Meeting of National gender guidelines are incorporated in national gender Programmes,” covering the four pillars of mine Mine Action Directors and UN Advisers, UNMAS, action plans; clearance, mine risk education, victim assistance in coordination with UNMAT, designed one of the The good practice of including gender-sensitive and advocacy. It identified practical examples of plenary sessions to provide an update on the objectives in national action plans, which makes the implementation. The workshop concluded that, gender action plans in a number of mine-affected pre-and post-clearance process reflect the needs within the mine action sector, the practice of countries. The discussion that ensued involved the of women, men, girls and boys, while also ensuring including gender perspectives is expanding. sharing of experiences and lessons learned among that the mine action framework, and mine risk Various mine action practitioners and beneficiaries education and victim assistance activities respond to participants and the panel, and supported have embraced gender policies, which has resulted gender concerns; and participants in their efforts to fulfil obligations in enhanced impacts under most of the mine posed by the “DPKO Policy Directive on Gender The need to accompany gender-sensitive programmes action pillars. It was also evident that successes and deliverables with indicators to measure Mainstreaming.” A senior female staff member are not consistent throughout the sector. Cross- achievements, with an aim to universalize gender in from MACCA led the session. Panelists included mine clearance processes, ensure the participation of network learning is only beginning to bear its first staff from the Cambodian Mine Action Authority, a women in mine clearance planning processes, and fruits. Learning needs to be homogenized, existing Photo: Arne Hodalic UNDP senior technical adviser, the national increase government commitment to mainstreaming tools should be available to national authorities, programme director of Lao People’s Democratic gender into mine action. and impacts should be monitored and evaluated. 30 31
  • 17. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 Gender Balance in Mine Action Programmes from 395 staff in 2005 to 677 staff in 2008, but the percentage of female employees has declined from UNMAS examined sex-disaggregated statistics for 14 percent in 2005 to 10.6 percent in 2008 which national and international staff employed in mine could be attributed to the increased number of action centres in Afghanistan, Burundi, Chad, the field-based personnel integrated into coordination Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Lebanon, centre staff. Nepal, Somalia, Sudan and Western Sahara from 2005 to 2008. With respect to the previous year, the The percentage of national female staff employed at trend in 2008 showed an increase in the percentage MACCA has dropped from 4 percent in 2005 to 2.5 of women international staff and a decrease in percent in 2008, largely due to the integration of a women national staff employed in mine action cen- large number of male field-based personnel into tres. MACCA staff when quality management teams were centralized. Among international staff, however, Among international staff, the number of women women now hold five of the eight senior staff increased to over 20 percent. Most notably, positions (at section or departmental chief level or however, 2008 saw an increase in women in senior above, and including the deputy director). Senior positions. This enhanced women’s participation in female staff members also hold other key national decision-making and provided opportunities for and international posts in other operations. them to serve as role models for other women staff members and programme beneficiaries. Photo: Arne Hodalic Photo: Arne Hodalic The importance of gender balance among national staff is particularly critical and requires systematic attention. Increased and sustained mine risk Experiences and expertise shared during the work- Other Activities education activities have to be conducted by female shop will be used to revise the gender guidelines in staff in order to reach women, especially in highly 2009 through proposals for amendments and a list In 2008, UNMAS periodically convened the traditional societies where sex segregation is the of practical examples of implementation for each of IACG-MA Steering Committee on Gender and Mine norm. The notion that it is preferable to have mine the checklists. An online discussion facilitated by the Action, which was the forum where preparations for risk education seminars for women conducted by Gender Community of Practice among mine action the stocktaking workshop were discussed. UNMAS women should be applied. Women also have to be practitioners and experts will assess progress under also participated in other inter-departmental and part of decision-making on the prioritization of mine the National Gender Action Plan, identify challenges inter-agency gender fora, including the DPKO clearance activities from the onset. This ensures that and indicators of achievement, provide a venue for Gender Taskforce and the OCHA Gender Capacity gender-sensitive provisions are put in place at a time sharing good practices and lessons learned in main- Inter-Agency Steering Committee meetings, where when they can be most effective. streaming gender in mine action, collect case studies UNMAS contributed to decisions on the selection, from each country programme, and determine recruitment and deployment of gender advisers The following tables illustrate that total employment training needs. to field missions. at UN mine action centres has increased dramatically 32 33
  • 18. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 2005 2006 National International National International Location Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Afghanistan: MACCA 6 (4%) 142 6(23%) 20 10(3%) 308 6(31%) 13 Burundi: UN Operation in Burundi (ONUB) Mine Action Coordination Livelihood projects targeting a wide range of Photo: Arne Hodalic Centre (MACC) 4 (36) 7 0 2 4 (36) 7 0 1 women beneficiaries and linked to mine action Democratic Republic of have enhanced women’s participation in their Congo: MONUC MACC 2 (20) 8 1 (20) 4 2 (20) 8 1 (16) 5 communities. During the first quarter of 2008, Eritrea: UN Mission in the MACC-SL implemented a livelihood project Ethiopia and Eritrea funded by the Japanese Government in support (UNMEE) MACC 16 (29) 38 2 (25) 6 16 (29) 39 2 (22) 7 of the UNTFHS. It covered four villages Lebanon: UN Interim contaminated by cluster bombs. The project Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) was designed to ensure equal access by both MACC-SL 6 (28) 15 0 4 10 (37) 17 2 (14) 12 women and men who have lost their income Sudan: UNMAO 11 (15) 58 3 (8) 34 13 (13) 81 9 (17) 43 and have dependents. After the distribution of Total 45 (14) 268 12 (14) 70 55 (10) 460 20 (19) 81 400 agricultural nylon traps, women farmers were able to take their children to a safe place for recreation away from the threat of cluster bombs, while the MACC-SL conducted clear- 2007 2008 ance in their village. In the Lebanese village of National International National International Sidiqin, women manage family beekeeping Location Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male businesses. A German-funded beehive project provided 99 beehives to 33 families and Afghanistan: MACCA 11(3%) 332 6(26%) 17 9(2.5%) 343 6(35%) 11 planted 230 blossoming trees along the roads. Burundi: UN Operation in Burundi (ONUB) Mine Action Coordination Centre (MACC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Democratic Republic of National and International UNMAS Field Programme Staff by Gender (2005-2008) Congo: MONUC MACC 2 (20) 8 1 (16) 5 2 (20) 8 1 (14) 6 Chad: UN Mission in the Central African Republic and 2008 MALE Chad (MINURCAT) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 (33) 2 Eritrea: FEMALE (UNMEE) MACC 18 (24) 55 2 (18) 9 1 (20) 4 2 (66) 1 2007 Lebanon: (UNIFIL) MACC- 11 (35) 20 3 (14) 18 12 (38) 19 3 (20) 12 Sudan: UNMAO 14 (13) 88 8 (14) 47 20 (13) 126 8 (17) 38 2006 Western Sahara: MINURSO 0 0 1 (100) 0 0 0 1 (50) 1 2005 Somalia: Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Action (VTF) 0 0 0 0 2 (16) 10 3 (18) 13 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Nepal: UNMIN 0 0 1 (33) 2 0 6 1 (16) 5 Total 56 (10) 503 22 (18) 98 46 (8) 516 26 (22) 89 34 35
  • 19. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 COMMUNICATING TO THE PUBLIC AND OTHER CONSTITUENCIES Summary 2005 Coordinating Communications interviews to enable them to develop news and feature to Maximize Impact stories, helping to boost reporting on mine action. Female Male Total Total 57 338 395 Meetings of the IACG-MA Communications UNMAS and UNDP organized a press trip to Iraq in Working Group, which UNMAS chairs, resulted in November to draw attention to the struggle against National 45 268 313 inter-agency plans to raise public and media aware- landmines in the north. The trip was timed to coincide International 12 70 82 ness about events such as the launch of the with the Ninth Meeting of States Parties to the Anti- Portfolio of Mine Action Projects 2009, the Ninth Personnel Mine-Ban Treaty and the International Day Meeting of States Parties to the Anti-Personnel for Persons with Disabilities. Numerous stories were Summary 2006 Mine-Ban Treaty, the opening for signature of the filed by Reuters, Al Jazeera, NRC Handelsblad (the Female Male Total Convention on Cluster Munitions and the presenta- Netherlands) and ARD German Public Radio; they tion of the Nansen Award to the MACC-SL. The focused mainly on the challenges faced by landmine Total 75 541 616 meetings brought together communications focal survivors. National 55 460 515 points from UNMAS, UNDP, UNICEF, UNHCR, the Office of Disarmament Affairs and occasionally International 20 81 101 other members of UNMAT. Coordination of com- Support to the Field munications led to extensive global press coverage, particularly around the International Day for Mine UNMAS field offices relied on information materials Summary 2007 Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action, which provided by headquarters to support their own media Female Male Total was featured by newspapers, magazines and relations linked to global events, such as the opening for broadcasters in more than 40 countries. signature of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, and Total 78 601 679 the International Day for Mine Awareness and National 56 503 559 In addition, UNMAS coordinated its communica- Assistance in Mine Action. tions efforts with the UN Department of Public International 22 98 120 Information in New York and its global network of Media training for information focal points in field offices information centres, which played an important took place at DPKO’s Logistical Base in Brindisi. It role in disseminating messages from UNMAS and provided a range of media relations skills, particularly Summary 2008 UNMAT to local and international media. techniques for conducting television interviews. Female Male Total Total 72 605 677 Keeping Mine Action in the Public Eye Website Management National 46 516 562 UNMAS media relations and other forms of out- In 2008, improvements to the E-MINE website at International 26 89 115 reach helped raise the profile of UNMAT among the included updating the Human media, NGOs, donors and the general public in Rights Treaty Monitoring Database, which allows users to 2008. Throughout the year, UNMAS provided jour- track which countries have ratified key treaties Global mine action activities were made possible thanks to the support of Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, nalists with background information and arranged related to mine action, and survivors of landmines and Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom and in part through the unearmarked support provided by Andorra, the Holy See, Japan, New Zealand and Sweden. 36 37
  • 20. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 INTERNATIONAL MINE ACTION STANDARDS IMAS remain an influential guide for mine-affected consensus more difficult to achieve. The anticipated countries in developing their own standards work on reviewing IMAS and the general assessment and for implementing partners in conducting of need for a mine action response and the conduct their operations. The IMAS website at www.mine- of technical surveys has been affected by some continues to be the main source resistance to change and different definitions. of information for a wide variety and increasing num- GICHD produced the anticipated new drafts of the ber of unique visitors. standard on land release, but the comments received indicated the need for a revised presentation. The IMAS Review Board, which comprises represen- tatives from UN agencies, donor countries, NGOs, commercial demining companies and other key stakeholders is charged with agreeing on the need for new standards, and ensuring that each standard is reviewed and updated every three years. A board meeting was held in Geneva in March 2008 where the annual state of the standards was presented and a 2009 work plan approved. UNMAS submitted four new standards to IACG-MA at the principals’ level; they were subsequently endorsed. The new standards are: Guide to the Establishment of Mine Action Programmes, Battle Area Clearance, Protection of the Environment and Guide for the Evaluation of Mine Action Intervention. Photo: Arne Hodalic Work has continued on potential new standards ERW. The development, editing, design, layout and Building Constituencies Within (Guide for Development of National Mine Action production of the Portfolio of Mine Action Projects the United Nations Standards, Information Management, Management 2009 were carried out entirely through a content- of Training, Guide to Quality Management in Mine management system within E-MINE. The new The United Nation Mission Action Service informed Action, Guide to Risk Management in Mine Action, system reduces the time and expense involved in the other parts of the United Nations about its mission Demining Machine Operators Safety and previous manual arrangements to compile and and achievements by posting numerous stories to Mechanical Area Reduction). The Management of produce the publication. About 1,000 different the news section of the “iSeek” Intranet site, raising Training standard is now ready and awaiting visitors come to the E-MINE website every week, with visibility about the cause of mine action and endorsement by the IACG-MA. spikes in web traffic during special events, such as the drawing attention to UNMAS relationship to its International Day for Mine Awareness and parent Office of Rule of Law and Security With the maturity of mine action today, the degree Photo: Arne Hodalic Assistance in Mine Action. Institutions (OROLSI). of consultation has greatly increased, making 38 39
  • 21. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 DEVELOPING AND APPLYING NEW TECHNOLOGIES This work has carried over to 2009. The exercise of Facilitating Information-Sharing on (ITEP), has continued to attend the meetings and thoroughly analysing the process to deal with sus- New Technologies support the programme’s spirit and intentions. The pected land has been very useful, requiring some mandate of ITEP is drawing to a close in mid-2010, revised thinking. In late 2008, a complete review of UNMAS was closely involved in two meetings relat- with concern about its future after that. To promote IMAS was discussed with regard to gender. A small ed to technology in 2008. The first was the annual an extension, UNMAS and GICHD submitted a joint project began work on this. Members of the UN Symposium on Technology, organized by CROMAC letter commending the concept of ITEP and recog- Coordinating Action on Small Arms requested and the Croatian Centre for Testing, Development nizing achievements to date. UNMAS also submitted UNMAS to share experiences gained in the initial and Training Ltd. It coincided with the 11th suggestions for future work and requested follow-up process of developing industry standards. Advice was International Meeting for National Mine Action testing on facial protective equipment in accordance provided to the consultant coordinating this work. Directors and UN Advisers. Attendees witnessed with the new CEN workshop agreement on personal two field demonstrations of equipment and dogs. A protective equipment. This is the second time that IMAS have been refer- display of products was held nearby, with represen- enced in the production of other standards, and is a tatives from manufacturers in attendance to discuss UNMAS has strongly encouraged ITEP members to testament to their credibility and application. equipment performance and advantages. The sec- support testing for all flails available for mine action, Previously, advice from UNMAS had been requested ond event was a Mine Action Technology Workshop, as well as the machines that can use both flail and for the drafting of the Integrated Disarmament, jointly sponsored in Geneva by UNMAS and GICHD. tiller front-end attachments. This will provide much Demobilization and Reintegration Standards. Over 75 people attended from 33 countries. There needed information for mine action programme were many varied presentations, and opportunities managers. UNMAS has contributed to and remains UNMAS has provided considerable input to the for discussion and exchanges. The post-workshop totally supportive of the test on the new range of dual development of several workshop agreements questionnaire indicated, once again, that there is sensor detectors, which has now been delayed until produced by the European Committee for considerable value in bringing together those who the autumn of 2009. Standardisation (CEN).The funding for this has now are responsible for techniques and operations. ceased, and future involvement will be greatly Another joint meeting is planned for 2010. reduced. While the CEN workshop agreement on the Supporting Research and Development testing of mechanical devices in mine action has UNMAS and GICHD continued to produce the joint been very well received and has guided several tests, Technology Newsletter as a way of disseminating Throughout the year, there was a steady increase in the agreement on the testing of personal protective information to a wider community. This compliments the deployment of machines for the preparation of equipment has proved to be more difficult to apply in the James Madison University Journal of Mine ground prior to clearance, and, in some cases, for the practice and so will be reviewed in 2009. In 2008, Action, which UNMAS assists through the peer actual verification of suspected land. This is a reflec- two agreements on the processes following the use review of all articles on technology. tion of the continual promotion of information about of machines were completed and are now current— the performance and testing of machines by CWA 15832.2008 Post Mechanical Clearance UNMAS, and its support to technical conferences Requirements and CWA 15833.2008 Quality International Test and Evaluation Programme and ITEP. Several machines have undergone addi- Management (QA and QC) for Mechanical tional development following lessons learned from Demining. The agreement on the characterization of UNMAS, as an observer to the meetings of the practical application. UNMAS assisted UNOPS in soils, and their influence on metal detectors and Executive Committee and the Board of Directors of selecting more machines to be deployed in UN-sup- Photo: Arne Hodalic ground-penetrating radars is close to completion. the International Test and Evaluation Programme ported operations in 2008, which saw a significant 40 41
  • 22. 2008 Headquarters Coordination and Thematic Activities 2008 increase in the deployment of machines with flail and tiller attachments for the processing of suspected land. UNMAS, with funds from the Government of Japan, also supported a technology officer at GICHD. UNMAS In 2008, the UNMAS technology coordinator continued to respond to technical questions from a wide variety of sources and provided advice on A major conclusion from the UNMAS and GICHD Mine Action Technology Workshop was that tech- nology is as much about improving techniques as it is COUNTRY locating additional information. Private develop- ment continues in the areas of roller attachments, flails and neutralization devices among others, and about creating new devices. As a result, programmes were strongly advised to look inwardly at procedures to identify ways of improving efficiency, as well as to PROGRAMMES technical input was provided concerning the pursue the normal search for new devices through handling of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). traditional research and development processes. UNMAS currently provides direct support and assistance to 10 UN peacekeeping missions, and Photo: Arne Hodalic technical advice to 4 more. Missions with large-scale mine action programmes are the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), UNMEE (under liquidation), the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), the UN Mission in Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT), the AU-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), the UN Mission in Nepal (UNMIN) and the UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO).. The last four missions all commenced operations in 2006 and 2007, while the scale of the programme in UNIFIL increased exponentially following the war in 2006. The four missions that are regularly provided with technical advice and support are UNMIL, the UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), the UN Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) and the UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF). Photo: Mark Craemer 42
  • 23. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 AFGHANISTAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF Highlights to more than 2,724 hazards covering an estimated impacted communities are found in 12 of the relationships with a range of ministries to ensure total area of 691 square kilometres, with these country’s 34 provinces. Approximately 2.7 percent of the spread of mine action concerns into wider Mine clearance results increased markedly with over hazards impacting over 2,220 communities and all Afghans are severely disabled, with landmine and development plans, including the Turkmenistan, 84,000 anti-personnel mines removed during the year, tens of thousands of inhabitants. There were 695 ERW accidents accounting for around 8.6 percent of Afghanistan, Pakistan and India Pipeline project and compared to 355,499 from 1989 to 2007. victims of landmines and ERW recorded in 2008. this total. The impact of disability on economic par- the Aynak Copper Mine project. Significant progress was made in transferring responsi- Over 89 percent of the victims were male, and 57 ticipation is substantial, impoverishing survivors and bility for mine action to the Government of percent were children. This is a significant their families, straining government and other health MACCA provides regular updates on progress Afghanistan. reduction in casualties since 2005, when over 100 care systems, and limiting economic growth and achieved against the National Development Strategy MAPA is half way to achieving its specified benchmark people per month were falling victim, a rate that poverty reduction. and Compact to Afghanistan’s Joint Coordination within the Afghanistan Compact of clearing 70 percent has dropped to less than 60 in 2008, providing and Monitoring Body. The mine action programme is of affected land by the end of 2010. a significant indicator of progress towards the UN Over 20 NGO and commercial implementing part- also guided by the obligations of the Government to strategic goal of reducing death and injury by ners are working throughout the country in all areas the mine-ban treaty, which requires clearing all Context and Challenges 50 percent by the end of 2010. of mine action. These partners employ over 8,000 emplaced anti-personnel mines in Afghanistan by Afghan national staff, deploy in over 500 operational March 2013; destroying all known anti-personnel Mine and ERW contamination in Afghanistan comes Mines and ERW not only threaten Afghans with teams and implement activities throughout every mine stockpiles by March 2007; and providing mine from widespread use of mines and explosive physical harm, but they also rob farmers of their region. risk education to the Afghan people, and assisting ordnance during more than two decades of conflict. livelihoods, and impede housing, resettlement and those who have been injured by mines and UXO. The current known mine contamination extends the grazing of livestock. Seventy-five percent of the Their 2008 efforts were coordinated by MACCA, which is supported by UNMAS and the Government Additional efforts were also made by MACCA of Afghanistan. MACCA worked to ensure that oper- in 2008 to assist the Government in its considera- Casualties in Afghanistan, 2008 ations were in line with government objectives out- tion of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with lined within the Afghanistan Compact and the Disabilities. Afghanistan became a signatory to the Male Afghan National Development Strategy. These Convention on Cluster Munitions in December Age 0-18 Age 19+ Age Unknown Total objectives require: 2008. Injured 208 241 58 507 By March 2011, a reduction in the known land area Killed 75 67 11 153 contaminated by mines and UXO by 70 percent; Despite enormous progress, the operating Total CHART 283 308 69 660 By the end of 2007, all known stockpiled anti-per- sonnel mines to be located and destroyed (completed); and environment for MAPA continued to be extremely challenging. Security incidents, direct attacks, abductions and banditry continued throughout Female the year, resulting in the deaths of 11 deminers and Age 0-18 Age 19+ Age Unknown Total By the end of 2010, all unsafe, unserviceable and the injury of an additional 18. Fifty-one deminers Injured 38 19 1 58 surplus ammunition to be destroyed. were abducted, although subsequently released, Killed 7 9 - 16 except for one who remains missing. In addition, the Total 45 28 1 74 Mine action has been strongly integrated into nation- programme suffered losses and destruction of equip- al development planning. It is a benchmark in formal ment and premises, including the MACCA mine dog Total Male & Female 328 336 70 734 government development strategies, and part of accreditation site, resulting in its closure and the national MDGs. MACCA has formed strong relocation in August 2008. 44 45
  • 24. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 The programme has nonetheless found innovative topic for the MASG in November 2008. Afghanistan UNMAS met with major evaluation teams on mine action. MACCA’s coordination role was and effective ways to deliver mine action operations was included in a range of donor briefings in capitals, conducting analyses of the programme, including demonstrated through the conduct of strategic and throughout almost the entire country. Successful and at permanent missions in New York and Geneva. those from the Danish International Development operational planning for the programme, including community liaison work and a strong investment in These activities, in concert with those of MACCA, Agency (DANIDA), the Swedish International the development, execution and oversight of the developing local relationships enabled initiatives in a resulted in approximately US $47 million being Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), the 1386 and 1387 operational work plans (each plan range of areas where operations had previously received by the VTF for the programme in 2008, Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) runs from 1 April through 31 March, in line with the ceased due to security risks, and strengthened the including significant multilateral contributions from and the European Commission. UNMAS met Afghan governmental year). These plans saw the security of those teams working on existing sites. the governments of Australia, Canada, Italy and regularly with the major bilateral donors to the effective deployment and monitoring of over 500 The security focal points within MACCA and imple- Japan. The contributions, combined with multi-year programme, including the governments of Germany operational teams and the conduct of related quality menting partners remained in regular and systemat- funds received previously, including from the and the United Kingdom, the United States assurance tasks, as well as ongoing information ic contact with their counterparts throughout the European Commission, enabled a programme of Department of State, and its executing agencies. management for all mine action assets, whether country in order to achieve the best possible overall work of US $50 million for 2008. Additional support funded through the VTF, bilaterally or commercially. security posture. was provided by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, the Netherlands and Spain. Coordination and Training At the level of the area mine action centres, localized planning is conducted within the framework of the Achievements Unfortunately, due to the impact of the global In 2002, the Government of Afghanistan entrusted national work plans. The centres liaise with commu- financial crisis and exchange rate fluctuations, the interim responsibility for mine action programme nities to meet priorities and needs in the area. Afghanistan programme closed 2008 with limited coordination to the United Nations, a role imple- Additional liaison work is done with local governance Support from UNMAS Headquarters confirmed funding for 2009. Intense efforts to raise mented in the field through MACCA and area mine structures focused on humanitarian and develop- additional funds began in late 2008; as of December, action centres in Kabul, Kandahar, Mazar, Herat, ment assistance to ensure integrated approaches UNMAS continued to provide direct assistance for sufficient funding had not yet been identified to Jalalabad, Gardez and Kunduz. MACCA, which is to delivery of assistance wherever possible. international resource mobilization and management support the programme objectives for 2009. supported by funding provided through the VTF, for the Afghanistan programme, as well as direct works in partnership with the government Beyond the partnership with DMC, significant coordination with the Government of Afghanistan UNMAS worked with the Office of Operations of Department of Mine Clearance (DMC), an office of progress was made in transitioning other elements of and UN partners including UNOPS, the UN DPKO to ensure mine action was fully integrated the Afghan National Disaster Management mine action from the United Nations to the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization into the reports of the Secretary-General on the situ- Authority. Government. MACCA strengthened its already well- (UNESCO), UNICEF and UNDP. UN Mine Action ation in Afghanistan, and other briefing materials for established advisory offices within ministries, and Service conducted regular technical missions to the consideration at the senior management level of the This relationship was formalized in an agreement enhanced its work with the Ministry of Education country, often jointly with UNOPS, and met with rep- United Nations and beyond. Regular coordination between the United Nations and Government in (MoE), the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH), and resentatives of UNAMA, the UN Country Team, activities were also conducted with the Department February 2008, a situation further strengthened the Ministry of Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled UNDP, UNESCO, key donors and international part- of Safety and Security, OCHA, UNDP, UNICEF and by DMC’s relocation to the MACCA office site in (MoLSAMD). ners, as well as all implementing partners operating the World Bank to boost the visibility of the April 2008. The ongoing efforts of MACCA and throughout the country. programme. Various media, educational, and DMC were guided by the work of an Inter- Highlights of this process included the introduction technical interviews and events took place, including Ministerial Board for Mine Action that met for of mine risk education monitoring mechanisms to UNMAS also supported Afghanistan as a prominent the placement of articles in mainstream media and the first time in January 2008, with further meet- MoE regional activities in August 2008, support of element of the international resource mobilization statements from the spokesperson of the ings occurring in July and August. This body now the First Inter-ministerial Task Force for Disability process for 2008 by placing it as the main country Secretary-General. has the formal role of shaping government policy meeting hosted by the MoLSAMD in October 2008, 46 47
  • 25. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 and the approval by MoLSAMD of the first National Such definition has enabled formation of an integrat- MACCA’s relationship to UNAMA was maintained had the impact of reducing their organizational com- Disability Action Plan in October 2008. Support was ed office combining the capacities of both DMC and through regular participation in the UN Senior plexity, while increasing their ability to quickly apply also maintained for the Afghan Red Crescent Society MACCA, and facilitates joint planning and action. Management Team and Humanitarian Country the most appropriate responses to local problems. It (ARCS) to implement mine risk education activities Team, and through incorporation into the newly has improved prospects for developing community in the field. The number of international advisers continued to launched cluster approach to humanitarian relationships, and reduced exposure to potential decline in 2008, with fully qualified Afghan national coordination. As a result, mine action was fully criminal or insurgent attacks due to fewer long-haul Within MACCA itself, organizational restructuring staff taking on positions as expatriate posts were integrated into the Humanitarian Action Plan road movements. Stronger management processes, continued with a view to increasing national phased out. By the end of the year, the number of developed in 2008, with support to operations being local ownership of the contamination problem and ownership and shifting to an emphasis on the office’s international staff had dropped to 15, of whom given a priority one status. Mine action is also increased knowledge should result. coordination role. This is a critical step in terms of one-third were women, including the deputy included in the UNDAF that will be released in 2009, defining relationships with implementing partners, programme director, senior programme officer, and in the reports of the UN Secretary-General Throughout 2007 and 2008, MAPA implementing donors and the Government, as it has served to focus senior communications officer, and chief of throughout the year. partners continued to be the target of an increasing a role that has previously extended beyond administration, finance and logistics. number of security incidents, ranging from personnel coordination and into areas including the Relationships were maintained with other interna- abductions and theft of equipment to direct attacks management of implementing partners and Unfortunately, due to the loss of some key female tional actors such as the World Bank, the Asian and ambushes on teams and bases. Over 50 governance. This shift has brought additional clarity staff members, the percentage of female national Development Bank, the North Atlantic Treaty deminers were killed, injured or abducted. in organizational responsibilities and ownership of staff dropped from 3 percent to 2.6 percent in 2008. Organization (NATO), other international security Assessments of these attacks have indicated that processes, and also in the roles and activities subject As a result, the programme has increased its efforts forces, and representatives of key donors such as the once traditional MAPA model of bringing to transition and government involvement. to identify and recruit suitably qualified female Australia, Canada, Denmark, the European demining teams from one part of the country into personnel where possible. A range of MACCA staff Commission, Finland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, areas where different local tribal and community participated in gender-related training and the United Kingdom and the United States. environments exist is one of increasing risk, with the workshops in Afghanistan and abroad Partnerships with UNESCO aided the clearance of humanitarian nature of the tasks no longer being throughout 2008. World Heritage sites in Bamyan. sufficient to assure the security of teams, despite their historically neutral image. MACCA developed and oversaw a survey of 300 women in three central provinces (Kabul, Parwan Operations Unfortunately, many attacks take place in the areas and Kapisa) with a goal of identifying gender-specif- of greatest need for both mine action operations, and ic considerations within programme planning, infor- MAPA continued to produce significant operational humanitarian and development activities, largely in mation management, data collection and education and institutional results during 2008. Efforts to the south and east of Afghanistan. These communi- opportunities within all mine action activities. The increase outputs and effectiveness were sustained, ties are the most economically marginalized. They survey also captured the perceptions of women and diverse projects and approaches were initiated have limited state or local support structures, or working and living in proximity to mine- and ERW- to respond to ongoing operational needs. external assistance due to access or security issues. affected areas. The preliminary results are now being Recognizing their needs, UNMAS and MACCA, in assessed and will form a baseline for further survey One important step was the regional refocusing of partnership with the DMC, are committed to finding and analysis, while also informing priority-setting Afghan national NGOs working on mine action, and a way to deliver mine action services in such loca- and planning activities currently underway. the centralizing of their operational, administrative tions. Extensive consultation with MAPA partners Photo: Cris Stephen The full results will be released in early 2009. and logistical approaches and structures. This has has focused on developing appropriate and secure 48 49
  • 26. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 techniques for doing so. Central to this approach has outreach or local economic programmes, for exam- idated into operations to improve efficiencies and been the establishment and expansion of a compre- ple. Where possible, links with existing and planned is carried out by 63 operations associates throughout hensive community-based demining programme tar- UN humanitarian and development activities can the country. geted at areas where other modalities may be less be identified to harmonize approaches and ensure - effective or of higher risk, and where the need for increased impact. Mine action assets were deployed to meet the mine action is great. This approach has proven to be planned outputs of the 1386 and 1387 operational effective where projects are successfully anchored Based on the progress achieved in 2008, the work plans, support the regionalization of NGOs, and within the local population (such as in Tora Bora in programme provides excellent opportunities for fulfil requirements for shifts due to the winter and Nangahar Province of eastern Afghanistan). It is built replication, as once the model has been summer seasons. The resulting operational outputs on the premise that 90 percent of the personnel and implemented in one community, it can be explained included the destruction of over 84,000 anti-person- resources needed for the project are sourced locally. and the positive outcomes demonstrated, encourag- nel mines, almost 1,000 anti-tank mines and over 2.5 A small cadre of experienced mine action staff liaise ing participation and execution in neighbouring million ERW. These results were a significant directly with target communities to identify person- localities. increase over those from 2007, due largely to the nel to be hired and trained on site, while supporting increased knowledge of the mine threat from an vehicles and supplies are rented or procured locally. This approach is enabling Afghanistan to make ongoing national polygon survey, and the deploy- The strategy has the multiplier effect of bringing otherwise unachievable progress towards its ment of clearance assets into more tightly defined income into hundreds of local households as a sup- clearance commitments under the mine-ban treaty minefield sites. Over 49 square kilometres of mine- plement to their existing earnings (demining is a half- and Afghanistan Compact. Initial targets include fields and almost 112 square kilometres of former day activity allowing for retention of existing eight districts within Farah, Nimroz, Kandahar battle area were cleared with mechanical, manual employment), while creating opportunities for addi- and Helmand, with operations having commenced and dog-assisted approaches. tional revenue from subsequent development activities. in three. Photo: Cris Stephen Over 1.4 million people received mine risk education, In this approach, the concept of community is critical. Another significant achievement during 2008 was of whom over 40 percent were female and 70 per- It is not seen strictly as a locality. Based on the the clearance of all hazardous areas within central in Shindand and Badghis provinces, with two com- cent were children. Training for MoE teachers contin- environment, a community can be a single village, a Bamyan, except those within the World Heritage mercial organizations conducting operations after ued, with over 15,000 instructed on mine risk educa- cluster of villages in a valley, a district, or two halves sites that require expert archaeological guidance. submitting winning bids. tion messages and teaching techniques. of two different districts related by a common cultur- This project, supported entirely by the Government al group. As such, the local population defines the of Japan, resulted in the clearance of almost two During the year, MACCA oversaw the deployment of These activities marked significant progress towards notion of community. They have ownership of the square kilometres during the summer of 2008, as over 500 mine action team assets nationwide. These mitigating risks to communities and increasing free- process to clear threats local to them. well as the conduct of EOD clearance in all 146 included 210 manual demining teams, 58 mechani- dom of movement. Throughout 2008, 500 commu- villages in the centre of Bamyan. Operations to cal demining units, 50 mine detection dog assets nities had local hazards completely removed, thereby At the same time, the community-based programme finalize the clearance of the World Heritage sites will (sets and groups), 79 EOD teams and 105 mine risk reducing threats to hundreds of thousands of people opens opportunities for external actors to use mine be completed in 2009, with the expert assistance education teams. Twenty-two landmine impact who had previously been living in proximity to mined action as a platform for other development or of UNESCO. In 2008, the first UN-supported com- assessment teams were also deployed to conduct areas and former battlefields. Unfortunately, during humanitarian activities. MACCA envisages carefully petitive tendering process took place in Afghanistan. an ongoing review of impact survey information the course of the year, 50 deminers suffered accidents designed initiatives building on the foundations of As a result, targeted mine action operations were and identify the outcomes of previous clearance during operations, with 46 being injured and four dying. mine clearance to provide sustainable agricultural executed in two locations in the west of the country, work. Quality management has now been consol- Based on the ongoing review of the quality manage- 50 51
  • 27. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 VILLAGERS IN TAKHAR FREE TO FARM AGAIN ment processes in Afghanistan and the continued levels, including local populations, communities and victim assistance, and in particular disability assis- In the north-eastern province of Takhar in Afghanistan, empowerment of the NGO community, 2008 saw groups as well as governance institutions. Economic tance, were fully integrated into government struc- 200 families live in the remote, mine-plagued village of an increased emphasis on ensuring that implement- benefits include the ongoing increase in arable land, tures with MACCA support. The establishment of Shaikhandara-e-Bala. A MACCA implementing partner, ing partners act as owners of the quality which when taken in the context of food insecurity the Inter-Ministerial Board and identification of the the Mine Dog & Detection Centre (MDC), started management process to reduce the casualty rates. in Afghanistan makes targeted and rapid clearance DMC as a MACCA counterpart were other operations in June 2008, clearing two areas. In a cere- This emphasis will continue in 2009, along with a priority for any communities where blockages to important steps. The fostering of partnerships, mony in October, one parcel of 11,563 square metres adjustments to the process itself. accessible land exist. The ongoing clearance of integrated planning and the regularization of mine was returned to village elders. Five areas remain con- secondary routes and roadways frees movement, action at the national level represent milestones. taminated, and MDC is working to free them. and supports infrastructure and other forms of The ability of the Government to perform mine “For nine years we have been surrounded by landmines Impact development. Priorities include reconstruction of the action coordination has grown considerably. laid around our village during the 1996 to 2001 fighting national grid, pipeline work and tourism between the Taliban and the Northern Alliance,” said The principal strategic objectives of MAPA remained opportunities. Overall, the population of Afghanistan continued to village elder Najibullah. “Twenty villagers have died and the survey, marking and clearance of hazardous benefit from cleared land that resulted in increased a dozen have been maimed. Landmines have killed areas at sites in affected communities, and the provi- Mine action continues to have a significant impact agricultural outputs and more sustainable liveli- around 500 cattle, and 1,000 acres of our agricultural sion of targeted mine risk education to at-risk men, on the development planning of Afghanistan, hoods. The opening of routes and opportunities for land is not used.” Another villager, Mohammad Ali, women, boys and girls in impacted communities, although its potential contributions to increased development continued to improve infrastructure, described his personal experience. “I was grazing my and returnees at UNHCR assistance centres. In part- economic growth and sustainable development are freedom of movement and access. The institution cattle when I stepped on a landmine and lost my left nership with the DMC and on behalf of the inter- not yet sufficiently defined. Analysis can be expect- of community-based approaches and the targeting leg,” he said. ministerial body for mine action, MACCA continued ed to improve over 2009 with the implementation of the most marginalized communities fostered a to plan, coordinate, and provide quality management of a project to better assess mine clearance work and stability and security dividend beyond the physical The villagers have welcomed the clearance. Now their for mine action in line with the Afghanistan Compact the ongoing development of supporting socioeco- benefits of mine action, while the continued children walk with no fear in formerly mined areas. Poor and mine-ban treaty obligations. nomic data. analysis of gender perspectives on mine action farmers whose only livelihood is agriculture and live- enabled more focused delivery and better respons- stock can once more cultivate their land. These activities were aimed at providing a safe envi- In 2008, MACCA significantly enhanced its data es to community needs. ronment for the population, opportunities for devel- management processes, and the integration and Since the beginning of the operation, 64 anti-personnel opment and the continued recovery of the country. analysis of key information into planning processes. The programme intends to build on these achieve- mines have been destroyed. MDC has cleared 1 million Mine action has continued to meet these objectives These steps, coupled with the ongoing execution ments in 2009 through the execution of the most square metres of landmines in the north-eastern region by delivering consistent and tangible operational of the polygon survey, enabled increased focus for comprehensive and defined plan in its history. as a whole since January 2008. Nineteen anti-tank outputs, and contributing not only to the safety and mine action operations, and more effective coordi- ?Considerably increased support from the interna- mines, 438 anti-personnel mines and 48 UXO have security of the population, but also to economic nation and oversight at the national level. The divi- tional community will be required, however, to meet been destroyed. recovery efforts through clearance of land identified dends of this approach are demonstrated in the the goals of the Afghanistan Compact and mine-ban for agriculture, pastures, housing and reconstruction. large increase in mines destroyed during 2008, and treaty. For 2009 to 2010, this will require over US Population mobility in areas once considered ongoing improvements in productivity, safety and $107 million, with over US $531 million needed to inaccessible has increased. Real benefits come effectiveness. In terms of governance and owner- achieve all of the nation’s obligations by March 2013. when local communities can develop income and ship of the coordination process for mine action, The people of Afghanistan count on this support to trade, and declining casualty rates reduce the stress progress occurred in transferring responsibility reach their goal of being free from the impacts of on overstretched systems to manage disabilities. forthe programme from the United Nations to the mines and ERW. Photo: UNMAS Impacts from mine action stretch across sectors and Government. The areas of mine risk education and 52 53
  • 28. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 CHAD Highlights September 2008. All roads and routes to be used CND, creating a high-level committee designated as the by MINURCAT, the United Nations and humanitarian national authority for mine action. The committee will A mine action component was established within agencies need to be assessed and verified as safe for monitor and supervise the activities of the CND MINURCAT for developing a mine action programme movement. Severe constraints encompass the executive branch. in eastern Chad. challenging physical environment, the size of the A commercial mine clearance company was deployed area and the volatility of the security situation. To ensure that mine action is integrated into broader to conduct road verification and EOD in areas of recent development, reconstruction and humanitarian conflict. programmes, the national mine action plan has been Achievements aligned with the Government’s overall reconstruction Context and Challenges plans, Chad’s MDGs and the National Poverty Reduction Support from UNMAS Headquarters Strategy. Mine action has been included in the UN CCA Resolution 1778 (2007) of the Security Council and UNDAF, which have been approved by the established MINURCAT to help create the security Through a contribution from Japan, UNMAS Government. UNDP’s Country Programme Document conditions conducive to the voluntary, secure and has helped in recruiting international staff based in for Chad, prepared as the framework for interventions sustainable return of refugees and displaced persons. Abéché. They work in conjunction with CND from 2006 to 2010, is rooted in Chad’s national develop- Headquarters in Ndjamena, the CND Regional Office in ment priorities and goals, and was prepared with inputs The MINURCAT Mine Action component deployed Abéché and the UNDP-supported programme. from and consultations with all key stakeholders, includ- in September 2008 as a follow up to UNMAS also has assisted donor liaison work, ing line ministries, civil society, UN agencies and donors. recommendations made by the Secretary-General in securing funding for mine action activities from the his August 2007 report (S/2007/488). He proposed MINURCAT assessed budget and further support While UNMAS and UNDP agreed that UNDP would take a mine action capacity to assist MINURCAT in imple- from Spain to the VTF. the UN lead on mine action institutional development in menting its mandate. The MINURCAT programme is 2008 and beyond, the MINURCAT programme will also supplementing efforts carried out by the Photo: MINURCAT assist in strengthening capacity building for CND staff, Commissariat National de Déminage (CND), Coordination and Training with a particular focus on information and quality man- supported by a UNDP programme. Its objectives eastern Chad, and particularly along the border with agement. UNMAS, once fully deployed, will have the UN are: Developing and maintaining a mine action con- the Central African Republic, threats do come from Since 1997, UNDP has been aiding the Government operational lead for mine action in eastern Chad (includ- cept of operations and a mine action plan in support ERW and the potential for newly laid landmines with the coordination of the national mine action pro- ing external quality assurance and quality control for of MINURCAT, and establishing liaisons with mine around specific targets. The presence or even per- gramme through UNOPS. Clearance of landmines and UNOPS contracts whenever possible), in close consulta- action partners as appropriate; and supporting ception of landmines and ERW may affect road and ERW in Chad is mostly done through NGOs. Mine risk tion with the CND Regional Office in Abéché. MINURCAT and other partners (UN agencies and route access for UN staff and equipment, hindering education and mine victim assistance are carried out by NGOs) through the implementation of road and humanitarian projects. UNICEF and the ICRC. This approach ensures the most route assessments in areas of recent conflict, effective use of national and international resources. Operations including by gathering, processing and evaluating The main challenge is ERW contamination, for UN Planning and coordination of mine action activities so information on mine and ERW threats in order to staff and local populations, especially children, far have been based on the results of the Landmine Field operations initiated from Abéché were scheduled to ensure freedom of movement for MINURCAT and refugees and IDPs who are not familiar with the Impact Survey (LIS), new findings, new situations and commence in December 2008. Initial tasks include the the delivery of humanitarian assistance. Although it current situation. In 2007, 190 casualties were ad hoc technical surveys, which are the responsibility of implementation of the road verification and clearance is estimated that the landmine threat is fairly low in reported, with an additional 112 between January and the CND. In 2008, the Government reorganized the project through the contractor Minetech International, 54 55
  • 29. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 CLEARING ABOUGOULEM, AIMING FOR SAFE WATER DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO and the establishment of the Information Management MAG was contracted by UNOPS in May 2008 for Highlights Photo: Arne Hodalic System for Mine Action (IMSMA). As of December emergency EOD in eastern Chad. The first 2008, there were no UNMAS-sponsored mine risk deployment was in Abougoulem, 85 kilometres west The MACC’s operational capacities increased through education or other operational activities underway. of Abéché. Since the rebel attacks of February 2008, a the deployment of two additional international mine action operators. number of small villages are known to be surrounded As part of its efforts in eastern Chad in 2008, the by ERW. Access to the Oued River was dangerous A national focal point structure was created in March CND-UNDP mine action programme cleared 52 square because it entailed crossing the battlefield. A lot of 2008, and a national focal point appointed within the kilometres of land and destroyed 5,240 pieces of UXO. abandoned or unexploded ammunition had been Ministry of Interior. stored underground by the villagers. A draft mine action law was accepted by Parliament, and reviewed and endorsed by the Defense and Impact Activity started during the rainy season with two EOD Security Commission, pending ratification. teams located in school premises, since they are Clearance productivity has increased by 30 percent. The MINURCAT mine action programme is still in the closed at that time. All authorities supported the Twenty percent of reported dangerous areas have been developmental phase, with funding secured from the deployment and provided useful information. The dealt with, meaning that a total of 18.8 million square MINURCAT budget to support work until June 2009. police station chief indicated a secure place to store all metres of land have been returned to communities for The volatile security situation in the region has signifi- items removed from the battlefield to the demolition their use. cantly affected mine action efforts, with limited activities area. underway by very few commercial organizations and NGOs. The focus in 2009 will be on collaboration After four weeks, MAG teams had destroyed around Context and Challenges among the CND, UNMAS, UNDP and other partners, four tons of ammunition and cleared eight square with the role of MINURCAT increasing as the environ- kilometres of land around the villages. Families can All provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo ment becomes more conducive to operations. now go to the river for gardening and access to water. are affected by landmines and/or ERW. Demining Children play football in a former battlefield. With no operations have focused on those provinces where While emphasizing support to MINURCAT operational more accidents recorded since July 2008, life has data confirm the highest levels of contamination: requirements, the MINURCAT mine action programme become easier and safer. Equateur, Province Orientale, North Kivu, South Kivu, will also assist in enhancing the operational and manage- Maniema and Katanga. To date, 2,167 victims of rial capacities of the CND, and will contribute to the There is the potential as well for further improve- mines and ERW have been reported: 1,387 men, 520 efforts of the Government of Chad to mitigate risks to ments. When arriving in the area, MAG staff mem- women and 260 unknown. In 2008, the security IDPs moving from North Kivu and Province Orientale. communities and expand freedom of movement in the ber were surprised to discover that the village had no situation deteriorated in the eastern part of the That situation requires mine action to focus on emer- eastern part of the country. CND’s efforts have been wells for safe water. They hope that after the country (Province Orientale and North Kivu), leading gency mine risk education. made possible in 2008 through multilateral and bilateral clearance, there will be efforts to provide humanitari- to the temporary suspension of demining operations. contributions from the governments of Canada, Japan an aid and water points. Between July and early The MACC’s mandate is defined by Security Council and Libya. Additionally, CND and UNDP have received December 2008, MAG as a whole surveyed 132 As part of its broader support of the MONUC man- Resolution 1291 (2000) to support MONUC in-kind contributions of magnetic locators from the square kilometres in eastern Chad, cleared 52 date, mine action is also undertaken to support local deployment by carrying out and coordinating mine Schonstedt Humanitarian Demining Initiative in the square kilometres of land and destroyed 12 tons of communities, and help IDPs and refugees return action activities. Resolutions 1756 (2007) and 1856 United States. ammunition. through assistance from UNHCR and OCHA. A (2008) request MONUC to contribute to enhancing humanitarian challenge is the estimated 2 million Congolese demining capacities. 56 57
  • 30. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 Achievements Convention on Cluster Munitions. Consultations have Summary of Mine Action Activities (2005-2008) taken place around signing the convention.The Support from UNMAS HQ Democratic Republic of Congo has signed the Year Mines UXO Misc. Persons Sessions Convention on the Rights of Persons with UNMAS supported the mine action programme Disabilities; ratification is in process. In the mean- 2005 459,758 1 149 17,135 75,952 55,405 422 553 428 by deploying an evaluation mission in April 2008 time, the national focal point for victim assistance and an inter-agency operational evaluation in has mobilized civil society and drafted a proposed October 2008. Implementation of the recommenda- draft law for different provinces. 2006 722,204 540 8,758 79,922 181,556 1,166 468* 164 tions was supported through the provision of finan- cial resources, political support and technical Within MONUC, the MACC is represented on 2007 420,050 155 31,384 128,357 545,324 2,866 232* 101 guidance. the Senior Management Team, Programme Management Team and UN Country Team. It also 2008 525,898 20 5,068 102 692 475,429 2,274 153* 136 UNMAS facilitated the confirmation of MONUC’s participates in the Humanitarian Advocacy mine action role in Security Council Resolution 1856 Group and the Protection Cluster. Nov 2008 28,464 5 1,480 298 42,615 151 18 0 (2008). It deployed a temporary consultant to further support the programme in resource mobilization. Operations Total 2 ,156,374 1,869 63,825 387,221 1,300,329 6 ,879 1 ,424 829 Coordination and Training The MACC is active under each of the five pillars of mine action. Under mine clearance, surveys, clear- ing mine risk education tools. To advance victim numbers of returning IDPs and refugees, is very In 2008, the MACC contributed to the logistical ance and mine risk education activities have been assistance, the Ministry of Health undertook an high. Access to agricultural land, water collection and administrative support of implementing part- carried out by three international NGOs (MAG, advocacy campaign for the ratification of the points, social infrastructure, market places and ners, and to their accreditation and tasking. It carried DanChurchAid or DCA, and Handicap International Convention on the Rights of Persons with neighbouring villages is blocked. Most mine and out quality control for their activities. Belgium or HI) and one commercial contractor Disabilities. ERW accidents occur in the course of daily (MECHEM). In 2008, an additional contractor, The livelihood activities. In addition to its coordination work, the MACC has Development Initiative (TDI), began conducting In 2008, the mine action programme was funded helped foster national political interest in mine survey and clearance operations in southern regions. from the MONUC assessed budget; multilateral Although movements of IDPs and refugees action. This was illustrated by the 2008 nomination Mine detection dog and mechanical capacities were contributions of the governments of Japan, the increased in 2008, the number of identified of a national mine action focal point by the Minister deployed by MSB in Katanga. In terms of stockpile Netherlands, and the United Kingdom; and victims stabilized at around 100 per year, partial- of Interior, and the acceptance by the National destruction, all known stocks of landmines and other bilateral funding from Denmark, the European ly as a possible result of mine risk education Assembly of the draft mine action law, which was ammunitions have been destroyed. Considering Commission and Sweden. activities that reached nearly half a million peo- endorsed by the Defense and Security Commission. ongoing fighting in the eastern region, however, new ple. Following survey and clearance activities, The MACC assisted the Government in preparing stocks of abandoned ammunitions are likely to be more than half a million square metres of land for the legislative process. discovered. Impact were released in 2008, allowing dozens of com- munities and thousands of people to live in safer In 2008, government representatives attended A mine risk education workshop was organized in The impact of landmines and ERW on the lives environments and resume basic socioeconomic the Oslo meeting to open the signing of the Bukavu (South Kivu) with the objective of harmoniz- of affected communities, particularly the large activities. 58 59
  • 31. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 KABUMBA VILLAGE: THE WAR HAS ENDED, THE MINES REMAIN ERITREA AND ETHIOPIA Photo: MONUC Highlights throughout. Clearance operations in Eritrea ceased in February, with mine risk education outreach ending by More than 300,000 square metres of land were cleared March (aside from training new UNMEE staff, which and returned to communities, mainly for farming and continued throughout). cattle grazing. More than 3,800 kilometres of roads were cleared The State of Eritrea acceded to the Anti-Personnel Mine- or verified to be clear of mines, thus supporting the Ban Treaty on 27 August 2001, and the treaty entered mobility of UNMEE personnel and freedom of into force on 1 February 2002. Eritrea has movement for civilians. not enacted domestic legislation or reported any A successful programme closure and liquidation process new national measures to implement the treaty, was effectively completed subsequent to the mission as required by Article 9*. Eritrea is not a state party to the mandate being terminated on 31 July 2008. Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. Kabumba is a small, remote village in Katanga were heavily armed and strategically buried mines Context and Challenges The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia signed Province in eastern Congo. Situated alongside the along the roads, near bridges and in numerous villages the mine-ban treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified it on mighty Congo River, it was once a prosperous place, of the area. In the case of Kabumba, the Zimbawean Landmine and ERW contamination in and around the 17 December 2004 and became a state party on 1 famous for its fishing. Numerous traders came from forces defended themselves with a defensive Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) came from Eritrea’s June 2005. Ethiopia has not yet reported any steps surrounding areas to buy fish that they would sell minefield around the village. struggle for independence from Ethiopia from 1962 to (such as penal sanctions) to implement the treaty in nearby villages and territories. About 300 people 1991, and the two-year war with Ethiopia from 1998 to domestically, as required by Article 9. Ethiopia is not a lived there prior to the war, while several thousand This hidden and deadly legacy now prevents the dis- 2000. Landmines and ERW remain a major threat to state party to the Convention on Certain Conventional people indirectly benefited from the fish and placed population from returning home, even though people living and working in the disputed border area. Weapons. agricultural trade. the war has ended and the soldiers have left. In In accordance with UN mine action strategic addition, the agricultural land around the village is objectives 1 and 2, activities in 2008 included releas- UNMEE’s mandate was limited to the 25-kilometre- The five-year conflict from 1998 to 2003 that pitted contaminated, which seriously hampers any prospect ing land needed by communities, taking a gender- wide TSZ and adjacent areas, 15 kilometres on either Congolese government forces (supported by Angola, of economic growth for returnees. Mines block access sensitive approach to the provision of mine risk educa- side. The MACC undertook liaison work with national Namibia and Zimbabwe) against various rebel forces to the forest, river and two surrounding villages. tion, and EOD to ensure the safety of local populations. authorities in Eritrea and Ethiopia, providing support to (backed by Rwanda and Uganda) put an abrupt end to Fundamental to UNMEE mine action is the need to national priorities whenever possible within its man- the socioeconomic development of Kabumba. During To address this situation, DCA began demining ensure the safe movement of peacekeepers and dated area. Discussions were carried out with both the war, the Zimbabwean forces established them- operations in Kabumba in July 2006. Large numbers mission personnel. the Eritrean Demining Authority (EDA) and the selves in Kabumba as they fought the Rwandan Army of mines and booby traps have been discovered in very Ethiopian Mine Action Office (EMAO) in 2008 to in the nearby town of Kabalo, 17 kilometres to the complicated patterns and dangerous positions. The programme was severely hampered by fuel short- develop a plan for transferring nationally segregated north. After the Zimbabwean soldiers ordered the The clearance has allowed the population to progres- ages and other constraints throughout the early part of IMSMA data and identifying options for asset population to desert the area, the once thriving village sively return to Kabumba—130 people now inhabit the 2008, with UNMEE ultimately having its mandate ter- disposal. UNMAS has provided substantial donations of Kabumba became little more than a military camp. village. Agricultural activities are gradually increasing as a minated by the Security Council in July of that year. of equipment to both the EDA and EMAO with the Its population was subjected to a tidal wave of millions result of the regular handover of safe areas. A detailed plan to shift capacity to the Ethiopian side closure of the mission. The MACC’s mine action of refugees. The whole area subsequently became a Socioeconomic activities will only be fully restored, how- of the TSZ was effected in a carefully phased operation achievements were regarded as critical for UNMEE’s frontline and the theatre of fierce fighting. All parties ever, once the area has been completely cleared. timed to ensure that UNMEE mobility was assured mandated tasks and a safe mission closure. 60 61
  • 32. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 Photo: Arne Hodalic Casualty figures ceased to be recorded with the formal tion teams conducted safety briefings for newly purposes, 950 kilometres of roads were cleared, and Photo: Arne Hodalic end of the mandate in July 2008, and the MACC’s arrived UNMEE personnel, as well as for staff from 2,485 kilometres of roads were assessed and visibility was limited to the TSZ. There were two NGOs and other UN agencies. verified. Mine clearance and EOD teams destroyed recorded mine incidents in 2008 generating 19 473 items of UXO, 2 anti-tank mines and 379 casualties, three of them fatal. anti-personnel mines. From March, the primary Operations operational focus became ensuring safe mobility for UNMEE movements in anticipation of either a Achievements The MACC’s work plan was based primarily on mission reorientation to the Ethiopian side of the strategic objectives 1 and 2 of the United Nations border or a mission closure. Inter-agency Mine Action Strategy: 2006-2010, and Support from UNMAS Headquarters supported the implementation of various Security Council mandates and amendments. Operational Supporting National Initiatives Through UNMAS headquarters provided technical oversight activities were focused on ensuring freedom of Equipment Donations and guidance to the programme, including by con- movement for UNMEE staff and projects, supporting ducting a technical mission to the region. UNMAS the humanitarian goals of the mission by decreasing Due to the termination of the mission, a number of worked with UNMEE, UNOPS and DPKO/DFS to casualty rates within the MACC’s area of operations equipment items will be donated to the EDA and In 2009, EMAO intends to demine 5.9 square kilo- manage the transition from an active programme to (a task made more difficult by the recurring use of EMAO. All items, donated upon approval by the metres of landmine- and UXO-contaminated land in full liquidation. UNMAS continued to ensure that anti-vehicle mines by unknown parties), and facilitat- General Assembly, will contribute to the successful the Tigray and Somali regions. EMAO’s mine risk sufficient mine action funds were available from the ing access to land predominantly for agricultural implementation of both organizations’ humanitarian education and community liaison officers are expect- assessed peacekeeping budget and voluntary purposes. The MACC also had a mandate to support demining activities in 2009. ed to provide mine awareness sessions to 50,000 contributions from Liechtenstein, the Netherlands the demarcation of the border between Ethiopia and persons, both female and male, living in the suspect- and Spain. Eritrea, if that process was undertaken. In Eritrea, the National Mine Action Strategic Plan’s ed hazardous areas. vision is an Eritrea where the physical environment The bulk of funding for the MACC was provided from will permit free movement, uninhibited development In addition to its northern branch office in Tigray, Coordination and Training the UNMEE assessed budget, with approximately and poverty reduction initiatives; where victims are EMAO intends to establish a new branch office in the five percent of the total effort supported by the VTF assisted and integrated into society; and where there Somali region to adequately support the increasing The MACC continued to refine its plans to provide through contributions from Spain and the United are no new victims from mines and UXO. number of mine clearance activities planned there. mine action support for demarcation, although the Kingdom, and by unearmarked funds. The area has been identified by the LIS as the most dissolution of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary The EDA’s requirements for 2009 and beyond are to mine-contaminated region in the country. Commission and the subsequent termination of the The MACC continued to coordinate and conduct develop national operational capacities to conduct mission, precluded any concrete advances in this demining operations in the TSZ and adjacent areas clearance, mine risk education and EOD activities. EMAO’s humanitarian demining activities contribute area. The MACC was responsible for ensuring that all to support UNMEE and clear land to aid the human- MACC items that have been handed over to the EDA to fulfilling Ethiopia’s mine-ban treaty commitments demining operators working within UNMEE were itarian goals of the mission where possible until fuel include vehicles, information and communications and its poverty reduction strategy goals, in particular accredited and adhered to IMAS. Accreditation and shortages and other impediments saw the cessation technology, mine clearance items, medical supplies through improved food security and agricultural quality assurance activities were conducted with of operations in February 2008. In total, some and furniture. These will support the EDA in setting development. EMAO expressed great gratitude to MECHEM’s mechanical operators and mine detec- 300,000 square metres of land were cleared and up headquarters and field teams to implement the MACC and its donors for their support, and tion dog handlers. MACC staff and mine risk educa- handed over to local communities for agricultural planned humanitarian demining activities. requests continued assistance. 62 63
  • 33. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 Mine Clearance Aids LEBANON Power Generation Highlights remaining dangerous areas are 5 percent high priority, Standards and Guidelines. It is a joint structure Photo: Mark Craemer 40 percent medium priority and 55 percent low priority. staffed by personnel from UNMAS and the Lebanese The Transition Strategy and Memorandum of Armed Forces (LAF), who together provided opera- Understanding for handing over coordination of Unexploded cluster munitions and UXO have imped- tional coordination, planning and quality assurance humanitarian demining to the national authority ed the livelihoods and threatened the safety of civil- functions in 2008 for up to 48 battle area clearance as of January 2009 were signed. ians in south Lebanon. Since the cessation of hostili- teams, one EOD team and two mechanical teams. Fourteen minefields adjacent to the Blue Line, the ties on 14 August 2006, 217 civilian casualties due to border between Lebanon and Israel, were cleared. unexploded cluster munitions have been reported, In accordance with Security Council resolutions 1701 A majority of high-priority clearance targets 20 of which were fatal. In the same period, there (2006) and 1832 (2008), the MACC-SL supports were completed. have been 47 civilian casualties reported due to and coordinates its operations with UNIFIL, which other UXO, including 7 fatalities. Clearance opera- has a capacity of on average eight battle area clear- tions since August 2006 have resulted in 41 injuries ance teams and eight EOD teams, depending on the Context and Challenges and 14 fatalities. The group at greatest risk is young rotations of troop contributing countries. These are men over 18 years of age, representing 58 percent of trained and accredited by the MACC-SL. Once Following the 2006 conflict that contaminated south the total victims from unexploded cluster munitions. accredited, some of the UNIFIL teams are tasked by Lebanon with hundreds of thousands of unexploded Females over 18 years of age account for 7 percent, the MACC-SL when conducting battle area clear- cluster munitions, unexploded aerial bombs and and children and youths comprise 35 percent. ance, mine clearance and EOD operations. other types of UXO, the second full year of clearance efforts took place in 2008. In the spring, the MACC- In relation to Strategic Objective 1 in the United Additionally, the MACC-SL supports UNIFIL through SL conducted an operational reassessment to review Nations Inter-Agency Mine Action Strategy: 2006- IMSMA mapping of contaminated areas for UNIFIL form of the Lebanese Mine Action Centre (LMAC) new and existing data on the contaminated areas in 2010, on reducing death and injury by at least 50 headquarters, battalions and the UN Truce on 1 January 2009. The transition process is part of south Lebanon. The review established that some percent, the clearance efforts have substantially Supervision Organization, Observer Group Lebanon the integration of mine action needs into Lebanon’s previously known and recorded strikes were bigger decreased the average number of casualties. (UNTSO OGL). It conducts liaison work with UNIFIL national development and reconstruction plans. It is than originally estimated. As a result, the estimated operations and liaison branches on the deployment assisting the continued development of national contaminated area has increased to 48.1 million In 2008, the monthly average number of victims was of non-UNIFIL clearance assets, including the notifi- institutions to manage the landmine and ERW threat square metres, as opposed to the original estimate of less than 2, a significant decrease from the average cation and coordination of demolition windows. through capacity development. The transition will 32 million square metres used for operational plan- of 35 per month after the ceasefire in August 2006. Regular updates go to UNIFIL’s Tripartite Committee. divide the joint LAF-UN structure of the existing ning immediately after the war, and the estimated The number of victims in the first four and a half The MACC-SL also prepares language for the MACC-SL, with the LAF officers currently working 38.7 million square metres at the end of 2007. months after the conflict makes up 72 percent of the Secretary-General’s reports on the implementation at the MACC-SL becoming part of the new Regional total number of victims from unexploded cluster of Security Council resolutions 1701 (2006), and this Mine Action Centre in Nabatieh (RMAC-N). The MACC-SL in 2008 continued to focus on clearing munitions. Eighteen percent of all casualties hap- is done by UNMAS HQ. Remaining MACC-SL staff will work specifically in sup- high-priority areas, defined as, “Strikes located in or with- pened in 2007, and 10 percent in 2008. port of UNIFIL and troop contributing countries’ clear- in 500m of towns or residential housing.” 9 In seeking to Directly linked to strategic objectives 3 and 4 of the ance and EOD assets. The United Nations will support mitigate the risk to community livelihoods and expand The MACC-SL is responsible for the effective, safe United Nations Inter-Agency Mine Action Strategy: this transition through the donation of required capital the freedom of movement for at least 80 percent of and efficient management of cluster munitions and 2006-2010, the transition process is underway to equipment and an in-kind donation of 12 national and the most seriously affected communities, the MACC- landmine clearance operations in south Lebanon in hand over primary responsibility for managing 1 international UN staff to work with the RMAC-N SL has cleared 95 percent of high-priority areas. The accordance with IMAS and National Technical humanitarian clearance operations to the LAF in the in 2009. 64 65
  • 34. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 Achievements and support the coordination of the transition to marking a section of the Blue Line. As of the end of national responsibility for the programme. 2008, the parties had agreed to the coordinates for Headquarters staff continued to mobilize resources some 20 points, on half of which Blue Line barrels Support from UNMAS Headquarters from the UN peacekeeping assessed budget and had been erected. Throughout 2007 and 2008, the voluntary contributions. MACC-SL trained Chinese Battalion (CHINBATT) The MACC-SL was selected as the 2008 recipient of troops to clear landmines in accordance with IMAS the Nansen Refugee Award for taking the lead in the in order to open access lanes between the barrels. international effort to clean up deadly cluster muni- Coordination and Training CHINBATT has been working with the MACC-SL and tions threatening the lives of civilians in south MSB in support of this objective. Successful comple- Photo: Mark Craemer Lebanon after the 2006 conflict. The award is given Throughout 2008, the MACC-SL coordinated and tion of clearance along the Blue Line will promote annually to an individual or organization for conducted quality assurance of all clearance activi- long-term stabilization and reconstruction efforts. areas are discovered. The operational reassessment outstanding work on behalf of refugees. It includes a ties of seven organizations (with a total of 932 in the spring of 2008 increased the known contami- US $100,000 prize, to be donated to the recipient’s personnel): BACTEC, DCA, HI, MAG, Norwegian In February 2008, the UNMACC and LMAC signed a nated area by nearly 10 million square metres to 48.1 project of choice. People’s Aid (NPA), MSB and the Swiss Foundation Memorandum of Understanding effective until million square metres. At the close of operations in for Mine Action (FSD). December 31, 2008. It outlines roles and responsibil- 2008, clearance of 88 percent of the total known In July 2008, the MACC-SL was awarded a UN 21 ities, and includes a commitment to the transition contaminated area in south Lebanon had occurred. In Awards commendation for its rapid response to the The MACC-SL continues to conduct weekly opera- process in 2009. The UNMACC, through its office in addition to the known remaining contaminated land, 2006 crisis and continued efforts into 2008. The tional planning and coordination meetings, which are Beirut, continues to provide ongoing information to some of the land that has been surface cleared will MACC-SL also received a UN 21 Awards commenda- attended by the representatives of the UNIFIL embassies and acts as the link to the Office of the require sub-surface clearance. The remaining area to tion in 2005 for excellence and outstanding Combat Engineer Section, the UNIFIL Liaison Branch, Special Coordinator for Lebanon. be cleared in 2009 is estimated at approximately 12 inter-agency coordination. UNTSO OGL, the LMAC, all clearance organizations million square metres. 10 and the MACC Operations Branch. The main coordi- On 3 December 2008, Lebanon was one of 94 coun- nation function entails ensuring that all parties are Operations In 2008, the Canadian Government provided funding tries that signed the Convention on Cluster kept informed of the location and tasking of the through the VTF for clearing 14 minefields adjacent Munitions. This underscores the Government’s operational elements of the clearance companies. In From August 2006 to December 2008, the MACC- to the Blue Line. The Al Aadeisse Minefields Project commitment to the fulfilment of Strategic Objective particular, notifications of demolitions to the SL coordinated the clearance and reduction of 42.5 was successfully completed within 49 days, during 3 in the UN mine action strategy. The convention Lebanese authorities and the Israeli Defense Forces million square metres of the estimated 48.1 million which 70,000 square metres were cleared, and also obliges nations to destroy all stockpiles within 8 (IDF) are done through UNIFIL. Regular updates of square metres of contaminated areas through the 4,569 mines were removed and destroyed. The proj- years and to clear contaminated land within 10. technical clearance issues are provided. joint efforts of the LAF, UNIFIL, the United Nations ect was the first of its kind along the Blue Line, and is Lebanon played a highly influential role during the and bilaterally funded clearance organizations. Since in many respects viewed as a confidence and peace- negotiations of the treaty due to the massive use of The MACC-SL maintains a presence at weekly UN the end of the 2006 conflict, a total of 153,958 building measure. cluster munitions in south Lebanon in 2006. inter-agency coordination meetings to provide cluster munitions have been located and destroyed. updates and respond to specific requests for infor- These operational achievements would not have UNMAS’ headquarters staff conducted three field mation. UNIFIL also requested the assistance of the The lack of detailed strike data from Israel has pre- been possible without strong support from donors missions to south Lebanon in 2008 (including a joint MACC-SL to support the Pilot Border Marking vented accurate and comprehensive planning, and who provided the required funds through the VTF, technical mission with UNOPS) to hold consultations Project, which is coordinated by the UNIFIL Tripartite has required constantly adjusting operational plan- and bilaterally to the clearance organizations operat- with partners and donors, visit operational activities, Committee with the IDF and the LAF, aimed at visibly ning to meet conditions on the ground as new strike ing in south Lebanon. In 2008, contributions to the 66 67
  • 35. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 AN AWARD FOR COURAGE AND PAINSTAKING WORK VTF were provided by Australia, Canada, Denmark, and 48 UXO items. Post-clearance projects include On 6 October 2008, the MACC-SL was awarded leaders. The cows were distributed in ceremonies the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands, New the provision of cows and nylon greenhouses to UNHCR’s top honor, the Nansen Refugee Award. The in each village.Mohmmad Sheet from the village of Zealand, the Republic of Korea, Spain, Switzerland economically vulnerable families, and the develop- award is named after Nobel Peace laureate Fridtjof Kafarkila was one of six recipients whose family and the United Kingdom. Austria, Canada, the Czech ment of public gardens in communities affected Nansen, who was the first UN High Commissioner for received a cow at the distribution ceremony held there Republic, Denmark, the European Commission, by cluster bombs. Refugees, and is given annually to an individual or on 19 December 2008. Mr. Sheet lost four of his five Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the United organization for outstanding work on behalf of cows during the conflict and had been unable to replace Arab Emirates and the United States supported mine refugees. The MACC-SL and 1,000 deminers were any of them. He spoke optimistically about the future of action activities bilaterally. Impact selected for the award for their courageous efforts to his livelihood with the addition of a second cow, noting clear south Lebanon of cluster munitions and other that the additional income generated by the sale of the Significant progress has been made in fulfilling the Unexploded cluster munitions and UXO continue to ERW that impeded the safe return of civilians uprooted milk of the second cow would allow him to better sup- objectives of the jointly coordinated UNMAS and kill and injure people in south Lebanon, but the during the conflict. In the words of current High port his wife and four children, but also save some UNDP project, “Social and Economic Empowerment MACC-SL’s operations have contributed to a marked Commissioner António Guterres: “Through their money and soon purchase another animal. of Cluster Bomb-Affected Communities,” which was decrease in new casualties, from 50 in September painstaking work and devotion, the teams created the funded by the Government of Japan through the 2006 (first full month after the war) to 1 in conditions for a safe and dignified return home for Mr. Sheet’s situation mirrors that of many farmers UNTFHS during its second year of implementation. December 2008 (see graph). Clearance efforts have almost 1 million displaced Lebanese.” throughout south Lebanon where cattle represent a The project includes clearing unexploded cluster also saved livelihoods. By ensuring that clearance primary—if not the sole—source of income for their munitions through two battle area clearance teams priorities are closely linked to the agricultural cycle, The winner of the award may donate the $100,000 owners. The loss of cattle during the war, coupled with from MAG, implementing post-clearance projects the MACC-SL has, to a great extent, enabled civilians prize to a cause of his or her choice. The MACC-SL, contamination by cluster bombs, had significantly and building local capacities through vocational working in the agricultural sector to resume their under the direction of the post-clearance officer and in reduced the overall productive capacity and economic training workshops. From the beginning of the proj- activities with minimal personal risk. This normaliza- cooperation with UNHCR and the Lebanese NGO stability of the village. ect in March 2007 until 31 December 2008, the two tion of activities complements the economic Protection for the Environment, offered the money to teams have cleared a total of 815,758 square metres, development initiatives of other non-governmental purchase cows for 43 families in 7 villages who depend Clearance of cluster munitions in south Lebanon is the and located and destroyed 694 cluster munitions and UN agencies. on their livestock for their livelihood and had lost first step towards the rehabilitation of affected commu- animals as a result of the 2006 conflict. Their limited nities. The development of post-clearance activities, working capital had made it extremely difficult to the rehabilitation of livelihoods and confidence-build- procure new cows. Estimates based on average milk ing measures in affected communities constitute an Victims of Cluster Munitions, 14 August 2006 to December 2007 production, and the prices and sale of offspring, important movement from emergency relief from suggest that each cow will generate approximately US immediate humanitarian threats to the sustainable Civilian Cluster Bombs Victims Graph since 14 August 2006 Up to 31 December 2008 $4,000 a year for recipient families. development of communities and their way of life. In 60 Number of Victims Per Month emphasizing this area of mine action, the MACC-SL 57 50 The families were selected based on a needs continues its progress from focusing on post-conflict 50 40 assessment carried out by MACC-SL community emergency responses to supporting the rehabilitation 30 liaison officers, the implementing NGO and municipal of livelihoods in affected communities. 20 19 13 17 10 12 9 10 4 3 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 8 2 2 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 68 69
  • 36. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 NEPAL Gender and Age Breakdown of People Affected by Mines and IEDs Highlights Comprehensive Peace Accord and Agreement on Monitoring of the Management of Arms and Armies Male Female Male Female Total Projects to assist in the safe handling and demolition of (CPA). Constituent Assembly elections were held in Age 0-18 Age 19+ improvised arms collected in all seven Maoist canton- April 2008, after two postponements in 2007. A Injured 28 10 13 7 58 ments were completed. coalition Government was formed for the first time Killed 1 1 1 1 4 National capacity was enhanced and sustained through in the history of Nepal. The first Prime Minister, Total 29 11 14 8 62 the fielding of trained army supervisors for clearance President and Vice-President were elected and teams. sworn in. There are still major challenges facing the Five Nepal Army minefields were cleared by November. implementation of the CPA and the formation of Gender and Age Breakdown of People Affected by Mines and IEDs a new federal Constitution. The current UNMIN The first field based UNMAT was formed. mandate, set to expire on 23 July 2009, was extend- Male Female Unknown Male Female Unknown Total An assessment of the Nepal Army’s EOD and IED ed three times since UNMIN was established on 23 2005 33 13 16 60 13 7 142 response capacity was initiated, along with a capacity- January 2007. 2006 49 30 0 65 23 2 169 building project in partnership with the British Embassy. 2007 35 18 0 39 9 0 101 UNMAT participated in the Southeast Asia Pacific region- The conflict resulted in landmine and ERW contami- 2008 al workshop on the Convention on Certain Conventional nation across the country. Prior to the establishment (January to October) 14 8 0 29 11 0 62 Weapons held in Kathmandu from 17 to 19 December. of UNMIN, UNICEF, in partnership with a local human rights organization, the Informal Sector Context and Challenges Service Centre, introduced a comprehensive surveil- Mine action is a key element of the national develop- Government to continue with operations. This was lance system that reported victim-activated explo- ment and reconstruction plans for Nepal, as high- not received until 3 October 2008. It paved the From 1996 to 2006, there was an armed conflict sions. Initially a media-based reporting system, it lighted in strategic objectives 3 and 4 of the UN mine way for the resumption of demining activities, with between the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) later received active support from centre affiliates in action strategy. It is also specifically referenced in training held in November and operational demi- and several successive governments that tried each of the 75 districts in the country. As of the CPA. The Nepal Government has yet to accede ning activities underway in December. unsuccessfully to contain the Maoist army. The October 2008, 62 people were killed or injured in to the mine-ban treaty or sign the Convention Nepal Police initially dealt with the insurgency, but 32 explosions; 69 percent were males, and 65 per- on Certain Conventional Weapons, however, and has The mine action programme in Nepal, originally part the Nepal Army was actively involved from 2000 cent were children. not expressed any commitment to adopt the of UNMIN and titled the Mine Action Unit (MAU), onward. The conflict has been typified by violent Convention on Cluster Munitions. In 2008, the officially separated from UNMIN at the end of its clashes with Maoists who relied on homemade The number of victims in 2008 was the lowest Government signed the Convention on the Rights of initial mandate on 23 July 2008. With this bombs because they lacked funds and access to since data collection began in 2004. Strategic Persons with Disabilities, and signaled it intends to separation, the new UNMAT was formally established. commercially manufactured weapons. The police Objective 1 of the United Nations Inter-Agency Mine ratify the convention following legislative It consists of the former Mine Action Unit (MAU) and army also used improvised weapons. In 2005, Action Strategy: 2006-2010, on the “reduction of endorsement. as well as UNICEF, and constitutes the first field efforts began to reach a peaceful settlement to the death and injury by at least 50 percent,” has been application of the holistic and collaborative mine conflict. On the basis of Security Council Resolution achieved in 2008 in Nepal. Nonetheless, land- The political and security situations in Nepal posed action approach already in place at UN headquar- 1740 (2007), the United Nations launched UNMIN mines—and to a larger extent ERW typified by a challenge to mine action in 2008, with a volatile ters. UNMAT works closely with UNMIN and other in early 2007 to assist the Seven Party Alliance improvised devices—continue to pose a humanitari- environment leading up to and during elections. agencies in Nepal in support of Security Council Government and the Communist Party of Nepal an threat, and an obstacle to peace, reconciliation Demining operations were halted in July as the Resolution 1825 and the implementation of (Maoists) to implement the 21 November 2006 and development. programme waited for a letter of invitation from the the CPA. 70 71
  • 37. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 Achievements vised explosive devices will be collected at designat- working through a cooperative process with the ed sites at a safe distance from the main cantonment Maoist army and MAU. areas [and] unsuitable devices will be destroyed Support from UNMAS Headquarters immediately.” Additionally, the agreement states, UNMAT continues to assist the Nepal Army in “The parties will provide maps and sketches showing enhancing capacities to clear the Army’s 53 mine- UNMAS provided substantive programme support current dispositions…of minefields, landmines, unex- fields and more than 275 security positions rein- throughout the year and critical assistance with the ploded ordnance, standard explosives, improvised forced with IEDs. Clearance complies with IMAS negotiations for the continuation of the MAU after explosive devices and exact location of such items.” through the provision of training and supervision of the anticipated end of UNMIN on 23 July 2008. The This was to be done by providing necessary informa- activities by UNMAT. As of November 2008, the UNMAS officer-in-charge of the Programme Section tion within 30 days, and defusing, removing and/or Army had cleared five minefields, under the guidance visited Nepal during the second week of July to assist destroying them within 60 days. and supervision of MAU and ArmorGroup. Three the team with the transition and ensure minimal other minefields have been partially cleared. interruption to the mine action activities. While the timelines included in the agreement were unrealistic even if a high level of capacity had exist- In addition to advising and providing oversight for UNMAS continued to provide assistance and coordi- ed, the two sides remain obliged to comply with the demining, UNMAT conducts significant planning and nation through the formation of UNMAT, separation commitments they have made. The provision of coordination to ensure the development of the Photo: UNMAT from UNMIN and a transition to working under the maps and sketches, which is relevant mostly for the Army’s capacity for managing these activities. While UN resident coordinator’s Office. Nepal Army, has been partially achieved. The Nepal this capacity is not fully developed, significant Army has submitted maps of all 53 minefields, but improvements have been made. Additional demining On 4 April 2008, in commemoration of the third In January, recommendations were released by the details on the 275 or more security positions rein- and managerial training at all levels will continue International Day for Mine Awareness and UNMAS-led inter-agency assessment mission to forced with command-detonated devices had not through 2009. Nepal will require adequate national Assistance in Mine Action, UNICEF coordinated a identify long-term requirements for mine action and been disclosed by the end of 2008. structures to address its extensive ERW contamina- meeting for mine action stakeholders, donors and propose options for post-UNMIN assistance. tion over the long-term. This strategy is a direct the media. The Special Representative of the UNMAT has worked with the Maoist army in the application of Strategic Objective 4 of the UN mine Secretary-General made a statement highlighting Following the successful completion of the IED management and demolition of IEDs. A British com- action strategy. It will “assist the development of the commitment of UNMIN to assist the parties in destruction project in late June, a detailed summary mercial company, ArmorGroup, was contracted for national institutions to manage the landmine/ERW meeting their mine action obligations. of the project, its achievement and recommenda- this purpose. ArmorGroup conducted an audit of all threat” and meet the indicator of achievement by tions was presented to the Joint Monitoring the IEDs in storage, which amounted to 6,790 kilo- developing “appropriately-sized, trained, and Coordinating Committee. grammes of net explosive content, and more than equipped mine action capacities that achieve nation- Operations 52,000 explosive devices, detonators, bulk explosive ally-defined goals and objectives with little or no factory-made munitions and other explosive acces- international support.” UNMAT made great strides in 2008 to build on Coordination and Training sories. Of the devices surrendered, 97.5 percent were existing relationships and enhance partnerships deemed too dangerous to store by the MAU and Nepal’s participation in the Portfolio of Mine Action within Nepal at all levels. This included, as empha- According to the CPA, both sides in the conflict shall slated for destruction. The destruction programme, Projects 2009 was coordinated by UNICEF through sized by the UN mine action strategy, engaging assist each other to mark landmines and booby concluded in June, resulted in the elimination of all the Mine Action Joint Working Group. The coordina- “other UN agencies, national authorities, nongovern- traps, and to “defuse and excavate” those items. To Priority 1 items in all major cantonment sites. tion of the portfolio is a consultative process, reflect- mental organizations, affected communities, donors, meet this objective, the CPA states that “all impro- ArmorGroup finished operations on 15 July 2008, ing the shared vision of the group. and other entities.” Those efforts have been made 72 73
  • 38. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 Photo: UNMAT more beneficial and collaborative in-country strategy. by UNICEF and distributed to NGOs working with tial international opportunities for Nepal within UN The creation of UNMAT in conjunction with UNICEF affected communities. Mine risk education, victim peacekeeping operations and the systematic lays the foundation for a more effective and unified assistance and all mine action activities in Nepal are prioritization of activities over the long-term. advocacy strategy in 2009. The election of the new discussed and coordinated through the Mine Action Government creates a fresh forum for advocating for Joint Working Group. It has been revitalized in the At the end of 2007, the Government produced its Nepal to become a signatory to the relevant mine last quarter of 2008 and will play a strategic role in first mine action strategy mandating a national mine action conventions. Strategic planning for advocacy advocacy, and the improved cooperation and action authority to implement specific provisions of in 2009 is underway. unification of standards across mine action activities. the CPA. Despte the creation of this national author- ity, overall support from the Government remains In addition to basic demining training and guidance, Gender considerations are reflected in all operational difficult to maintain through the numerous political UNMAT is dedicated to developing the capacity of planning at UNMAT. In terms of surveys, special con- developments and challenges in 2008. However, the Nepal Army to sustain operational capacity inde- sideration is given to integrating gender and caste significant improvements were noted in the pendently. To achieve this objective, significant train- relations into the methodology to ensure a compre- fourth quarter. ing in management and operational planning is nec- hensive picture of contamination and its impacts. essary, and has been initiated. Additional evalua- The recommendations of the UNMAS led tions, recommendations and trainings are being inter-agency assessment mission, released in planned for 2009. Impact January 2008, have yet to be endorsed by the Government. While it has assumed responsibility The completion of the IED destruction programme, Mine action in Nepal directly supports the peace for mine action, it has yet to allocate a related budg- possible by a combination of funding from the implemented by ArmorGroup, marked a key step agreement. Substantial progress has been made et line and is cognizant of its own lack of capacity to UNMIN budget and from contributions to the UN towards destroying stockpiles and improving the since the establishment of MAU and UNMAT. The implement the mine action provisions of the CPA. Peace Trust Fund for Nepal as well as contributions safety of all people in Nepal, as well as complying management and destruction of IEDs at cantonment from the government of the United Kingdom to the with the CPA. sites has helped avert any possible accidents that UNMAT will continue to help develop capacities VTF. Bilateral support was provided by the govern- would have disrupted the peace process. Clearance within the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction, ments of Canada, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland The British Embassy partnered with the UNMAS por- of Army-laid minefields and Maoist IEDs directly engaging the support of partners such as GICHD, and the United Kingdom. Additionally, UNMAT has tion of UNMAT to conduct an assessment of the demonstrates to the public that the CPA is moving external consultants, UNDP and UNICEF. UNMAS received in-kind contributions of magnetic locators Nepal Army’s EOD and IED response team capacity, forward, and that the parties remain committed to and UNMAT will also continue to support the full from the Schonstedt Humanitarian Demining and conduct necessary training. To initiate this proj- the peace process. Furthermore, these activities engagement of the Government in all relevant treaty Initiative in the United States. ect, a technical adviser and EOD/IED expert con- increase the freedom of movement of communities regimes, including the mine-ban treaty, the ducted a 10-day in-country assessment. Based on near minefields and cantonment sites. The clearance Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and The main objectives of the original MAU, which were this and the resulting recommendations, appropriate of the minefield at Thada in early 2008, for example, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with focused on demining, expanded in 2008 in conjunc- training will be implemented. returned arable land to five landowners, provided Disabilities. tion with the founding of UNMAT. Revised objectives safe access to a local temple and created a safe liv- include improved surveillance and data collection, Mine risk education continues across the country. ing environment for the entire village. The UNMAT operational plan anticipates the mine risk education and advocacy. This holistic Emergency mine risk education is conducted in clearance of all remaining 48 minefields by Nepal approach to mine action incorporates the long-term any community where an accident occurs. Training and development of national capacities also Army engineers by 2012, if adequate resources goals of the UN mine action strategy and allows a Comprehensive education kits have been created improves marketable skills in all participants, poten- and political will are forthcoming. 74 75
  • 39. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 MUSTARD AND MILLET SOMALIA ALONG NEW ROADS Highlights Police Force with the support of UNDP. Limited assistance to the African Union Mission in Somalia National EOD, survey and mine risk education opera- tions were launched in south-central Somalia. (AMISOM) has been implemented through UNDP, which has provided mine detection equipment and In six months, 718 villages in the Bay, Bakol and Hiraan technical advice. The current security situation regions underwent rapid assessment surveys, revealing a contamination rate of approximately 10 percent. effectively precludes the establishment of a signifi- cant international presence in most of the region, Mine risk education messages reached over 26,000 although a limited presence has been established in individuals in the regions of Bay, Bakol and Hiraan. Baidoa. UNDP, in conjunction with MSB, created the Clearance operations have not been launched as a South Central Somalia Mine Action Centre result of the security situation. (SCSMAC) in November 2007. It became Photo: UNMAT operational in the second quarter of 2008. Context and Challenges Somalia is not a state party or signatory to For years, the villagers of Thada had been petitioning mines, six IEDs and one UXO. When the clearance any legislation or treaties related to mine action. for clearance of the minefield in their town. At last, in was complete, the entire town was brought to the site Contamination by ERW and landmines in Somalia is December 2007, the UN-trained Nepal Army demi- for a handover ceremony. In less than a year, the site to an extent still undefined, although it is believed to ning team arrived. of the former minefield has been transformed. be extensive, particularly in the south-central region, Achievements where the most recent intense conflicts have The minefield in Thada ran along the edge of the main The land taken to create the minefield had been used occurred. While the problem of landmines is a road through town, and between a small temple and a to grow wheat, mustard, millet and ginger. Five legacy from extended periods of warfare, the Support from UNMAS Headquarters family home. It had been laid by the Nepal Army to landowners and their families, 30 people in total, had minefields themselves seem to be generally known protect the security and police forces initially been deprived of arable land. After clearance, they to local populations. UNMAS has supported the UNDP-led effort in stationed there, but when the post moved to another found that they had been unable to use it for so long Somalia with the funding of a programme officer, village in 2003, the minefield remained. that the ground had to be reconditioned to produce The impact of landmines is believed to be less signif- who is based in Nairobi, working in conjunction with crops as it did before. Though this will take time, icant than that of more widespread ERW contamina- the UNDP Rule of Law and Security programme There were no casualties in the village, with mine risk 58-year-old Ghanshyam Khanal is “very grateful” to tion. One of the primary objectives of mine action in through funds provided from the Netherlands. education given to the community and in school, but have his land back. Somalia is to better define threats, and then to UNMAS also assists with donor liaison activities and two goats and one dog were killed. With those design appropriate clearance and mine risk educa- contributes to discussions within DPKO on possible incidents and mines that were visible from the road, In addition to the return of land to the farmers, the tion solutions. intervention strategies. children, residents and nearby villagers lived in fear. Department of Roads is planning to build a new base The minefield restricted the freedom of movement of on the site, which will be beneficial to all Thada The south-central region, like most of the country, Thada’s 2,000 residents as well as another 15,000 residents and nearby villages. This will result in has been without an effective government since Coordination and Training people in the greater Thada district. Young Anish once improved local conditions as well as commerce in the 1991. Consequently, there are no established spotted a box mine while walking along the edge of form of traffic flow, jobs and access to other villages. national mine action authorities. What capacity has Aside from its support to the UNDP project, UNMAS the minefield. His family lives in the home adjacent to The local youth committee for development has been developed over time under the auspices of the collaborated with MSB and, to a lesser degree, with the field and the temple where he now likes to play. installed a volleyball net to foster a sense of commu- Transitional Federal Government is limited to a MAG to launch operations in 2008 focused on the In demining Thada, the Nepal Army removed 116 nity and help people enjoy the space. rudimentary EOD capability established within the support for AMISOM and the capacity building of 76 77
  • 40. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 A LOOK AT MINE ACTION Photo: Arne Hodalic continued throughout much of the year, with teams Establishing a Foundation vided education in their own communities and conducting an information-gathering exercise on for Mine Risk Education sparked local interest. This approach generated pos- mine and UXO contamination in numerous districts. itive perceptions of mine action and has paved the Mapping in IMSMA and the documentation of data For the past year, UNDP has collaborated with MSB way for further cooperation around future EOD relevant to mine action are ongoing. At the end of the to provide mine risk education to communities in the operations. third quarter, the surveys suggested mine and UXO Bay and Bakol regions of south-central Somalia, and contamination affect 12 percent of surveyed villages. helped develop the mine risk education capacities of Over six months, the mine risk education facilitators the SCMAC. reached over 26,000 individuals in the Bay and Bakol Three six-person EOD teams are being trained, with regions, and distributed targeted materials such as only the final on-the-job training delayed because of A recruitment process for two teams of facilitators posters and leaflets along the way. Their outreach the lack of explosives. Nine mine risk education began in February 2008, followed by rigorous train- has covered almost all major population centres. facilitators and eight survey officers were trained, ing and testing of materials and approaches. By at and have been conducting mine risk education and the end of April, the teams were fully operational in The project trained a significant number of mine risk survey operations. Nine medics have been trained Baidoa, the administrative capital of south-central education focal points, the majority of whom have and qualified. Somalia. During the initial stages, focus group dis- been teachers and NGO workers. cussions, and interviews with local NGOs and com- Given the current security situation, all mine action munity focal points were used to identify at-risk To ensure the sustainability of mine risk education in project operations continue to be restricted. groups and local threat patterns. This helped ensure south-central Somalia, one of the Baidoa facilitators Movements outside the UN compounds in Baidoa, that mine risk education would appropriately target was groomed to become the National Mine Risk Bay Region, Wajid, Bakol Region and Merka, and the relevant beneficiaries. Education Coordinator, responsible for all activities Lower Shabelle Region are prohibited in accordance within the SCMAC. The coordinator acted as team with UN security regulations, which means that In line with the results of the LIS in northern Somalia, leader through the first three months of the imple- operations can only be supported remotely. male youth are most likely to suffer harm from ERW mentation period, before he was attached to the or landmines. Based on this information, schools and SCMAC to task mine risk education teams, and madrasas in Baidoa district were selected as the pri- ensure coordination between them and the other Impact mary targets for initial mine risk education activities. mine action components. Supported by the As the project progressed and the facilitators UNDP/MSB mine risk education officer, the coordi- The mine action programme in Somalia is still in the became more experienced, they were deployed in the nator quickly adapted to his role. Given appropriate the Somali security sector, as well as contingency developmental phase, with resource mobilization Bakol region as well. support and mentoring, he will assume complete planning for a possible UN peacekeeping operation underway. The adverse security situation in the responsibility for mine risk education coordination in in Somalia at the appropriate time. region has precluded any significant mine action Using mine risk education as a tool to introduce peo- south-central Somalia in the foreseeable future. effort to date. NGO activities remain minimal. ple to mine action, the project trained and deployed The 2009 mine action effort will continue to be very local people from the targeted locations as tempo- In a difficult region where few activities ever evolve Operations much a collaborative one engaging UNMAS, UNDP, rary mine risk education facilitators, under the super- neatly from desk to field, mine risk education has MSB and other partners, with the role of UNMAS vision of the experienced team from Baidoa. proven that it is possible to conduct activities and Field operations initiated from Baidoa commenced in increasing if the environment becomes more This, along with modest financial incentives and the reach tens of thousands of people as long as there is January to establish baseline data. Survey operations permissive for operations. rental of local vehicles, ensured that local people pro- an emphasis on adaptation to the local context. 78 79
  • 41. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 SUDAN Medics Take on Trauma Cases in a Local Hospital Highlights Photo: UNMAO southern national authorities in granting permission to destroy stockpiles of ammunition, and difficulties UNDP provides much-needed support to the local medical The opening of 29,145 kilometres of roads increased in importing equipment. facility in Baidoa, the Bay Regional Hospital. Since early freedom of movement and permitted the recommence- ment of trade. 2008, UNDP and MSB have trained and deployed eight EOD team medics to the hospital to help local staff with Demining assets were deployed in the central region of Achievements high numbers of sick and injured people arriving from Abyei following clashes between northern and southern throughout the western part of south-central Somalia. government forces. Unfortunately, despite being the best medical facility in the The transition framework was completed to transfer Sudan. Following the transfer of authority from the Support from UNMAS Headquarters area, the hospital’s facilities and skills are well below stan- the mine action programme to the national authorities African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) to the dards. It is thus a significant boost to send the EOD team by 2011. African Union-United Nations Mission in Darfur UNMAS support included regular monitoring and medics there when they are not in the field. The final batch of 6,078 stockpiled anti-personnel (UNAMID) on 31 December 2007 to support the policy guidance, as well as continued assistance with mines was destroyed in Juba to meet the deadline of effective implementation of the Darfur Peace implementing the mandates of UNMIS and As the number of cases at the hospital has risen, due in the mine-ban treaty. Agreement, UNMAO in Darfur has become an inte- UNAMID, and regular coordination on political, part to the escalating fighting in the area, the medics have Sixty percent of identified high-impact areas were gral part of the new peacekeeping mission and is logistical, financial and resource mobilization mat- helped where they could. Throughout 2008, they were cleared; 51.1 percent of identified contaminated roads known as the UNAMID Mine Action Office. ters. The 2008 and 2009 mine action assessed involved in nearly 1,000 trauma cases, a form of ongoing were opened to increase freedom of movement; and budgets for UNMIS and UNAMID were prepared and exposure that ensured their skills would not become rusty. the number of victims has declined by 65 percent To determine the scope of mine and ERW contami- approved by the General Assembly. A budget for the The number of fatalities significantly decreased. Along since 2006. nation, UNMAO launched an LIS in 2005. It has VTF, utilizing generous donor contributions, was also with the medics’ sharing of valuable skills with the local identified the levels of impacts on communities, and prepared and implemented. population in a very tangible way, this has inspired consid- Context and Challenges provided vital information for priority-setting and erable good will towards mine action in the region. planning for mine action activities. At the end of UNMAS programme officers and senior staff mem- Over 20 years of civil war have taken a heavy toll 2008, 12 states had been surveyed out of the 15 bers conducted technical missions to provide sup- on most parts of Sudan. The general perception that planned by mid-2009. port in identifying constraints and challenges, as well many roads are mined has led to closures and as to liaise with the peacekeeping mission staff, UN disuse for long periods, at a considerable cost to the Security has remained an issue throughout the agencies and donors. UNMAS also continued its movement of people and development. Landmines country. In May, conflict erupted in the town support to troop-contributing countries to ensure were laid on routes, villages, wells and arable land. of Abyei, an oil-rich area at the heart of a longstand- smooth training, rotation and accreditation, as well As the repatriation of IDPs and refugees increases, ing dispute between the northern and southern as the review of the composition of military demining mines continue to threaten food security, governments, forcing up to 50,000 people to flee the companies from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Egypt, agricultural and economic activities, and freedom of area. In the south, rebel activity by the Lords’ Kenya and Pakistan, in accordance with IMAS. movement. Resistance Army along the Ugandan border delayed clearance operations, while in Darfur all patrols had In support of Strategic Objective 4 of the UN inter- UNMAO is mandated by Security Council Resolution to be accompanied by armed escorts. Other impedi- agency mine action strategy, UNMAS assisted the 1590 and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement ments included a longer than usual annual rainy sea- ongoing transitional planning process by participat- (CPA) to coordinate, facilitate, accredit and conduct son in most regions of the south, delays from the ing in planning workshops from the inception, and by Photo: Arne Hodalic quality assurance of all mine action activities in Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and the providing technical and policy advice. 80 1 81
  • 42. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 Coordination and Training But the major accomplishment remained the Operations anti-personnel mines in Juba on 31 March 2008. This completion of a series of four workshops to develop completed the destruction of the known and UNMAO continued to coordinate all mine action a plan to transfer the ownership of the Sudan Mine In 2008, UNMAO focused on five key priorities: i) declared stockpiles of anti-personnel mines in activities conducted by NGOs, commercial Action Programme to the NMAC and the SSDC. opening up primary routes for humanitarian assis- Sudan. companies and UN military demining troops The transition will build on the core management tance activities, the safe return of IDPs and refugees, throughitshead office in Khartoum, as well as responsibilities of a mine action entity. These include and the recommencement of trade; ii) surveys, mark- Following the violence between the Sudan Armed through its 3 regional and 10 sub-offices. Ensuring a the planning and coordination of mine action activi- ing and targeted clearance; iii) targeted mine risk Forces and SPLA in Abyei, UN demining assets were smooth planning process, working towards the ties, the establishment of national technical education, especially for IDPs and refugees; iv) needs deployed to assist body recovery efforts led by the transition of mine action activities, and providing standards, quality and information management, assessment and assistance to victims of landmines ICRC, and to remove and destroy ERW as well as training to staff and partners were the three major accreditation and fundraising. National authorities and ERW; and v) developing the capacities of nation- stockpiled abandoned munitions. UNMAO’s partner achievements throughout 2008. will also be responsible for ensuring Sudan’s compli- al authorities. DCA conducted technical surveys, battle area clear- ance with the mine-ban treaty and other related ance, EOD and mine risk education, while the SRSA UNMAO in partnership with other UN agencies, treaties, as well as for raising awareness of mine To date, 29,145 kilometres of roads have been sent a four-person EOD team to conduct ERW spot national authorities, and local and international threats and assisting victims of landmines. opened. Significant progress was made on roads link- tasks at various UN, government and NGO com- NGOs identified strategic priorities and benchmarks ing remote southern regions and major towns, north- pounds in Abyei until the end of 2008. for mine action within the UNDAF, which covers The transition will be undertaken in three stages: ern Sudan and international borders. For instance, a development programming from 2009 to 2012. capacity development, joint activities and full nation- number of major roads were opened linking Wau to In Darfur, UNMAO has been working to assess and al ownership by 2011, dependent on the extension of its surrounding areas, creating links to the west, clear priority areas of contamination from mines and Together, they agreed to produce a multi-year plan the UNMIS mandate. UNMAO will implement an towards southern Darfur, and to the south-west. ERW to assist the UNAMID mission and allow for that should serve as a common planning and exit strategy while placing key national and interna- Having been approached by UNHCR, UNMAO com- freedom of movement. It has also provided mine risk resource mobilization document for all partners. tional staff among national authorities’ technical pleted the verification of the Maban-Chali route, a education for civilian populations, with a focus on the This will help ensure the implementation of the advisers. A Memorandum of Understanding demon- major returns corridor from Ethiopia, while the IDP population. ERW safety training is being taught goals set out by the Sudan Mine Action Strategic and strating the commitment of the United Nations and Malakal-Kodok-Malut-Kosti route has created a to new UNAMID staff upon arrival in Darfur. To date, Policy Framework, and compliance with Sudan’s the national authorities to the transition of the Sudan valuable link between northern and southern Sudan. UNMAO has assessed more than 5 million square commitments to the mine-ban treaty. Annual Mine Action Programme should be signed in 2009, As well as opening routes, UNMAO has been receiv- metres of land for building the UN super camps in El planning, such as for the Portfolio of Mine Action with the implementation of the first phase of the ing a growing number of requests to widen roads, Fasher, Nyala, El Geneina and Zalingei. As the fight- Projects and the UN & Partners Work Plan, will be transition plan to follow immediately after. particularly in the south, to enable the population to ing continues throughout the region, reassessment reflected each year in the multi-year plan. cope with the traffic that comes with increasing eco- of some areas and roads may be required due to pos- UNMAO reaffirmed its commitment to training nomic demand. sible re-contamination. A new office was opened in A significant amount of time was dedicated to build- by working with Cranfield University to implement El Geneina in West Darfur, while in El Fasher, both the ing the capacity of national mine action structures. In seven courses at the International Mine Action As a signatory of the mine-ban treaty, Sudan com- regional and sub-offices moved to the super camp at collaboration with UNDP, an assessment of the Training Centre in Nairobi. A total of 130 partici- mitted itself to carrying out the destruction of its the end of 2008. National Mine Action Centre (NMAC, based in pants from the national authorities, UNMAO and stockpiled anti-personnel mines by 1 April 2008. In Khartoum) and the Southern Sudan Demining various NGOs received training in project or support accordance with Article 4 of the treaty, UNMAO and The mine risk education sector, led by UNICEF, pro- Commission (SSDC, based in Juba) was conducted management, quality assurance and control, the UNMIS Bangladeshi Military Demining Company vided education to 522,749 people, with a particular during the summer of 2008; recommendations were mine risk education, medical coordination, assisted the Government of Southern Sudan with the focus on IDPs, returnees and vulnerable communi- distributed to all stakeholders. supervision and EOD. destruction of the final batch of 6,078 stockpiled ties. Twelve organizations participated in this effort 82 83
  • 43. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 Photo: UNMAO advanced mine risk education training. Victim and share experiences in running victim assistance (specifically, Ayod-Waat-Akobo) has aided disarma- assistance projects continued, and coordination was and disability-related programmes. Throughout ment efforts, and created access for goods, aid and improved through the monthly meetings of two 2008, operations were supported by contributions development. In Blue Nile State, the Gerawid-Ullu- victim assistance working groups, chaired received through the VTF from Canada, the Wadaka road is now connecting towns near the in turns by the NMAC in Khartoum and the Ministry European Commission, Italy, Japan, the Ethiopian border. This should facilitate the return of of Gender and Social Welfare in Juba, officially Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom, as over 8,000 IDPs and refugees to the Ullu communi- selected as the government counterpart for well as through an allocation from the ty, and allow humanitarian agencies to access the UNMAO’s victim assistance programme in southern Common Humanitarian Fund. In particular, CIDA area. Today, it is also possible to drive from Sudan. Two national workshops involving all part- funded operations in Kassala and Eastern states, and Damazine to Kurmuk, a town with approximately ners, relevant authorities, diplomats, and experts victim assistance programming nationwide. The 10,000 inhabitants, a percentage of which are land- from Sudan and abroad were organized. European Commission funded route verification, mine victims. They have benefitted from food and aid mechanical clearance and mine risk education delivered by humanitarian agencies. Throughout the first half of 2008, the UNTFHS sup- projects in southern Sudan. Contributions from ported 14 organizations and institutions (8 in the Japan supported route verification in South Prior to November 2005, the length of known traf- north and 6 in the south) to implement victim Kordofan and southern Sudan, integrated mechani- ficked road in mine-affected areas in the south and assistance and disability-related projects in the areas cal clearance in Jonglei and Upper Nile states, and north was only 356 kilometres. By the end of 2008, of data collection, physical rehabilitation, social mine risk education. UNMAO had opened 29,145 kilometres of roads integration and advocacy. A total of 699 direct ben- through clearance and verification. This achievement eficiaries (among whom 40 percent were female) greatly contributes to Strategic Objective 2 of the UN and 3,495 indirect beneficiaries received assistance. Impact mine action strategy.It also has resulted in significant savings for the Mission, WFP and other imple- UNMAO hired a professional photographer to cover The principal objective of the Sudan Mine Action menters of humanitarian aid in reduced reliance on through the deployment of 47 teams: 27 in the south, a number of projects funded by the trust fund in Programme is to reduce the threats posed by land- airlift to conduct operations. 18 in the north and 6 in Darfur. In northern Sudan, Sudan. Thirty photos portraying mine and ERW mines and ERW. As such, the opening of roads con- 535 teachers were trained. In the south, the first victims were selected and displayed during three tinued to improve freedom of movement, and had a The Bangladeshi Military Demining Company round of training of 500 teachers was completed as exhibitions in Sudan, as well as during the Ninth tremendous impact in facilitating the return of completed the clearance of a large minefield at Rejaf part of efforts to incorporate mine risk education into Meeting of State Parties to the mine-ban treaty refugees and IDPs. The number of victims dropped East, outside Juba. The land will be used to for the the school curriculum. A review of mine risk in Geneva. by 65 percent, from 140 in 2006 to 50 in 2008. resettlement of 5,000 refugees and IDPs expected to education materials used in Sudan has been return to the area, as well as the expansion of a completed; over 150,000 copies were reprinted. In New funding was secured for three years from CIDA, Humanitarian and development NGOs have been cattle camp and other agricultural projects. order to increase public awareness, two public through which six projects will be implemented in permitted access to remote areas of the country, information campaigns were conducted, while a the south and four in the north by local and interna- specifically in Jonglei State and Western Bahr El Around Tawilla, an area south-west of El Fasher, project to broadcast messages through mass tional NGOs. This will provide direct support to mine Ghazal. Opening the Yei-Kaya road on the Ugandan Darfur that is riddled with UXO after an ambush in media is ongoing. In line with UNMAO’s plans for and ERW victims and persons with disabilities. border has had a dramatic impact on trade and cre- September 2008, UNMAO disposed of hundreds of the transition of mine action to the Government A three-day training course, involving participants ated another access route from Uganda to southern pieces of ordnance so that Relief International could and the building of local capacity, 18 people from from relevant victim assistance authorities and Sudan’s capital and major towns. The opening of a begin building a new clinic for inoculations for the the Government, NGOs and UNMAO took part in partners, was held to help build management skills network of routes in the unstable Jonglei area local population. 84 85
  • 44. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 Number of Victims Per Year Over the Last Five Years 2004 Unknown Female Male Total Total Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed 45+ – – – 3 3 3 3 6 9 Adults – – 2 2 23 12 25 14 39 Number of Victims Per Year Over the Last Five Years (cont.) Children – – 6 2 27 8 33 10 43 Not Specified – – – 1 6 3 6 4 10 2008 Unknown Female Male Total Total Year Total - - 8 8 59 26 67 34 101 Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed 45+ – – – – – – – – - Adults – – 2 2 6 3 8 5 13 2005 Unknown Female Male Total Total Children – – 4 – 14 8 18 8 26 Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Not Specified 3 – – – 5 3 8 3 11 45+ – – 1 – 4 1 5 1 6 Year Total 3 - 6 2 25 14 34 16 50 Adults – – 1 1 20 6 21 7 28 Children – – 3 – 14 8 17 8 25 Unknown Female Male Total Total Not Specified – 6 5 – 38 8 43 14 57 Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Year Total - 6 10 1 76 23 86 30 116 45+ – – 2 3 15 4 17 7 24 Adults 7 – 6 7 81 28 94 35 129 Children – – 20 7 93 47 113 54 167 2006 Unknown Female Male Total Total Not Specified 16 13 11 4 98 33 125 50 175 Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Year Total 23 13 39 21 287 112 349 146 495 45+ – – 1 – 6 7 0 7 Adults 7 – 1 2 21 5 29 7 36 Children – – 2 1 22 7 24 8 32 Not Specified 3 5 4 1 35 17 42 23 65 Total Number of Victims of Landmines and ERW Since 2004 by Age and Gender Year Total 10 5 8 4 84 29 102 38 140 45 + Children Adults Unknown Total Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed 2007 Unknown Female Male Total Total Male 15 4 93 47 81 28 98 33 287 112 Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Female 2 3 20 7 6 7 11 4 39 21 45+ – – – – 2 – 2 – 2 Unknown – – – – – – 16 13 23 13 Adults – – – – 11 2 11 2 13 Total 17 7 113 54 94 35 125 50 349 146 Children – – 5 4 16 16 21 20 41 Not Specified 10 2 2 2 14 2 26 6 32 Year Total 10 2 7 6 43 20 60 28 88 86 87
  • 45. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 Number of Dangerous Areas and Suspected Hazardous Areas Cleared and Released Number of Victims by State Over the Last Five Years Since Sudan Mine Action Programme Began State 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total Identified Cleared Released Total Bahr El Ghazal 12 21 28 19 10 90 2002 42 1 0 1 Central 4 1 1 - - 6 2003 79 21 1 22 Darfur 1 8 34 34 9 86 2004 119 46 1 47 Eastern 18 8 21 6 22 75 2005 320 174 16 190 Equatoria 23 20 25 20 4 92 2006 701 401 39 440 Kordofan 30 45 4 7 5 91 2007 1247 670 52 722 Upper Nile 13 13 27 2 - 55 2008 2137 932 415 1347 Total 101 116 140 88 50 495 Total 4645 2245 524 2769 Number of Roads Opened Kilometres Mine Risk Education Beneficiaries by Year, Gender and Age Group Suspected mined roads 2,415 Children Adults Mixed Age Opened road (mine action) 29,145 Year Male Female Mixed Male Female Mixed Male Female Mixed Unknown Total Known trafficked roads before November 2005 356 2006 5,696 2,960 5,055 29,923 26,521 40,714 10,121 3,755 240,015 159,554 524,305 Planned roads for the south 6,652 Planned roads for the north 1,526 2007 7,169 6,659 2,284 115,816 111,018 24,303 1,845 1,236 233,422 279,974 783,726 Planned roads for Darfur 19,290 2008 141,234 109,229 5,560 105,965 99,262 5,047 738 139 54,837 738 522,749 Estimated length of roads in the mine-affected areas at the beginning of the project 56,969 88 89
  • 46. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 THE “SWEET” SMELL OF SUCCESS WESTERN SAHARA Before civil war broke out in 1983, the southern Sudan therefore the business is successful enough to help Cecilia Highlights is difficult to ensure accurate reporting of accidents town of Yei was booming due to its proximity to the cater to her family’s needs. and injuries, but the Royal Moroccan Army (RMA) Ugandan and Congolese borders. Since then, more than 20 New security and risk management strategies are in has registered more than 2,000 since 1991, with over years of conflict have prompted dramatic declines in Cecilia’s commerce has given her a new confidence and place to guarantee the safety of UN personnel and the one-quarter of incidents producing deaths. local population. infrastructure, trade and industry. much-needed autonomy. She is well respected in the community. The local chief often calls her to share her A mine/UXO survey for the eastern portion of Western Since UN involvement in the territory began, the Following the signature of the CPA in 2005, signs of story with other people. As she demonstrates how one can Sahara has been completed. mine action issue has been highlighted as an recovery have been emerging. The city is surrounded by face the most challenging times in life with a positive Mine action information coordination with the local ongoing concern. MINURSO was established in 1991 lush farmlands, and its location ensures business potential. attitude, her example is an encouragement to many. authorities has been enhanced. through Security Council Resolution 690. As the Still, as you walk through the streets of Yei, you notice number of accidents mounted in the territory, includ- children playing among the rusty military tanks that litter The work may be hard at times, and the fish smells terrible. ing some that injured UN personnel in 1992 and the roadsides, and you come across villagers with missing Recently, Cecilia suffered the loss of her sister who was Context and Challenges 1994, the issue grew in importance. In early 1999, the limbs, a stark reminder of the landmines that were laid helping her earn some money for the family. But she enjoys parties to the conflict over Western Sahara—the during the war. life in the market and likes to think about the future. Western Sahara is a territory, of roughly 230,000 Government of Morocco and the armed non-state “Maybe one day when I get more money, I will change my square kilometers, large portions of which are affect- actor Frente Popular para la Liberación de Saguia Cecilia Yabo Juma, 33, is one of them. Two years ago, she business,” she says. “Maybe I’ll try to sell soap.” ed by mines and ERW since initial conflicts with el-Hamra y de Río de Oro (Polisario)—agreed to went outside the town to collect firewood for her family. colonial powers in the 1970s. For decades, local cooperate with MINURSO on mine action. Having recently returned from a refugee camp in Uganda, Photo: Arne Hodalic populations have suffered from this contamination. Agreements between MINURSO and each of the she was not aware of the landmine threat in the region. While a significant proportion of the mine contami- parties were signed, emphasizing the importance of As she walked in a field, she stepped on a mine and lost her nation can be found along the earthen berm that was information exchange regarding mines and UXO. right leg; the other one was badly injured in the explosion. created by Morocco between 1982 and 1987, it persists throughout the territory. Compounding the Building on the Mine Action Cell established by MIN- Ever since Cecilia’s husband died during the war, she has problem is a serious lack of information pinpointing URSO with support from UNMAS in 2006, MINUR- had to look after her three children plus another four she where mine contamination exists. Large numbers of SO placed an even greater priority on mine and UXO had adopted from her late brother. She explains how her mined areas do not conform to traditional military contamination by creating a MACC within the life changed after the accident: “I used to travel a lot pattern minefields and are scattered in small mission. It has dedicated civilian staff, including a between Rumbek, Wau and Juba for trade, but suddenly all groupings, across numerous locations. The lack of senior technical adviser for mine action. The office this stopped. I had to find new products that were much discernable patterns makes identification of these has focused on reducing mine and UXO victims, and lighter and required less effort to handle.” areas difficult. supporting progress towards clearing the territory of ERW that block the transport of persons, the devel- The Rapid Farmers Development Cooperative Centre is a Large quantities of UXO are a problem especially in opment of contaminated zones and the eventual community-based organization that was selected through areas east of the berm, where the remnants of return of refugees from camps in Algeria. a victim assistance project funded by the governments of cluster munitions strikes pose a threat to local first Japan and then Canada. It has been helping Cecilia to nomadic inhabitants following their livestock and Since August 2006 with partial funding from start a small business—she now sells dried fish at the local seeking appropriate conditions for settlement. UNMAS and logistical support from MINURSO, the market. The fish is imported from Lake Victoria in Uganda Every year, there are injuries due to mines and ERW NGO Landmine Action UK (LMA) has been working and is easy to transport. The demand is high in Yei, in Western Sahara. Due to a lack of infrastructure it in the eastern areas, enabling MINURSO to create a 90 91
  • 47. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 comprehensive picture of the ERW problem east of body for activities on both sides of the berm, Action was an opportunity to share information on areas west of the berm. These teams are verifying the berm. Data collection for these eastern areas is MINURSO’s MACC has been focused on data new legal instruments, such as the Convention on areas and removing items of explosive ordnance to now complete. Roughly 200 dangerous areas have collection from all field sources, and analysis and Cluster Munitions, and on the deadly and inhumane ensure the safety of populations living and travelling been recorded, with most due to cluster munition planning based on the results. During 2008, effects of these weapons. there. The Army has prioritized all suspected areas in strikes. UXO is littering the ground, including items significant progress was achieved in terms of close proximity to populated areas, main travel as large as 250 kilogrammes, in over 400 spots. completing the survey of areas east of the berm and routes and all areas where accidents have occurred. Significant work remains in terms of analysing results entering those areas into a central database at Operations MINURSO staff members are invited to attend and stepping up clearance efforts. MINURSO using the IMSMA. The MACC provided destruction of all explosive ordnance carried out by training and installation for LMA’s field office and LMA has been working in Western Sahara since the RMA. During 2008, the RMA’s destruction of West of the berm, the RMA initiated an intensified headquarters staff to enable them to enter all survey 2005 with support from UNMAS. During 2008, 300 mines and more than 2,000 pieces of UXO from mine and ERW clearance project in 2007 involving data into the system, for later quality control and LMA increasingly focused on expanding and clearance operations was documented by MINURSO 10,000 troops. Sadly, accidents continue to occur, integration in the central MACC database. improving its clearance capacity, while completing personnel. Given the enormous contaminated area with 18 recorded in 2008, a more than two-fold The MACC is also working with the RMA on record- the survey of dangerous areas and EOD tasks in the facing Moroccan demining personnel, increased increase from the previous year. In these, 13 people ing more accurate information on areas west of the territory. Survey data collection was finished, with focus must be given to identifying and canceling were injured and an estimated 9 killed. berm. This enhanced information has dramatically the final area, Agwanit, surveyed in November. areas through the use of new technologies. increased the safety of both UN personnel operating in the field and of local populations, who receive There was an increase in the area cleared and items Those efforts will contribute to the achievement Achievements information on contaminated areas through local destroyed with the addition of a third battle area of the Strategic Objective 2 of the UN mine action authorities. clearance team. In order to increase efficiency, all strategy. team members have been cross-trained to a Support from UNMAS Headquarters Training of MINURSO staff on landmine safety has standard that permits them to destroy explosive ord- been strengthened through the MACC, which has nance. Towards promoting gender balance and Impact UNMAS provided significant support for the provided more detailed safety packages, and tracks increasing access to women in the local population, establishment of the MACC at MINURSO in staff members on their progress in completing the significant efforts have been made to recruit women Although Western Sahara’s population is sparse, it February 2008. It has also been essential in getting UNMAS safety DVD. Safety training has also been into clearance teams—one-third of the members of struggles in a barren land to find the basic elements provisions for mine action within the MINURSO extended to other UN agencies; all members of the most recent clearance team were women. of survival, such as water. Mines and UXO that vic- assessed budget for 2008 and 2009, and in raising UNHCR were given landmine safety training by the timize family members, kill livestock and block extra-budgetary resources. Thus far, funding has MACC, which will be repeated regularly as staff LMA increased its clearance by roughly 300 percent access to direct routes and grazing areas place an been received through voluntary contributions to the turnover occurs. In cooperation with MINURSO in 2008, covering almost 3 million square kilometres additional burden on people living on the margins of VTF from the Government of Spain. Former medical personnel, casualty evacuation procedures of cluster strike areas. Significantly more individual survival. contributions included those from the Holy See. were reviewed and practiced, and emergency trauma items of explosive ordnance were removed from the medical kits were improved. eastern sectors. As many as 370 items were Unfortunately, Strategic Objective 1 of the UN inter- destroyed, including several large aircraft bombs in agency strategy could not be met in 2008. Although Coordination and Training Raising awareness about issues surrounding the excess of 200 kilogrammes. it is difficult to get accurate and detailed data regard- humanitarian norms supported by mine action has ing victims of mines and UXO, information collected Due to a lack both of information on mine and been another focus of the MACC. The International The RMA’s humanitarian clearance effort fields a during 2008 suggests an increase in mine and UXO UXO contamination, and a centralized coordination Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine number of demining teams working throughout victims. During 2008, 18 accidents occurred, more 92 93
  • 48. 2008 Country Programmes Country Programmes 2008 RESTORING A PRECIOUS RESOURCE UNMAS SUPPORT TO OTHER PROGRAMMES than the number of recorded accidents in 2007. The first official handover of cleared land in Western Cambodia Virtually all victims of mines and UXO are men; many Sahara was not only a celebration for the local people The project has a two-phased strategy, closely are young men or boys. Female victims in the last two who were using the land, but a moment of relief and UNMAS continued to support two victim assistance linking demining and development, and basing the years have all been children. Accidents occur satisfaction for survivors of cluster munitions that had projects implemented by newly formed Cambodian demining process on clearly defined humanitarian primarily when male members of households are littered the area. NGOs—AAR Vocational Training for the Disabled and developmental priorities collectively identified engaged in economic activities, in particular tending (AAR VTD) and AAR Wheelchair Production for through surveying the perceptions and views of all animals and following herds. A significant number Water is the most precious of resources in the Development (AAR WCD)—with funds from the concerned stakeholders. The key activities are: of anti-tank mine accidents causing deaths were dessert, so the contamination of a large water hole in Government of Japan. AAR VTD provided vocational reportedly linked to male shepherds following their the area of Budib was a major hazard for local people training to 48 persons with disabilities, including 29 Establishment of the Executive Secretariat for animals off main roads in their vehicles. Many of desperate for water for themselves and their camels. mine and UXO survivors. Out of the 48 graduates, 89 Demining and Development of the North West Coast, the accidents involving children are related The area had been targeted with cluster munitions percent are employed and managing to generate and provision of capacity development and to cluster munitions, where they have played with and cannon shells, but residents continued to use it their own income. AAR WCD produced and advisory support; sub-munitions that resemble small toys. because there is no other source of water nearby. distributed 298 wheelchairs to persons with disabili- Development of a communication and resource Empty cluster munitions containers found near the ties, mainly landmine survivors. A follow-up survey mobilization strategy, and coordination with donors, The effect that mine contamination can have on strike site were even collected to store water for AAR WCD conducted showed that 90 percent of the civil society and the private sector; development was illustrated by a serious accident animals beneficiaries felt their mobility improved after Implementation of demining activities; involving an anti-tank mine west of the berm. receipt of a wheelchair, and 85 percent felt that their Two geological surveyors were circulating in areas Eventually, the unexploded cluster munitions were family’s workload had been reduced. And Implementation of mine risk education and thought to be safe when their vehicle hit the mine. disturbed and individuals injured at the watering victim assistance activities. The driver was killed instantly and the passenger hole—especially young boys playing with the sub- seriously injured. As development activities munitions. One such boy is Mohamid Lamin Habub Egypt Lao People’s Democratic Republic increasingly push the population into previously Loud, who was badly injured, but survived the blast. unused areas, more and more accidents could occur, UNMAS in 2008 funded the project “Support the UNMAS continued its support for mine action in Lao hampering any development of new infrastructure. Mohamid and other young survivors played a key role Ongoing Operations of Executive Secretariat for PDR through 2005 and 2008 contributions from the in assisting LMA to survey and map the area, commit- Mine Clearance” through a basic agreement with Government of Japan. Assistance helped strengthen Mine and UXO contamination also prevents people ted to the goal of ensuring it is clear of the small UNDP. The purpose of the project is to back the the UNDP Country Office with a dedicated from feeling a sense of peace and security. Demining and deadly weapons that had injured them. LMA implementation of the National Plan for the programme officer, later reclassified as the UXO unit activities help build confidence and instill a sense later cleared the area of 54 BLU 63 sub-munitions and Development of the North West Coast and Inland chief, who aids the National Regulatory Authority of security that should support a sustainable solution 20 additional pieces of UXO. A total of 492,810 Desert, which aims at clearing landmines and and UXO Lao. Activities have included extensive in this disputed territory. square metres of precious land around this life-sus- promoting development. The major source of the donor coordination, resource mobilization, and taining water hole were cleared and handed over to contamination with ERW was World War II. An support to Lao PDR’s active participation in the the community of Hasi Budibon on 24 June 2008. estimated 2,680 square kilometres of land preparation process for the Convention on Cluster The local Community Chief was present to accept (from Alexandria to the Libyan border, and 30 Munitions at the regional and global levels. the certificate from LMA and thanked the organization kilometres deep from the Mediterranean coastline) The 2008 contribution will support the project up for the work to protect local inhabitants. and 250,000 people are affected. to 2010. 94 95
  • 49. 2008 Country Programmes 2008 Zambia With previous funding from the Government of the moved into 2009. The effort will be supported logistically by the Government of Zambia, and is intended to reach some 30,000 Angolans, 45,000 UNMAS Czech Republic and the United Nations International School through the VTF, UNICEF will train mine risk education instructors to work in four Zambian Congolese and 2,200 refugees of other nationalities. Training will be conducted in camps at Mayukwayukwa, Meheba, Mwanga and Kala. FINANCIAL refugee camps. This effort will address a need identified by the Zambia Mine Action Centre (ZMAC) for mine risk education to be provided to Initial plans to undertake mine risk education had been postponed after ZMAC decided first to PERFORMANCE Angolan, Congolese and other refugees in Zambia in undertake a comprehensive national survey of mine order to promote safe mine risk behavior in relation victims. This affected capacities available for mine to mines and ERW before repatriation. risk education. Options were further reduced by the deteriorating security situation in the Democratic A training of trainers was scheduled to be carried out Republic of Congo, which resulted in the suspension by ZMAC, under the supervision of UNICEF, from of plans to repatriate refugees to that country, and June through December 2008. But it has been the onset of the rainy season. Photo: Arne Hodalic Photo: Mark Craemer 96
  • 50. 2008 Financial Performance Financial Performance 2008 UNMAS activities at headquarters and in the field Highlights Mine Action Projects 2009. Contributions for the year are funded by a number of mechanisms, namely: amounted to US $92,479,658 or 18.5 percent of Nineteen donors contributed US $92.5 million all contributions to the VTF since its inception in Assessed contributions for peacekeeping operations to the VTF. 1994. The amount was similar to that in 2007. All and the special political mission in Nepal (UNMIN); Canada contributed US $25.4 million, Japan US $19.9 funds received were expended and/or obligated. Contributions of donor governments, organizations and million and the Netherlands 13.5 million. private individuals processed by the VTF; Donors targeted some 97 percent of funds for specif- Andorra, the Holy See, the Netherlands, New Zealand The UN Peacekeeping Support Account; and ic programmes and specific activities. For example, and Sweden provided unearmarked funds. Other trust funds, such as the Common of the total contributions for 2008, US $71.3 million, Australia, Canada, the European Commission, Finland, or 77 percent, was earmarked by donors for two Humanitarian Fund for Sudan and the UN Peace Trust Sweden and the United Kingdom provided funds Fund for Nepal. country programmes: Afghanistan at 50.6 percent through multi-year contributions. and Sudan at 26.4 percent. Since its inception in 1994, the VTF has received over Assessed budgeted contributions provided through peacekeeping mission budgets increased by 17 percent US $500 million in voluntary contributions from UN Throughout 2008, UNMAS appealed to donors to from US $53.8 million in 2007 to US $65 million agencies, donor governments, the European in 2008. provide funding directly earmarked for UNMAS Commission, NGOs, schools and other contributors. headquarters coordination activities and unear- UNMAS is committed to transparency and marked funding. UNMAS is very grateful to Australia, accountability in the financial management of all Fundraising and Donor Outreach Canada, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Spain donor funds contributed to the VTF and the funds and the United Kingdom for their headquarters allocated to mine action activities from the UN Since being designated by the UN Secretary-General coordination contributions totaling US $3.4 million, Peacekeeping Support Account, peacekeeping in 1997 as the focal point for mine action within the or 76 percent of the total required. missions’ assessed budgets and UN regular UN system, UNMAS continues to ensure an effec- programme budgets. To this end, UNMAS has adopt- tive, proactive and coordinated response by UNMAT The pattern of primarily earmarked and one-year ed the Programme and Financial Information in countries or territories contaminated by landmines voluntary funding has had an impact on UNMAS’ Management system (ProFi), currently in use by the and ERW that require UN assistance. UNMAS relies flexibility in its medium- to longer-term planning. UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). ProFi is heavily on extra-budgetary funding from donors In 2008, the total amount of both headquarters Photo: Arne Hodalic designed to improve internal controls in the financial through the VTF to fulfil these responsibilities. coordination and unearmarked funds amounted to management of resources, forecast project funding US $5.9 million or 6.4 percent of total funds requirements and related revenues, and streamline Throughout 2008, one of UNMAS priorities contin- UNMAS operates and at fora such as the MASG. To contributed. the processes for project identification, ued to be maintaining the momentum of donor sup- further expand partnerships, the United Nations, on implementation, monitoring, evaluation and financial port, broadening its donor base and generating new behalf of UNMAS, entered into a contribution agree- To allow UNMAS to plan strategically, ensure its reporting to donors. UNMAS will continue to work to funding from non-traditional sources in order to ment with the City of Barcelona in Spain on the sup- capacity to respond in a timely manner to emergency ensure that the VTF is well managed in a fully trans- improve stability and predictability. As such, UNMAS port of mine action in Mozambique. situations and assist other UNMAT members in the parent and accountable manner by providing to simultaneously conducted resource mobilization implementation of specific mine action-related man- donors and beneficiaries an efficient and cost-effec- activities in the field and at headquarters. UNMAS In 2008, donors contributed generously through the dates and requirements, UNMAS welcomes donors’ tive mechanism for coordinating, implementing and briefed donors in capitals, at Permanent Missions to VTF to support country-specific programmes and commitments to the principles of good practices in reporting mine action the United Nations, at embassies in countries where global mine action projects listed in the Portfolio of humanitarian donorship. 98 99
  • 51. 2008 Financial Performance Financial Performance 2008 PRINCIPLES OF GOOD PRACTICES The following chart shows the top ten donors, based on Afghanistan programme with US $10 million, together IN HUMANITARIAN DONORSHIP funds received in 2008. UNMAS also received contribu- with the programmes in Chad, the Democratic tions from Andorra, Estonia, Finland, the Holy See, Republic of Congo and Sudan, and other thematic Coordination and operational activities in UN-managed In 2008, UNMAS continued to appeal to donors to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, New Zealand, activities with an additional US $ 9.6 million. programmes; adhere to the principles of “good humanitarian the Republic of Korea, Sweden and Switzerland. donorship,” which entail flexible, multi-year funding, Quality assurance and oversight of LIS exercises; Donor support to Afghanistan and increased and simplified, standardized reporting requirements. A majority of the major core donors to the VTF have sus- support to Sudan accounted for 50.6 percent In the spirit of this principle, UNMAS continued to Coordination, policy development and implementation; tained their funding levels for past years, which has (US $46,805,297) and 26.4 percent (US encourage donors to accept its Annual Report as the Production, gathering and dissemination of information allowed UNMAS to effectively maintain its ongoing pro- $24,447,504), respectively, of the total amount official substantive and financial report for contribu- to aid mine action, and conduct public outreach to raise grammes and plan for future operations. Australia and received by the VTF. Lebanon was in third place with 8 tions received by the VTF, and to provide awareness of issues related to mines and ERW; Japan significantly increased their support for mine percent (US $7,063,326) of the total. Special appre- uneamarked and/or multi-year funding. action over the previous year. Australia provided US $8 ciation is extended to Australia and Switzerland Development, monitoring and implementation of IMAS million to the Afghanistan programme, in addition to US for their prompt support to the Lebanon pro- In 2008, UNMAS welcomed CIDA’s generous three- to provide a framework for efficient, effective and safer $200,000 for headquarters coordination and US gramme in the fall of 2008 to avert the funding year contribution of CDN $42 million, and is grateful mine action activities, and guidance and coordination $400,000 to Lebanon. Japan also supported the crisis it was encountering. to Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom for their for the development of new mine action technologies; multi-year agreements, and to Australia, Canada and Mine action activities of UNMAT members, such as the Top 10 Donors to the Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Action in 2008 the European Commission for their ongoing multi- building of partnerships to assist affected states in year agreements. UNMAS is thankful to Andorra, the Top 10 developing national capacities to manage the current Holy See, New Zealand and Sweden for their provi- $25,000,000 and residual problems related to landmines and ERW; $20,000,000 sion of unearmarked funds in 2008. Moreover, it Development and implementation of the UNMAS ProFi $15,000,000 remains appreciative of the fact that Japan, the system. $10,000,000 Netherlands and Spain provided funds indicating a $5,000,000 range of options for how they could be used. $0 Level and Sources of Income Canada Japan Netherlands Australia EC Italy Denmark Common Spain UK Humanitarian Fund The Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in The following table summarizes donor contributions Mine Action to and earmarks for the VTF in 2008. Seventeen governments, the European Commission and the The following chart illustrates the percent of returned to the particular donor or maintained in the The Secretary-General established the VTF in 1994 to Common Humanitarian Fund for Sudan together UNMAS income received through the VTF, the UN VTF with the donor’s consent for particular pro- provide special resources for mine action programmes and contributed US $92,479,658 million, compared to US Peacekeeping Support Account Budget and the UN grammes. The total income for the year, which projects, including surveys, mine clearance, mine risk $92,955,455 in 2007 and US $51,029,053 in 2006. Peacekeeping Assessed Budget. Other sources of includes voluntary contributions, bank interest and education, victim assistance and advocacy activities, income for UNMAS consist of the interest income miscellaneous income for the VTF, is reported annu- in situations where other funding is not immediately accrued on bank and cash balances. Miscellaneous ally in the UN Financial Statements—Schedule of available. income represents unspent balances on projects Individual Trust Funds, and in the audited biennium refunded by implementing partners, which are either consolidated financial statements. Funded activities include but are not limited to supporting: Assessment missions to evaluation the scope of mine Sources of Funding for Mine Action Programmes and ERW problems; Emergency mine action where rapid intervention is required; Photo: Aaron Buckley Peacekeeping Assessed Funds 41.02% Peacekeeping Support Account 0.63% Voluntary Contributions 58.35% 100 101
  • 52. 2008 Financial Performance Financial Performance 2008 Contributions to the Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Action in 2008, in US$ Donors Advocacy Afghanistan Chad Colombia Demcratic Ethiopia Guinea Bissau HQ Coordination Kosovo Lebanon Mauritania Nepal Rapid Response Somalia Sudan To be Earmarked Unearmarked Western Grand Total Republic of Sahara Congo Andorra 29,126 29,126 Australia 7,922,000 192,870 415,550 8,530,420 Canada 16,685,467 502,159 3,735,771 4,432,037 25,355,434 Common Humanitarian 3,011,928 3,011,928 Fund Denmark 1,046,485 1,046,485 1,019,992 3,112,962 Europeaan Commision 5,084,370 5,084,370 Estonia 20,000 20,000 Finland 1,396,780 399,987 1,796,767 Holy See 6,000 6,000 Italy 209,985 4,162,595 461,967 4,834,547 Japan 10,000,000 500,000 2,340,500 6,746,038 324,949 19,911,487 Korea, Republic of 100,000 100,000 Netherlands 4,865,000 270,00 2,135,000 135,000 470,000 675,000 335,000 635,000 3,380,000 600,000 13,500,000 New Zealand 55,157 791,900 847,057 Saudi Arabia 500,000 500,000 Spain 706,970 192,810 57,750 192,810 192,810 192,810 135,060 642,700 257,080 2,570,800 Sweden 1,111,855 1,111,855 Switzerland 180,184 180,184 UK 284,900 608,873 188,863 205,621 688,463 1,976,720 Grand Total 209,985 46,805,297 692,810 270,000 4,760,400 135,000 57,750 3,413,185 192,810 7,063,326 135,060 205,621 335,000 635,000 24,447,504 324,949 2,538,881 257,080 92,479,658 102 103
  • 53. 2008 Financial Performance Financial Performance 2008 Summary Income and Expenditures The table below summarizes various sources of funding to from prior years. Most voluntary contributions were ear- The following tables detail expenditures from the the VTF from voluntary and assessed contributions, total- marked to specific programmes or projects. The mine VTF for headquarters core functions, thematic proj- ing US $158,495,058, together with total related pro action components in seven peacekeeping missions (MIN- ects, joint projects with UNDP and UNICEF, and gramme expenditures of US $178,148,499 incurred by URCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, UNAMID, UNIFIL, UNMEE other non-country-specific projects. implementing partners during the financial period 1 January and UNMIS) were funded from assessed contributions. The 2008 to 31 December 2008. The excess of expenditure support account for peacekeeping operations funded from Table 1 shows that the total requirements for over income of US $19,653,441 was funded from reserve assessed contributions covered the costs of six headquar- UNMAS core headquarters coordination activities fund balances brought forward. The opening fund balance ters-based personnel who are primarily engaged in super- in 2008 amounted to US $4,028,733, compared to as of 1 January 2008 of US $80,183,982 represents the VTF vision and oversight of mine action activities in missions. US $4,210,306 in 2007. cumulative reserves and fund balances brought forward Resources and Expenditures for Mine Action Programmes 1. UNMAS Core Activities in New York and Geneva Opening Balance of the Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Action (as of January 1, 2008) 80,183,982 Category of Expenditure Expenditure Personnel 2,400,215 Income Official Travel of Staff 412,960 Voluntary Contributions 92,479,658 Consultants and Expert Groups (including ProFi) 453,117 Peacekeeping Assessed Funds 65,016,100 Communications 36,880 Peacekeeping Support Account Funds 999,300 Supplies, Materials and Furniture 11,464 Contractual Services (e.g., printing and data processing) 65,941 Operating Expenses (e.g. utilities and rental of equipment) 137,369 Total Income 158,495,058 Conference Services 46,774 Hospitality-Official Functions 531 Sub-Total 3,565,251 Expenditure Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Action 109,952,226 Programme Support Cost 463,483 Peacekeeping Assessed Funds 67,395,394 Peacekeeping Support Account Funds 800,879 Total 4,028,733 Total Expenditure 178,148,499 104 105
  • 54. 2008 Financial Performance Financial Performance 2008 2. UNMAS Thematic Projects AFGHANISTAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF Project Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) In 2008, donors contributed US $46,805,297 to support ment, direct national capacity development, and coordina- mine action operations in Afghanistan, US $10.5 million tion among implementing partners and the Government of Advocacy – 264,842 264,842 less than in 2007. Two donors provided over 57 percent of Afghanistan. Bilateral donors continued to sup Gender equality – 34,101 34,101 these funds. The Government of Canada contributed US port the programme through the provision of some US $32 Coordination and implementation of Rapid Response 601,193 174,999 776,193 $16 million as part of a multi-year funding agreement to million over the same period, targeted at all areas of mine support operations nationally, with a focus on Kandahar. action, largely in full coordination with UN activities. The Landmine UXO/ERW Safety 64,854 9,573 74,427 The Government of Japan provided a further US $10 million United States remained the largest bilateral donor to Technology/information exchange – 29,998 29,998 for operations in Bamiyan and the border areas of Pakistan. humanitarian mine action in Afghanistan in 2008, with Total 666,048 513,513 1,179,56 Other contributing countries were Australia, Denmark, contributions from the US Department of State estimated Estonia, Finland, Italy, Netherlands and Spain. While at over US $20 million. Substantial additional funding from carryover funding from 2007 sustained operations for a a range of donors including the US Department of Defense, large part of the year, the programme felt significant NATO and various commercial subcontractor entities also 3. UNMAS Joint Projects with UNDP and UNICEF impacts from the global financial crisis towards the end of supported a range of task-specific clearance, ground- Country/Territory Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total 2008, particularly due to exchange rate fluctuations and checking and survey activities. partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) adjustments to donor disbursement schedules. As a result, Iraq 857 60,593 61,450 the monetary value of pledged contributions in some cases As identified in the 2007 UNMAS Annual Report, the lim- Uganda 0 6,763 6,763 fell by as much as 30 percent, with an overall reduction in ited pool of countries contributing to mine action in Egypt 0 113,585 113,585 actual cash received by some 13 percent over the final Afghanistan, now combined with the significant drop in Lao PDR 100,191 21,728 121,919 three-month period. This reduced funding level necessitat- funding, has left the wider programme at significant risk of Zambia 2,547 76,937 79,484 ed significant adjustment to the planning and delivery of failing to meet the goals outlined within the Afghanistan the programme, and the resumption of operations in 2009. Compact (clearance of 70 percent of known hazards by Total 103,595 279,606 383,201 Of the funding provided in 2008, 74 percent was ear- December 2010), the MDGs and the mine-ban treaty marked for mine and ERW clearance operations; 5 percent (complete clearance by March 2013). The donor pool must for mine risk education and victim assistance; and 21 per- be diversified in 2009 and beyond to ensure the cent for quality assurance operations, equipment procure programme can meet these objectives. 4. UNMAS Support to Other Implementing Partners Project, Implementing Partners Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total Country/Territory partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) Income From Voluntary Trust Fund 46,805,297 Survey of EOD operations— MAT, Republic of Serbia 0 269,773 269,773 Total 46,805,297 Landmine victim assistance, AAR Cambodia 0 299,443 299,443 Expenditures Staff development training From Voluntary Trust Fund Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total GICHD, multiple countries 0 52,145 52,145 partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) Total 0 621,361 621,361 Coordination and Capacity Development 280,447 14,698,943 14,979,390 *The total for these initiatives includes US$257,301 carried over from 2006.? Landmine and ERW Clearance and Quality Management 1,788,091 51,755,173 53,543,264 MRE and, Victim Assistance 6,046 3,470,370 3,476,417 Total 2,074,584 69,924,486 71,999,070 106 107
  • 55. 2008 Financial Performance Financial Performance 2008 CHAD DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO Contributions of US $692,810 were received from Japan In line with Security Council resolution S/2007/488, MIN- Voluntary contributions from Japan, the Netherlands and surveys, and clearance of landmines and ERW. Voluntary and Spain. UNMAS provided US $287,850 to the UNDP URCAT deployed mine action teams to deal with landmines the United Kingdom totalled US$4,760,400, while appro- contributions supported coordination, emergency surveys, assistance programme to the Chadian mine action author- and ERW contamination in the border areas of Eastern priations under the mine action component of the MONUC landmine and ERW clearance, and mine risk education at a ity for implementing survey, landmine and ERW clearance Chad, which could cause casualties among UN staff and peacekeeping budget reached US $3,507,000. Provisional cost of US $3,102,850. Funding was provided to UNOPS, activities. Appropriations under the mine action compo- the local population. Expenditures also went towards expenditures from MONUC-assessed funds of US UNICEF and DCA for various projects. nent of the MINURCAT peacekeeping budget totalled US effective coordination in the regional office of Abeche, and $3,392,606 ensured effective coordination, emergency $2,531,150. n road verification and EOD activities. Income Income From Voluntary Trust Fund 692,810 From Voluntary Trust Fund 4,760,400 From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds Coordination 683,411 Coordination 1,402,800 Operations 1,847,740 Operations 2,104,200 Sub-Total 2,531,150 Sub-Total 3,507,000 Total 3,223,960 Total 8,267,400 Expenditures Expenditures From Voluntary Trust Fund Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total From Voluntary Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) Trust Fund partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) Cleareance 3,545 284,305 287,850 Cleareance 0 746,086 746,086 Sub-Total 3,545 284,305 287,850 Coordination 1,166,655 806,582 1,973,237 Mine Risk Education 276,707 106,820 383,527 From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds Sub-Total 1,443,362 1,659,487 3,102,850 Coordination – – 621,840 Operations – – 1,681,272 From Peacekeeping Sub-Total – – 2,303,112 Assessed Funds Coordination – – 1,357,042 Total – – 2,590,962 Operations – – 2,035,563 Sub-Total – – 3,392,606 Total – – 6,495,455 108 109
  • 56. 2008 Financial Performance Financial Performance 2008 ERITREA AND ETHIOPIA LEBANON Income for the mine action programme in the TSZ totalled Until the termination of its mandate on 31 July 2008, the Australia, Canada, Denmark, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Appropriations under the mine action component of the US $5,156,700. It was available primarily through the mine UNMEE MACC continued to coordinate and provide tech- the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, UNIFIL peacekeeping assessed budget totalled US action component of UNMEE peacekeeping resources, nical assistance for humanitarian mine action activities in Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom provided vol- $2,613,350 (compared to US $2,737,590 in 2007). Funds aside from a contribution of US $135,000 from the and around the TSZ. Activities included landmine and ERW untary contributions of US $7,063,326. VTF expenditures supported the overall coordination and oversight of mine Netherlands. Uncertainty surrounding the future scope of safety education for peacekeepers and humanitarian aid of US $18,157,216 were financed from donor contributions action activities in south Lebanon to facilitate the safe operations due to the temporary relocation of UNMEE from workers, mine risk education for local populations returning in 2007 and 2008. DCA and UNOPS implemented proj- return of IDPs and enhance the mobility of UNIFIL troops. Eritrea during the early months of the year, and the ongoing to previously contested areas, and demining in support of ects for coordination, quality assurance, UXO clearance debate about how best to reconfigure the UN presence mandated tasks and overall mission objectives. and continued operational clearance capacities in south made it difficult to plan for the short- to medium-term. Income Income From Voluntary Trust Fund 7,063,326 From Voluntary Trust Fund 135,000 From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds Coordination 2,613,350 Coordination 1,255,425 Sub-Total 9,676,676 Operations 3,766,275 Sub-Total 5,021,700 Total 9,676,676 Total 5,156,700 Expenditures From Voluntary Trust Fund Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total Expenditures partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) From Voluntary Trust Fund Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total Cleareance 0 14,372,367 14,372,367 Coordination and Quality 738,439 3,046,410 3,784,849 partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) Assurance Coordination & Cleareance 144,620 202,173 346,794 Sub-Total 738,439 17,418,777 18,157,216 Sub-Total 144,620 202,173 346,794 From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds Coordination – – 2,338,545 Coordination – – 1,544,701 Sub-Total – – 2,338,545 Operations – – 4,634,103 Sub-Total – – 6,178,804 Total – – 20,495,761 Total – – 6,525,598 110 111
  • 57. 2008 Financial Performance Financial Performance 2008 NEPAL SUDAN Income to the programme comprised a voluntary contribu- Management of Arms and Armies of 8 December 2006. It The income of US $64,173,304 included US $39,725,800 port); the Survey Action Center (LIS); AAR-Japan (mine tion from the United Kingdom of US $205,621 together has also been liaising with the Nepal Army to enhance their appropriated by the General Assembly under the mine risk education and material development); DCA (EOD in with an appropriation under the mine action component of ability to clear 53 minefields and 275 security positions action component of UNMIS, and voluntary contributions South Kordofan); Christina Blind Mission (victim assis- the UNMIN regular budget of US $166,486. The MAU has reinforced with IEDs, per the agreement, and assisting of US $24,447,504 (compared to US $17,318,342 in 2007). tance); and Nuba Mountain Mine Action Sudan (mechani- been supporting Maoist Army combatants to fulfil their national authorities in creating a national mine action Increased donor funding allowed the expansion of mine cal support and capacity building), which is the national obligations under the Agreement on Monitoring of the authority. action assets, the development of national operational NGO directly involved with UNMAS’ assistance in opera- capacity and victim assistance activities. Voluntary contri- tional capacity development. The peacekeeping-assessed butions were allocated to UNOPS and NGOs working in resources for UNMIS supported rapid response emergency Income Sudan as service providers for project implementation. surveys, EOD and battle area clearance, landmine and ERW From Voluntary Trust Fund 205,621 These NGOs include MAG (EOD in southern Sudan, inte- clearance, mine risk education and route verification and grated mine action in Blue Nile and mobile mechanical sup- clearance. From Regular Budget 166,486 Total 372,107 Income From Voluntary Trust Fund 24,447,504 Expenditures From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds From Voluntary Trust Fund Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total Coordination 9,136,934 partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) Operations 30,588,866 Coordination – 187,193 166,486 Sub-Total 39,725,800 Total – 187,193 166,486 Total 64,173,304 Expenditures From Voluntary Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total SOMALIA Trust Fund partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) Integrated Landmine and Mine action operations in south-central Somalia were complement this effort by developing a comprehensive ERW Survey and Clearance 4,011,950 6,139,115 10,151,065 launched in 2008 with the primary objective mine action project. Initial funding for mine action in Technical Assistance and Coordination 1,044,579 5,833,527 6,878,106 of establishing a national MACC to cover the region. Somalia came entirely from unearmarked funds from the Mine Risk Education 0 201,586 201,586 The SCMAC now operates alongside well-established VTF. The Netherlands has now earmarked US $635,000 Victim Assistance 31,595 790,019 821,614 counterparts in Somaliland and Puntland to coordinate for 2009. A redeployment request for US $573,000 is Landmine Impact Survey 0 947,441 947,441 mine action in Somalia. UNDP has a complementary being processed from the General Assembly’s approved Sub-Total 5,088,124 13,911,688 18,999,812 component of the project based in Nairobi that focuses commitment authority for AMISOM mine action on capacity development for mine action within its Rule activities through 30 June 2009. From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds of Law and Security programme. UNMAS aims to Coordination – – 9,735,573 Operations – – 32,593,007 Sub-Total – – 42,328,580 Total – – 61,328,392 112 113
  • 58. 2008 Financial Performance Financial Performance 2008 DARFUR WESTERN SAHARA Income for this programme consisted of US $11,281,100 nated, planned and implemented all mine action opera Contributions from the Holy See, Japan and the component of The MINURSO peacekeeping budget appropriated by the General Assembly under the mine tions to enable UNAMID to accomplish its mandated activ- Netherlands provided support for mine detection, ERW totalled US $336,000. Expenditures from MINURSO- action component of UNAMID. Three rapid response ities. The regional office of WRMAO in El Fashir, and its clearance and survey activities in POLISARIO-controlled assessed funds partially supported the senior mine action teams and one route verification team have been deployed sub-offices in El Geneina and Nyala, continued to coordi- areas of Western Sahara, and partially funded a senior adviser post, and a rapid clearance and survey team within to conduct emergency surveys, battle area clearance, and nate mine action activities among UNAMID, UN agencies, mine action adviser post at the MINURSO MACC to bol- the eastern area of operations. route verification in South and West Darfur; and to provide NGOs, and central and local authorities, and provide neces- ster coordination. Appropriations under the mine action mine and ERW risk education to the local population sary quality assurance. and IDPs. UNMAS, through UNMAO and WRMAO, coordi Income From Voluntary Trust Fund 257,080 Income From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds Coordination 2,820,275 Coordination 87,360 Operations 8,460,825 Operations 248,640 Sub-Total 336,000 Total 11,281,100 Total 593,080 Expenditures Expenditures From Peacekeeping Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total From Voluntary Trust Fund Outstanding advances to implementing Expenditures for the period 1 Jan Total Assessed Funds partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) partners of as of 31 of December 2008 2008 to 31 December 2008 (US$) Clearance 0 618,000 618,000 Coordination – – 2,671,692 Coordination 50,358 112,921 163,279 Operations – – 8,015,075 Sub-Total 50,358 730,921 781,279 Total – – 10,686,767 From Peacekeeping Assessed Funds Coordination – – 43,415 Operations – – 123,566 Sub-Total – – 166,981 Total – – 948,260 114 115
  • 59. 2008 ENDNOTES 1. Page 12 7. Page 29 1 7 The Mine Action Centre for Afghanistan was re-titled as the See A/63/264. Mine Action Coordination Centre of Afghanistan, or MACCA, in early 2009 to better reflect its role. This new designation has 8. Page 31 8 been used throughout the report to provide continuity. The presenter from the National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation of Jordan explained that there are equal opportuni- 2. Page 15 ties for employment in Jordan’s Mine Action Programme: 2 This calls for assisting national authorities to: c) support efforts to 25 percent of mine risk education staff, 30 percent of the employ- ensure the rights of landmine/ERW survivors within the context of ees of the committee, 40 percent of victim assistance staff and 40 national programmes and facilities for persons with disabilities; percent of target mine risk education groups are women. d) advocate for increased resources and support to persons with Women are also engaged in survey teams. In Jordan, disabilities, including landmine/ERW survivors. gender-responsive mine action activities improve access to impacted households. When both women and men are consulted, 3. Page 24 more comprehensive data are obtained. The definition of high- 3 Cluster Munition Coalition, “The Only Good Cluster Munition priority areas in Lebanon is related to Strategic Objective 2 in the is a Banned Cluster Munition,” Cluster Ban Newsletter, 21 May United Nations Inter-Agency Mine Action Strategy: 2006-2010. 2008 []. 9. Page 64 9 4. Page 25 The definition of high-priority areas in Lebanon is related to 4 Ibid. Strategic Objective 2 in the United Nations Inter-Agency Mine Action Strategy: 2006-2010. 5. Page 26 5 Human Rights Watch, “Human Rights Watch Observations 10. Page 67 10 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Note: Total area is 48.1 million square metres. (CCW) Draft Protocol on Cluster Munitions”, September2008 * Areas cleared only on the surface are subject to further []. evaluations as to whether they will also have to be cleared sub-surface. It is currently estimated that 25 percent of 6. Page 27 surface-cleared areas will require further sub-surface clearance 6 Jeff Abramson, “107 Countries Approve Cluster Munitions during 2009 and beyond. Treaty,” Arms Control Today, July/August 2008 ** Reduced area refers to strike areas that, as a result of actions [] other than clearance, are considered not to represent a risk from unexploded sub-munitions. 116