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Command and Control in the Australian Air Force

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    Command and Control in the  Australian Air Force Command and Control in the Australian Air Force Document Transcript

    • Australian Air Publication AAP 1001.1 COMMAND AND CONTROL IN THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE Australian Air Publication 1001.1—Command and Control in the Royal Australian Air Force is issued for use by the Royal Australian Air Force and is effective forthwith. M.D. BINSKIN, AM Air Marshal Chief of Air Force Air Force Headquarters Canberra ACT 2600 1 September 2009
    • © Commonwealth of Australia, 2009 This work is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research criticism, or review as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission. Inquiries can be made to the publisher. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication Author: Australia. Royal Australian Air Force. Title: Command and control in the Royal Australian Air Force / Royal Australian Air Force. ISBN: 9781920800475 (pbk.) Series: Australian air publication ; AAP 1001.1 Subjects:Australia. Royal Australian Air Force. Command and control systems--Australia--Computer programs. Australia--Armed Forces--Communication systems. Dewey Number: 355.33.94 Compiled, edited and published by: Air Power Development Centre Level 3, 205 Anketell Street Tuggeranong ACT 2900 Australia Telephone: +61 2 6266 1355 Facsimile: +61 2 6266 1041 E-mail: airpower@defence.gov.au
    • FOREwORD Command and Control (C2) is a critical enabler for all military organisations. In particular, C2 of air power has unique characteristics that reflect the way that professional airmen fly and fight. It is therefore vital that all members of the Royal Australian Air Force understand Air Force’s C2 system. It is also important that members of the wider Australian Defence Force and the Department of Defence have a working understanding of Air Force C2. It was with these factors in mind that the Chief of Air Force (CAF) directed a handbook on C2 in the Royal Australian Air Force be written. CAF’s intent was to have a handbook that clearly enunciated the Air Force C2 framework so Air Force personnel, and the broader Defence community alike, understand how it interacts with them. This handbook defines the terms command, control, leadership and governance, and describes the nature of C2 within the Air Force noting the key and enduring air power C2 tenet of centralised control and decentralised execution. As such, the terms and definitions for C2 used within this handbook are fully synchronised with ADDP 00.1—Command and Control. The handbook enunciates CAF’s responsibilities to Government and the Chief of the Defence Force, and the processes used to discharge these responsibilities. It identifies CAF’s two principal executives, the Deputy Chief of Air Force (DCAF) and the Air Commander Australia (ACAUST), and the processes and support structures they use to command and control the Air Force on CAF’s behalf. In particular, the roles and responsibilities of ACAUST are detailed because of how the raise, train and sustain aspects of Air Force capabilities are managed so they are ready for operations, and also how ACAUST oversees the Air and Space Operations Centre (AOC), which is force assigned to Chief of Joint Operations (CJOPS). iii
    • Historical vignettes have been included to amplify key elements of Air Force’s C2 mechanism and to illustrate that the C2 framework has evolved over time, incorporating lessons learned from past operations and Air Force’s proud heritage. In this respect, attention is drawn to the historical vignette on RAAF C2 in World War II and the subsequent impact of having an ineffective C2 framework with unclear lines of responsibility. All Air Force members should understand their chain of command and the responsibilities and authorities of their commanders. It is also expected that Air Force commanders use the Air Force C2 framework to communicate their command decisions, intent and purpose in clear and timely ways. While key aspects of C2 are the legal authorities—and the mechanisms put in place that enable them—it relies on effective leadership and command abilities. This is, in essence, the art of command, and the critical enabler is professional mastery. It is for this reason that all members of Air Force are expected to understand the contents of this handbook, embrace its principles, and command and lead in accordance with it. Lastly, this handbook is commended to the ADF and wider Defence community. For those who manage Air Force personnel in non-Air Force groups, it will be of assistance in understanding your position within their chain of command. It will also enhance the Defence community’s understanding of Air Force and how it supports the wider ADF and Government. iv
    • ACkNOwLEDgEMENTS The Air Power Development Centre acknowledges the valuable input drawn from ADF joint and allied doctrine in preparing AAP 1001.1—Command and Control in the Royal Australian Air Force. The Air Power Development Centre also acknowledges the use of imagery from the Air Force and Defence websites, and that provided by individuals and other agencies. v
    • vi
    • CONTENTS Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Chapter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Chapter 2 The Nature of Air Force Command and Control . . . . . . . . 2-1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 The Command and Control of Air Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Primary Tenet of Air Power Command and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 The Air Force Chain of Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12 Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12 Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 Orders, Instructions and Publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14 Chapter 3 Chief of Air Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Chief of Air Force Charter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Chief of Air Force Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Assignment of Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Technical Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 National Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 Strategic Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 Chapter 4 Air Force Principal Executives and their Command Authorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 vii
    • AAP 1000.1 Deputy Chief of Air Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 Air Force Headquarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2 Air Commander Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 Air Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-3 Headquarters Air Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4 Air and Space Operations Centre (AOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-6 Relationships with other Defence Groups and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 Chapter 5 Air Force Tactical Formations, Units and Bases . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Force Element Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Wings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 Squadrons and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 Flights and Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 Defence Materiel Division System Program Offices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 Air Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 Chapter 6 Air Force Command and Control in Operations. . . . . . . . . 6-1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Command and Control Structures and Mechanisms in Operations . . . 6-1 Chapter 7 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Annexes Orders, Instructions and Publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 Chief of Air Force Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 Air Force Headquarters – Roles and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 Headquarters Air Command – Roles and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D-1 The Common Joint Staff System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1 viii
    • CHApTER 1 INTRODUCTION The handling of an Air Force is a life-study, and therefore the air part must be kept under Air Force command.1 Field Marshal Lord Montgomery, 1943 1.1 Since the Australian Air Force was formed on 31 March 1921 (which later became the Royal Australian Air Force on 13 August 1921), command and control (C2) has been fundamental to the efficient and effective application of air power in Australia. C2 within Air Force is therefore an essential component of air power doctrine and it is important that Air Force members fully understand it. C2 binds the people, systems, and processes necessary for the Air Force to make capability, policy and operational decisions, and to prepare forces for joint operations in order to achieve national objectives. Air Force C2 is aligned with ADF joint C2 as described in ADDP 00.1—Command and Control. This alignment harmonises Air Force’s doctrine with those of the other Services and ensures the smooth transfer of command and/or control of Air Force elements to joint commanders, when required, for the conduct of operations. 1.2 Air Force’s C2 architecture is designed to enhance its effectiveness in preparing for and conducting its principal core competency—warfighting. To meet this requirement, the architecture has the necessary robustness to ensure Air Force continues to generate and apply air power in even the most demanding of circumstances. The architecture is also sufficiently 1 Terraine, John, 1985, The Right of the Line: The Royal Air Force in the European War, 1939–45, Hodder and Stoughton, London, p 380. 1-1
    • AAP 1000.1 The Air Force’s Birth Certificate – The Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No 28, 1921. 1-2
    • Introduction flexible to allow the Chief of Air Force (CAF) to position Air Force optimally to meet emerging challenges that will inevitably mark its journey into the future. 1.3 The C2 architecture also ensures robust relationships between CAF, CAF’s principal executives and their supporting infrastructure, and other ADF commanders such as Chief of Joint Operations (CJOPS) and other Service and Defence agencies. C2 is the means through which CAF exercises legal authority, delegates command authority, and transfers this command authority for forces assigned to joint commanders. The Air and Space Operations Centre (AOC) is the principal mechanism by which the centralised control and decentralised execution tenet is applied to air operations. The AOC thus ensures air power is efficiently and effectively managed by a single air commander for operations. 1.4 CAF and all Air Force commanders are personally responsible for ensuring the C2 framework is both unambiguous and well understood by all Air Force members. 1.5 This handbook describes Air Force’s C2 framework along organisational lines from CAF, Deputy Chief of Air Force (DCAF) through Air Force Headquarters (AFHQ), and the Air Commander Australia (ACAUST) through Headquarters Air Command (HQAC). Where necessary, it includes C2 linkages to the tactical levels of Air Force. 1.6 This handbook also enunciates the C2 arrangements covering Air Force’s responsibilities for the generation and sustainment of forces assigned to commanders for operations and tasks directed by the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF). These C2 arrangements provide clear lines of authority, and include requirements for formal instruments for the handover and takeover of authority and tasking, and the issue of directives. These arrangements are also flexible and can be adapted by all commanders to accommodate new tasks. 1-3
    • AAP 1000.1 1.7 Air Force’s consistent and innovative use of its C2 process is an essential enabler for it to realise its mission: Provide air and space power for Australia’s security . 1-4
    • CHApTER 2 THE NATURE OF AIR FORCE COMMAND AND CONTROL Introduction 2.1 Command and Control is the system empowering designated persons to exercise lawful authority and direction over assigned forces. It is a critical enabler for all military activities. Together, Command and Control are the lawful authorities provided to a commander to direct forces.1 The Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 00.1—Command and Control defines: Command as: The authority that a commander in the military Service lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. Command includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for planning the employment of organising, directing, coordinating and controlling military forces for the accomplishment of assigned missions. It also includes responsibility for health, welfare, morale and discipline of assigned personnel. And, in terms of C2, Control as: The authority exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate organisations, or other organisations not normally under his command, which encompasses the responsibility for implementing orders or directives. All or part of this authority may be transferred or delegated. 1 For additional information, see Australian Defence Force Warfare Centre, 27 May 2009, ADDP 00.1—Command and Control, Defence Publishing Service, Canberra. 2-1
    • AAP 1000.1 The Command and Control of Air power 2.2 The C2 of air power reflects the combined experience of airmen at the tactical, operational and strategic levels, during both operations and peace, and across the full spectrum of conflict. C2 is fundamental to air power and Air Force’s C2 structure has evolved throughout its history, incorporating the many lessons learned from air power’s development and employment around the world. These lessons reflect the inherent characteristics of air power and have significantly influenced how C2 is implemented by Air Force.2 The history of air power demonstrates that the overall effect of air power requires command arrangements that ensure it is employed holistically rather than as a collection of disparate sorties or missions. primary Tenet of Air power Command and Control 2.3 The centralised control and decentralised execution of air power is a primary tenet of air power C2 and is fundamental to its effective employment. This tenet has consistently proven to be the best means of effectively and efficiently employing air power since military aviation began nearly a century ago. By virtue of its inherent characteristics, air power can simultaneously affect all three levels of war, and as such, history has proven that a nation’s air power must be controlled by a single commander with professional mastery of air power. Having air power under one commander allows a theatre-wide perspective to be maintained, rather than a penny-packeted force meeting only local objectives. This theatre-wide perspective allows limited forces to be prioritised to achieve 2 Royal Australian Air Force, 2007, AAP 1000–D—The Air Power Manual, 5th edition, Air Power Development Centre, Canberra, pp 78-101, defines the air power characteristics as: perspective, reach, penetration, responsiveness, versatility, flexibility, concentration of force, concurrent operations, tempo, precision, relative impermanence, payload, platforms and technology. 2-2
    • The Nature of Air Force Command and Control a multitude of tasks and flexed appropriately to meet the most important objectives. Furthermore, a single air commander allows a joint commander to concentrate assigned air power forces to achieve the required effects and ensure that immediate requests for air power are balanced against deliberate and planned requirements. The Australian Air Publication 1000–D—The Air Power Manual defines: Professional Mastery as: knowledge and understanding, coupled with experience and confidence, which empowers a person to realise the full potential of air power in operations. Such mastery includes an understanding of space power. Professional mastery also involves understanding and applying the moral and intellectual aspects of air power, and has a strong focus on conducting operations today while preparing the Air Force for the future. Professional mastery is realised through both commanders and their supporting personnel teaming to deliver shared and understood objectives. 2.4 The centralised control of air power is critical to its application and has the following benefits: a. the most effective use of limited or strategic assets; b. concentration of force at decisive times and at places of a commander’s choosing; c. concurrent operations that support multidimensional manoeuvre; d. enhanced responsiveness across the full spectrum of contingencies; e. effective and efficient contribution to joint operations within the wider battlespace; and f. optimised management of force enablers (ISR, communications, logistics, etc). 2-3
    • AAP 1000.1 2.5 As such, the centralised control of air power is undertaken by a senior commander with a dedicated planning staff (the Air Staff ) to plan air campaigns and operations, and an air and space operations centre (AOC) to coordinate, integrate, execute, monitor and assess them. This senior commander is at component commander level and is thus able to maintain the necessary theatre-wide perspective. 2.6 While centralised control maximises the characteristics or air power, it is also important to ensure that air power operations are not micro- managed and that subordinates are allowed to retain their tactical initiative in order to maintain tempo and maximise their magnified understanding of the local battlespace. 2.7 Decentralised execution, enabled through the delegation of authority, direction and resources to accomplish specific tasks, enables a commander to plan and conduct operations and manage forces in a timely, efficient and effective manner without undue interference. The clear communication of an air commander’s intent is very important if tactical commanders are to exploit local opportunities in accordance with the overall scheme of manoeuvre and the joint commander’s theatre-wide objectives. 2.8 When the tenet of centralised control and decentralised execution is not adhered to, there are increased risks of the following: a. Wasteful use of scarce air power resources that are often ‘high demand but low density’, such as air mobility or ISR capabilities. b. ‘Penny-packeting’ of air power resources so that all component or environmental commanders have some air power, but no one commander has enough to achieve the tasks allocated. This generally means that the ability to concentrate force will not be an option and scarce resources will be frittered. 2-4
    • The Nature of Air Force Command and Control c. Misapplication of air power by non-airmen because of a lack of professional mastery of air power. 2.9 The centralised control and decentralised execution of air power provides a theatre-level perspective while ensuring operational flexibility to concentrate resources as required. As a result, air power’s efficiency and effectiveness are maximised and flexibility is ensured. Air Force’s battlespace management functions are critical to realising the centralised control and decentralised execution of air power. Pictured is the AN/TPS-77 radar of the RAAF’s Control and Reporting Centre at Kandahar, Afghanistan, as part of Operation SLIPPER, on 2 July 2008. 2.10 By their nature, Air Force’s capabilities are derived from sophisticated technology, demanding the highest order of technical skills from its people. Air Force’s success in operations is founded on the application of these capabilities through its people’s professional mastery of air power. The C2 framework provides the means by which CAF, and other Air Force commanders, direct, exercise and exploit that mastery. Their actions and leadership are therefore intrinsically personal endeavours that reflect the art of command. 2-5
    • AAP 1000.1 CENTRALISED C2 IN THE NORTH AFRICAN AIR CAMpAIgN, wORLD wAR II, 1942 By late 1942, the war in the Mediterranean seemed to have swung decisively in the Allies’ favour, yet—despite superior numbers and logistical advantages—the Allies encountered difficulties pursuing their strategic goals of driving the remaining Axis forces from North Africa and mounting a rapid invasion of Italy through Sicily. In particular, the division of air power strength into multiple and separate commands posed a significant problem, allowing the Germans and Italians to launch a series of counterattacks in Tunisia which threw the Allied forces into considerable disarray. Most troubling was the ability of the Luftwaffe, operating from bases in Tunisia, Sicily and Sardinia, to inflict considerable damage to Anglo-American shipping, supplies and ground forces, which threatened to derail the entire Allied strategy in the Mediterranean. Senior Allied air commanders strongly argued the need for some sort of centralised control and pressed hard for a major reorganisation of air forces, despite opposition from ground task force commanders who had been given direct control of American air assets. In February 1943 the Anglo-American Combined Chiefs of Staff placed Air Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder in command of all Allied air forces, which included several RAAF squadrons, in the Mediterranean. Drawing on his recent and successful battlefield experiences in Egypt, Tedder set about developing a coherent air campaign strategy for the Mediterranean Theatre. The offensive operations, which his Mediterranean Air Command began, were carefully targeted to achieve overall Allied objectives, rather than the narrow requirements of the ground or naval campaigns, or an independent ‘strategic’ air campaign. Tedder believed that the air campaign was most effective when under the command and control of experienced air commanders and integrated into an overall theatre-wide air, sea and land strategy. Tedder also adopted the tenet of centralised control and decentralised execution, allowing operational air commanders considerable autonomy within an overall command structure. The success of these arrangements was swiftly demonstrated by the complete destruction of Axis forces in Tunisia in May 1943, and the successful invasions of Sicily in July and Italy in September. 2-6
    • The Nature of Air Force Command and Control Well pleased with this outcome in the Mediterranean, General Eisenhower decided to adopt the same arrangement for the command and control of air power during the Allied invasion of France in 1944. He appointed Tedder as his Deputy Supreme Commander, from which position Tedder commanded all Allied air forces during the liberation of Western Europe, with the rank of Air Chief Marshal. Comment: These command and control lessons were codified in the US War Department Field Manual (FM 100-20) ‘Command and Employment of Air Power’, promulgated by the US in July 1943. Group portrait of Allied war leaders taken in North Africa on 24 June 1943. Left to right: Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Andrew Cunningham, General Dwight Eisenhower and General Sir Harold Alexander. The Air Force Chain of Command 2.11 The Air Force chain of command has evolved, through peace and war, and has proven to be a very effective and efficient mechanism. 2-7
    • AAP 1000.1 It reflects the RAAF’s heritage and linkages with the Australian Flying Corps, Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Air Force, and includes specific mechanisms developed for the Australian environment and the Australian way of war. 2.12 Figure 2–1 details the traditional chain of command and the respective rank and authority levels as applied currently within Air Force. Units and formations are commanded by officers that exercise Full Command on behalf of CAF. This command authority allows them to lawfully execute their tasks and missions and direct their subordinates. Below commanding officers, officers are delegated control by their commanding officer to lead their respective sub-units. Within units and formations, officers may be delegated different levels of authority to deal with financial and discipline matters. Unit Level Title Command Authority Rank Level Air Force Chief of Air Force Full Command AIRMSHL Command Air Commander Exercise Full Command AVM Australia on behalf of CAF Group Commander Exercise Full Command GPCAPT-AIRCDRE (CDR) on behalf of CAF Wing Officer Exercise Full Command WGCDR-GPCAPT Commanding on behalf of CAF (OC) Squadron Commanding Exercise Full Command SQNLDR-WGCDR Officer (CO) on behalf of CAF Flight Flight Delegated WOFF-SQNLDR Commander Control authority Disciplinary authority Financial authority Section Section Delegated NCO-FLTLT Commander Control authority Figure 2–1: RAAF chain of command and respective rank and authority levels. 2-8
    • The Nature of Air Force Command and Control 2.13 Officers who are selected for command positions are appointed by CAF and are presented with an Appointment to Command by him. The wording for the certificate is shown at Figure 2–2. It is also normal practice for commanders to issue directives or charters to subordinate commanders or principal staff officers outlining their responsibilities in detail. AppOINTMENT TO COMMAND Presented to xxxxx Your appointment as Commanding Officer, XX Squadron, RAAF Base Xxxxxx, accords you both a privilege and a responsibility. I expect you to maintain the highest personal example, exemplifying the form and substance of our Air Force Values. The Air Force Values are to be the guiding principles of your command decisions. You are charged with developing within your team an understanding and pride in those values. Lead your team—give it meaning through a clear understanding of your unit’s goals and objectives. Having established that understanding, allow the team to do what is required—create an environment of mutual trust. Nurture and value the relationships you must build within your team. Maintain your self-control and discipline at all times, ensuring that your integrity is beyond reproach. I expect you to work tirelessly to ensure the health, welfare and safety of all your people. Address harassment or prejudice within your command swiftly. Take action firmly and decisively when it is warranted. Do not command through fear. Communicate with your team, listen to them, consider their views but always be prepared to make the decisions necessary for the long-term benefit of the unit and the Air Force. Consider the implications of your decisions to both your unit and the Air Force—think beyond your tenure. Your unit will be a reflection of your performance as a commander. Figure 2–2: The Air Force Appointment to Command. 2-9
    • AAP 1000.1 wINg COMMANDER RICHARD ‘DICk’ CRESSwELL COMMANDINg OFFICER No 77 SQUADRON, kOREAN wAR, 1950 In September 1950, Squadron Leader Dick Cresswell became Commanding Officer of No 77 Squadron in Korea, replacing Wing Commander Lou Spence, who was killed in action. Spence’s death shocked the unit and weighed heavily on its members. As the new commander, Cresswell immediately set about restoring morale with strong leadership and personal example. He flew four combat sorties on his first day and a total of 11 during the first week. His leadership from the front quickly earned him the respect of his pilots and he soon restored the Squadron’s confidence. Cresswell’s leadership was not limited to combat; his highest priority was always the welfare of the men under his command. He ensured the entire squadron—officers and airmen, aircrew and support personnel— were fully informed through nightly briefings. He worked tirelessly to ensure that his men had suitable clothing for the harsh Korean winter and the best accommodation and amenities that could be provided in the often inhospitable conditions. Cresswell led the Squadron through almost 12 months of non-stop combat and he guided his unit through some extraordinary challenges including the in-theatre conversion from Mustangs to Meteors, and the new role of air-to-air combat in fighter sweeps through ‘MiG Alley’. As a commander, Cresswell used outstanding leadership to refocus the men of No 77 Squadron on the war effort after the loss of their commanding officer. Upon Cresswell’s return to Australia, he left behind a squadron with an outstanding record in combat operations and whose members were confident, capable and proud. Dick Cresswell was promoted to wing commander approximately six weeks before he returned to Australia from Korea. 2-10
    • The Nature of Air Force Command and Control Squadron Leader Dick Cresswell (centre) addressing No 77 Squadron pilots at Kimpo, South Korea, prior to conducting a mission over North Korea, on 18 August 1951. 2.14 In recent years, the nature of the Air Force chain of command has become more complex with many Air Force members operating in non- Air Force organisations. Command, control and management in such organisations are often matrixed and require considerable understanding, deconfliction and relationship building to ensure all clearly understand their command chain. For example, the commanding officer of a member in a service provider agency will probably be in a separate unit providing administrative support across a base or region. 2-11
    • AAP 1000.1 Leadership 2.15 Leadership is defined as ‘the process of influencing others in order to gain their willing consent in the ethical pursuit of missions’.3 As such, leadership has a direct relationship with command. Whereas command confers an authority to direct somebody to do a task, leadership is that human dimension of being a commander where subordinates are inspired to perform the task. Leadership is doing the right thing – Governance is doing things right. General Peter Cosgrove, AC, MC governance 2.16 The Macquarie Dictionary defines governance as a ‘method or system of government or management’.4 Although Defence has no formal definition, a commonly accepted definition that more aptly reflects the accountability aspects of governance is ‘Governance is the process by which an organisation is led, managed and held to account’.5 Governance includes organisational culture and values, key principles of accountability and stewardship, and review functions which provide confidence about both performance and conformance. Governance is a critical element of leadership and command in Air Force. All Air Force commanders are accountable for governance in their respective commands and, together, governance and leadership are critical components of being a commander. 3 Australian Defence College, 22 March 2007, ADDP 00.6—Leadership, Defence Publishing Service, Canberra, p 1–4. 4 The Macquarie Library, 1995, The Macquarie Dictionary, Macquarie University, Sydney, p 758. 5 Corporate Management Services, Governance Branch, Canberra, http://intranet. defence.gov.au/scg/gi/resources.htm, accessed 20 February 2009. 2-12
    • The Nature of Air Force Command and Control Communication 2.17 The fundamental importance of Air Force’s people requires that the C2 architecture and its embedded processes continuously connect the organisation from CAF, and Air Force’s most senior commanders, down to the most junior member of the RAAF. This means that communication pathways within Air Force are an essential partner to the exercise of command and control. Direct contact is an important mechanism for CAF to communicate with Air Force members. Pictured above, the Chief of Air Force discusses issues with a senior non-commissioned officer during a visit to Tarin Kowt, Afghanistan, on 16 August 2008. 2-13
    • AAP 1000.1 2.18 The Air Force’s C2 processes are designed to ensure the effective and unambiguous exercise of, or transfer of, authority. However, the pathways through which CAF communicates his intent and directs the Air Force are often less formalised, and are the means through which commanders at each level apply innovation and mastery to ensure that the efforts of their subordinates are optimised in order to achieve CAF’s intent with precision and timeliness. The C2 communication flows enhance decisions and actions by not creating delay or diluting the positive transfer of authority from the most senior commanders in the Air Force. Orders, Instructions and publications 2.19 The administration of Air Force and the wider Department of Defence is regulated by a series of policy and procedural instruments. These instruments have varying degrees of enforceability, permanence, precedence and applicability, and are intended to facilitate the operations and administration of Defence. These instruments are collectively known as the System of Defence Instructions (SoDI).6 2.20 DI(G) ADMIN 0-0-001—The System of Defence Instructions provides the authority for this framework. Of note, the SoDI does not deal with policy issues which are covered completely by law or whole-of- government policy. Any amendments or updates to these policy issues are publicised via a DEFGRAM or other communication tools. See Annex A for a fuller explanation of the SoDI. 2.21 CAF is authorised by CDF under Section 9A of the Defence Act to create Single Service Instructions relating to Air Force. Single Service Instructions contain long-term, higher level and legally enforceable 6 All information on the SoDI is credited to the Directorate of Administrative Policy within the Office of the Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force. 2-14
    • The Nature of Air Force Command and Control policy relating to the command, operations and administration of a single military Service. 2.22 In the SoDI hierarchy, Single Service Instructions are equal to Standing Instructions and Standing Orders and, if they contain conflicting advice to a Defence Instruction (General) (DI(G)) or Chief Executive Instruction (CEI), the DI(G) and CEI have precedence. 2.23 Air Force does not reissue DI(G)s as Single Service Instructions. Single Service information that is a Service-specific amplification or implementation of a DI(G) should, wherever possible, be published as an annex to the DI(G), or in an appropriate single Service procedural document. 2.24 Single Service Instructions are enforceable in accordance with the normal military chain of command and noncompliant activity may be dealt with under the Defence Force Discipline Act 1982 (DFDA). For Air Force, the main DI(AF)s related to orders, instructions and publications are: a. DI(AF) ADMIN 06–01—The System of Orders, Instructions and Publications of the Royal Australian Air Force; and b. DI(AF) ADMIN 6–8—Production and Control of Australian Air Publications . 2.25 Standing Instructions (SI) and Routine Instructions (RI) may be issued by commanders to communicate instructions to subordinate organisations or personnel. CAF Directives are the highest form of Standing Instruction within Air Force. 2.26 Of note, Australian Air Publications (AAPs), as detailed in DI(AF) ADMIN 6–8—Production and Control of Australian Air Publications, are not included within the SoDI hierarchy, but are nevertheless issued under the authority of CAF. 2-15
    • AAP 1000.1 No 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps, with their Bristol F.2B and B.E.2e aircraft, while on operations in Palestine, February 1918. The Squadron’s commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel Richard Williams (at front with cane), later Air Marshal Sir Richard Williams, became the first Chief of the Air Staff of the Royal Australian Air Force after it was formed in 1921. Task Group 633.2, including Task Unit 633.2.4 (AP-3C), Task Unit 633.2.2 (Combat Support Unit) and Task Unit 633.2.1 (Headquarters) while deployed to the Middle East for Operation SLIPPER, June 2009, as part of the Air Component to Joint Task Force 633. See Chapter 6 for a more detailed explanation of the Task Organisation framework. 2-16
    • CHApTER 3 CHIEF OF AIR FORCE Introduction 3.1 The Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) commands the ADF and the Service Chiefs command their respective Service, as expressed in Section 9 of the Defence Act. CAF exercises Full Command of the RAAF, unless aspects of that command are assigned to Chief of Joint Operations (CJOPS) for operations under Theatre Command by CDF directive. The Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 00.1—Command and Control defines: Full Command as: The military authority and responsibility of a commander to issue orders to subordinates. It covers every aspect of military operations and administration and exists only within national services. Theatre Command (TCOMD) as: The authority given by CDF to CJOPS to command assigned forces to prepare for and conduct operations (campaigns, operations, combined and joint exercises, and other activities as directed). 3.2 The Full Command held by CAF includes the authority required to command, lead and manage the Air Force in preparation for, and participation in, operations. CAF exercises Full Command in accordance with Section 9 of the Defence Act and the CAF Charter. RAAF commanders exercise Full Command, on behalf of CAF, of their command, group, wing or squadron/unit as shown in Figure 2–1. 3-1
    • AAP 1000.1 Chief of Air Force Charter 3.3 The Chief of Air Force Charter is jointly issued by the CDF and the Secretary of Defence. The Charter is issued directly to the incoming CAF and it is periodically reviewed and re-issued as required. 3.4 The CAF Charter identifies specific requirements of CAF including: a. commanding the Royal Australian Air Force; b. Air Force outputs; c. Air Force performance levels; d. Air Force Directed Level of Capability (DLOC); and e. risk management. Chief of Air Force Responsibilities 3.5 CAF appoints all Air Force commanders from Command to Squadron level and in doing so, establishes the human leadership dimension of the Air Force C2 framework. CAF’s expectations and requirements of Air Force commanders are codified in the Appointment to Command (see Figure 2–2) issued by CAF to all commanders. 3.6 CAF is responsible to CDF for the raise, train and sustain (RTS) functions of Air Force at a level of preparedness specified by CDF for operations. CAF provides direct advice to the Minister for Defence on issues relating to the command of the RAAF and provides advice to the Minister, through CDF, on other issues whenever necessary. CAF is CDF’s principal adviser on air power and aviation-related aspects of Defence policy, military strategy and the employment of forces. In discharging RTS responsibilities, CAF informs CJOPS of any activity or development that may have an operational impact on current forces assigned and/or subsequent rotations. 3-2
    • Chief of Air Force Chiefs of Air Force are appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Government. Air Marshal Geoff Shepherd, AO hands over the Queen’s Colour of the Royal Australian Air Force to Air Marshal Mark Binskin, AM, signifying the change of command of the RAAF on 3 July 2008. 3.7 CAF is responsible for ensuring that Air Force is prepared in accordance with the Directed Level of Capability (DLOC) requirements agreed with CDF and the Secretary, and described in the Organisational Performance Agreement (OPA). CAF exercises command in this regard 3-3
    • AAP 1000.1 by issuing the CAF Capability Directive (CAFCD) to the Air Commander Australia (ACAUST). The CAFCD defines the levels of force preparedness ACAUST is to maintain across Air Command. The Australian Defence Glossary defines: Raise, Train, Sustain as: The generation, preparation, and maintenance of Defence capability by designated capability managers at the level of capability specified in preparedness directives. Capability Manager as: Raises, trains and sustains in-service capabilities through the coordination of fundamental inputs to capability. 3.8 CAF retains Full Command of all Air Force personnel irrespective of whether they are in Air Force or non-Air Force groups. While personnel in non- Air Force groups operate under the management (effectively Operational Control) of agency heads in accordance with various agreements, CAF retains Full Command of Air Force personnel within these agencies. Assignment of Forces 3.9 When directed by CDF, CAF assigns Air Force elements to CJOPS under Theatre Command for operations and joint exercises. Even when Air Force elements have been assigned to CJOPS or other specified joint task force (JTF) commanders for operations, exercises or other selected activities, CAF remains responsible for those residual command arrangements not covered by the operational commander’s delegated authority, such as the Technical Control of airworthiness matters. 3.10 Air Force elements may be placed under Operational Command (OPCOMD), Operational Control (OPCON), Tactical Command (TACOMD) or Tactical Control (TACON) for specific tasks as deemed necessary. CAF 3-4
    • Chief of Air Force retains Full Command authority in all instances. C2 authorities may be delegated as appropriate within the definition of each authority. The Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 00.1—Command and Control defines: Operational Command (OPCOMD) as: The authority granted to a commander to specify missions or tasks to subordinate commanders, to deploy units, to re-assign forces and to retain or delegate OPCON, TACOMD and/or TACON as may be deemed necessary. It does not of itself include responsibility for administration or logistics. A commander assigned OPCOMD of forces may delegate TACOMD, OPCON or TACON to a subordinate commander. Tactical Command (TACOMD) as: The authority delegated to a commander to specify missions and tasks to forces under his command for the accomplishment of the mission specified by higher authority. A commander assigned TACOMD of forces may delegate TACOMD or TACON to a subordinate commander. Operational Control (OPCON) as: The authority delegated to a commander to direct forces assigned so that the commander may accomplish specific missions or tasks which are usually limited by function, time or location; deploy units concerned and retain or delegate TACON of those units. It does not include authority to allocate separate employment of components or the units concerned. Neither does it, of itself, include administrative or logistic control. A commander assigned OPCON of forces may delegate OPCON or TACON to a subordinate commander. Tactical Control (TACON) as: The detailed and, usually, local direction and control of movements or manoeuvres necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. A commander delegated with TACON may delegate TACON to another commander. 3-5
    • AAP 1000.1 Administrative Control (ADCON) as: Direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organisations in respect to administrative matters such as personal management, supply services and other matters not included in the operational missions of the subordinate or other organisations. 3.11 In many cases, Administrative Control (ADCON) will be assigned to supporting elements to enable units to provide support to specific forces. Technical Control 3.12 CAF, as the ADF Airworthiness Authority, exercises Technical Control over all ADF aviation assets, providing advice regarding any proposed employment of those assets.1 For Air Force units, CAF may exercise Technical Control directly, or through ACAUST. The Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 00.1—Command and Control defines: Technical Control as: The provision of specialist and technical advice by designated authorities for the management and operation of forces. Technical control is applied as follows: – Technical control is exercised by capability managers, or by designated authorities through the capability manager. – For forces assigned to operations, technical control is exercised through CJOPS, where it directly effects operations only. – Technical control advice may not be modified but may be rejected in part or in total by a commander in consideration of operational factors. 1 Department of Defence, 11 October 2002, DI(G) OPS 02–2—ADF Airworthiness Management, Department of Defence, Canberra. 3-6
    • Chief of Air Force 3.13 For forces assigned to operations, Technical Control is exercised through CJOPS, where it directly effects operations only. Therefore, Technical Control is exercised with the full knowledge and concurrence of the capability manager, CJOPS and where applicable the appropriate The Raise, Train and Sustain of forces are critical factors in the operational success of those forces during operations. Pictured is a No 75 Squadron F/A-18 Hornet refuelling from a United States Air Force tanker during Operation FALCONER, April 2003. JTF commander(s). Commanders, through CJOPS when required, retain authority and may reject in part or in full (but cannot modify) technical advice in consideration of operational factors. 3-7
    • AAP 1000.1 National Tasks 3.14 CAF may also be directed by CDF to conduct Air Force activities and Peacetime National Tasks, such as selected air traffic control services. In these circumstances, CAF may command such operations personally, or delegate such command to ACAUST. 3.15 In exercising Full Command, CAF directs ACAUST to prepare and assign forces. Additionally, where necessary, CAF directs the Deputy Chief of Air Force (DCAF) to conduct any aspects of strategic preparation, including direct liaison with ACAUST and CJOPS, that may be necessary prior to force assignment. This liaison may include the necessary interaction with other Defence or Government agencies or other nations. Strategic planning 3.16 CAF issues the Air Force Plan which details how the Air Force will effectively, efficiently and ethically achieve the outcomes required by Government and Defence. The Air Force Plan outlines the strategies and strategic objectives through which the outputs will be achieved. The strategies and objectives are derived through the Air Force strategic planning process, including a risk management process. The planning process includes an assessment of the strategic risks involved and resources required to realise the delivery of the outputs. The Air Force Plan is the basis for all further Air Force planning. Committees 3.17 In exercising the relevant responsibilities to CDF and Air Force, CAF is a member of, or chairs, a range of Defence and Air Force committees. 3.18 Defence Committees. In the Defence committees, CAF represents Air Force and provides advice to CDF and/or the Secretary of Defence, on Air Force, airworthiness and air power related issues of Defence planning 3-8
    • Chief of Air Force and decision-making. CDF may also direct CAF to undertake specified Air Force tasks. 3.19 Air Force Committees. An Air Force committee structure supports CAF in the governance of Air Force and allows consultation with the Senior Leadership Team (SLT) on strategic issues facing Air Force.2 The Air Force Board (AFB) and Chief of Air Force Advisory Committee (CAFAC) assist CAF and CAF may direct Air Force’s principal executives through them. Additionally, DCAF chairs the Air Force Capability Committee (AFCC) and ACAUST chairs the Force Element Group Commander’s Conference. 3.20 Annex B provides a summary of the roles and functions of the major Defence and Air Force committees. 2 The SLT comprises all air commodores and above (and selected group captains) from all Defence groups and the Band One civilian positions of Assistant Secretary Resources and Planning and the Air Force Scientific Advisor. The SLT meets quarterly to discuss senior leadership issues and issues facing Air Force in the future, and to get a shared understanding of matters affecting Air Force and Air Force people across the whole team. 3-9
    • AAP 1000.1 THE FAILURE OF RAAF C2 DURINg wORLD wAR II On 5 May 1942, Air Commodore George Jones was unexpectedly promoted to Air Vice-Marshal and appointed, ahead of several more senior officers, to replace Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Burnett as Chief of the Air Staff (CAS). Shortly afterwards, the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) appointed Major General George Kenney as the new commander of Allied Air Forces in the South-West Pacific Area. Kenney instituted a thorough reorganisation of his command and separated the American and Australian elements assigned to him into the 5th Air Force and RAAF Command respectively. Air Vice-Marshal William Bostock was appointed Air Officer Commanding RAAF Command. Command of the RAAF was, therefore, divided between two officers of equal rank. Jones was the nominal head of the RAAF and answered directly to the Australian Government for raising, training and sustaining the RAAF but had no authority over the way the Air Force was employed. Bostock was responsible primarily to General Kenney for planning and conducting most RAAF operations but had no control over the support services necessary to fight the war. It is possible that goodwill and a cooperative attitude could have made this awkward arrangement work. Jones and Bostock, however, constantly worked against each other as they engaged in a personal feud that lasted throughout the war. Jones tried unsuccessfully to have Bostock removed and on occasion asserted his authority by withholding vital support services. Bostock, for his part, ignored Jones as much as possible and often resisted his instructions by appealing them over his head to General Kenney. These activities obviously had a serious impact on the RAAF’s ability to deliver air power. It polarised the Air Force into two rival camps, undermined the morale of the entire force, and diminished the RAAF’s standing and credibility with our American allies. As result, in the final two years of the war, as the USAAF undertook major air operations against the Philippines and the Japanese home islands, Australian airmen were sidelined to supporting the recapture of Borneo and mopping up operations against Japanese troops on bypassed islands and garrison duties. Comment: Overall, the wartime RAAF C2 framework effectively had Bostock acting in an ACAUST position and Jones in a DCAF position, without a CAF to command, direct and arbitrate. 3-10
    • Chief of Air Force Air Vice-Marshal George Jones (left), the newly appointed Chief of the Air Staff (but still wearing Air Commodore rank), and Air Vice-Marshal William Bostock (centre), Chief of Staff Allied Air Forces SWPA (later AOC RAAF Command), with outgoing Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Burnett (right), 12 May 1942. 3-11
    • AAP 1000.1 3-12
    • CHApTER 4 AIR FORCE pRINCIpAL ExECUTIvES AND THEIR COMMAND AUTHORITIES Introduction 4.1 CAF commands the RAAF through two principal executives, DCAF and ACAUST. DCAF is primarily responsible for the organisational tasks, including strategic planning and the provision of policy advice for Air Force. ACAUST is primarily responsible for Air Force’s operations and the raise, train and sustain (RTS) function that ensures Air Force capabilities are at the levels of preparedness directed by CAF for assignment to operations. As shown in Figure 4–1, CAF retains Full Command over all Air Force members, even those in non-Air Force groups through their agency heads. CDF CAF DCAF ACAUST AFHQ Non-Air Force groups Air Command Strategic Planning, Policy Management/ Capability Management and Personnel Command Structure (Operations and RTS) Air Force Personnel Figure 4–1: CAF’s principal executives and command chain. 4-1
    • AAP 1000.1 Deputy Chief of Air Force 4.2 DCAF leads AFHQ, which is the organisation through which CAF discharges relevant responsibilities for commanding Air Force at the strategic level. It is through AFHQ and its agencies that DCAF manages Air Force doctrine, strategy, policy, capability and planning to determine current and future Air Force activities and priorities for CAF. DCAF performs the duties of Acting CAF in the absence of CAF. 4.3 DCAF interacts directly with ACAUST on issues relating to personnel, training, resources and other aspects of Air Force’s RTS functions. Air Force Headquarters 4.4 Air Force Headquarters (AFHQ) and its agencies manage and conduct the interaction between Air Force, the other Services, other Defence Groups, other Government agencies and Government, and has responsibility for the overall management of the personnel element of Air Force capability. 4.5 AFHQ and its agencies also undertake capability management and strategic planning, and provide policy and doctrine advice to the rest of Air Force, Defence and Government in regard to Air Force activities, reputation, capability and Defence airworthiness issues. 4.6 Of note, the AFHQ agencies that are responsible for safety, airworthiness and aviation capability improvement have dual Air Force and joint responsibilities. 4.7 Annex C details AFHQ roles and functions. 4-2
    • Air Force Principal Executives and their Command Authorities Air Commander Australia 4.8 ACAUST is responsible to CAF for the capability management of operational forces and the RTS of forces for employment on operations. ACAUST manages Air Force capabilities in order to maintain these elements at levels of capability directed by CAF through the CAF Capability Directive (CAFCD). 4.9 ACAUST reports directly to CAF on all aspects relating to the delivery of Air Force capability to meet CAF and CJOPS tasking. ACAUST and DCAF coordinate and synchronise their responsibilities to ensure that the desired Air Force outcome is realised. 4.10 ACAUST is responsible for Peacetime National Tasks that are tasks for which the Air Force has enduring responsibility. Such tasking includes VIP air transport tasks, provision of Air Force air traffic control services to support domestic aviation activities, and specific surveillance operations. Air Command 4.11 Air Command comprises Headquarters Air Command (HQAC) and the following six Force Element Groups (FEGs): a. Aerospace Operational Support Group (AOSG); b. Air Combat Group (ACG); c. Air Force Training Group (AFTG); d. Air Lift Group (ALG); e. Combat Support Group (CSG); and f. Surveillance and Response Group (SRG). 4.12 ACAUST exercises command of Air Command through HQAC and the FEGs through the following principal senior officers: 4-3
    • AAP 1000.1 a. Director General Air Command Support (DGACSPT)/Chief of Staff Headquarters Air Command (COS HQAC); 1 b. Director General Air Command Operations (DGACOPS)/Director General Air (DGAIR); 2 and c. Force Element Group (FEG) Commanders. Headquarters Air Command 4.13 The mission of HQAC is to provide support to ACAUST in the execution of relevant command responsibilities for the production and delivery of air power. HQAC therefore functions as the C2 FEG for ACAUST. 4.14 HQAC’s structure is detailed in Figure 4–2. Annex D describes the roles and functions of HQAC in further detail. 4.15 Annex E describes the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Common Joint Staff System (CJSS) as employed by Australia. HQAC and some subordinate headquarters use the CJSS. 4.16 Director General Air Command Support (DGACSPT)/Chief of Staff Headquarters Air Command (COS HQAC). DGACSPT is responsible for Air Command capability management and the provision of support to operations and activities from HQAC’s support elements. The A7/A8/A93 and financial resource staff provide the support mechanism that enables DGACSPT to fulfil these responsibilities, although DGACSPT can use all of 1 One O-7 level officer fills both positions—one position holds responsibilities for HQAC (COS) and the other holds wider Air Command responsibilities (DGACSPT). 2 One O-7 level officer fills both positions—one position is within HQAC (DGACOPS) and the other within HQJOC (DGAIR). 3 Within HQAC, the A1 to A6 position titles are as for the CJSS. A7 is titled Directorate of Training, A8 is titled Directorate of Development and A9 is titled Directorate of Air Command Maintenance. 4-4
    • Air Force Principal Executives and their Command Authorities the Air Staff for capability management issues. COS HQAC is responsible for the efficient management of HQAC. The duality of the position facilitates the synchronisation of support activities across Air Command. CJOPS CAF Full Command Theatre Command Tasking Authority ACAUST CDR JTF JFACC DGAIR DGACOPS COS DGACSPT ‘Manage Air Ops’ ‘Raise, Train, Sustain ‘Manage ‘Support Air • AOC Air Force Ops’ HQAC’ Force Ops’ • A1 • A2 • A7 • A3/5 • A4 • A8 • A6 • A9 • DBWM CDR ACG CDR AFTG CDR ALG CDR AOSG CDR SRG CDR CSG Wings Forces Assigned Squadrons Figure 4–2: Air Command staff and command relationships. 4.17 Director General Air Command Operations (DGACOPS)/Director General Air (DGAIR). DGACOPS/DGAIR also has shared responsibilities and, subject to the situation, manages Air Force RTS activities under command of ACAUST or supports CJOPS in directing the AOC as DGAIR (see Figures 4–2 and 4–3). This duality provides unity in capability employment, thus enabling the management of air operations functions to be synchronised 4-5
    • AAP 1000.1 with preparedness activities. This reflects the flexibility and adaptability of Air Force’s C2 framework. Key aspects of the duality are: a. ACAUST tasks DGACOPS to plan and execute tasks as directed by CAF and to coordinate, plan and control activities to ensure Air Force units are at the levels of capability directed in the CAFCD. DGACOPS is supported in this responsibility by the Air Command A1/A2/A3/A4/ A5/A6 and AOC staff, although DGACOPS can use all of the Air Staff for capability performance functions. b. Under the direction of CJOPS, he also performs the functions of DGAIR and is responsible for the AOC. The AOC is force assigned by CAF to CJOPS under Theatre Command . DGAIR directs the AOC to plan, task and control all routine and exercise Air Force activities, and directed operational activities, for CJOPS and on behalf of CAF. CJOPS may also appoint DGAIR as either a JTF commander, or a joint force air component commander, for exercises and operations. The AOC is therefore the means through which DGAIR manages and, when appointed, commands, the centralised control and decentralised execution of Air Force’s assigned assets in ADF joint operations. Air and Space Operations Centre (AOC) 4.18 The AOC is the peak element of the Tactical Air Control System (TACS).4 It is the primary agency for the planning and execution of current air operations, although execution of specific tasks may be delegated as appropriate. The AOC is therefore the organisation where DGAIR, or other appointed air component commander, plans and directs air missions as a part of the air campaign within an ADF joint campaign, combined operation or joint exercise. Air campaigns are the means by which the 4 For additional information, see Australian Defence Force Warfare Centre, 20 October 2008, ADDP 3.3—Joint Airspace Control, Defence Publishing Service, Canberra. In US joint doctrine, TACS stands for Theatre Air Control System. 4-6
    • Air Force Principal Executives and their Command Authorities RAAF plans and conducts the application of air power as a vital partner in the ADF’s contribution to national security. 4.19 The campaign or operation planning process is predominantly a joint activity where DGACOPS/DGAIR and the AOC and Air Staff participate in joint planning to identify the Air Force elements that are necessary to achieve the joint mission and to plan their employment. Forces are recommended by DGACOPS/DGAIR, through ACAUST, to be approved by CAF for assignment to CJOPS for operations. Air Campaign An air campaign is the controlled conduct of a series of interrelated air operations to achieve specified objectives.5 4.20 The AOC is the single portal between AFHQ, HQAC and HQJOC for matters relating to the assignment of Air Force elements to CJOPS and the subsequent employment and sustainment of assigned Air Force elements for operations and exercises. DGAIR may assign other AOC staff as points of contact for this interaction. This portal is also the sole point of entry for CJOPS interaction with ACAUST on matters relating to the preparation and assignment of Air Force elements and is the pathway through which CAF’s agreement to assign forces is communicated. 4.21 The AOC comprises a core group of personnel that have the required professional mastery to execute an air campaign. These personnel may require augmentation from Air Force’s operational elements as directed by ACAUST. The AOC also utilises specialist planning and coordination 5 Kainikara, Dr Sanu and Richardson, Wing Commander Bob, 2008, CAF Occasional Paper No 2 – Air Campaigns: The RAAF’s Application of Air Power, Air Power Development Centre, Canberra, p 1. 4-7
    • AAP 1000.1 elements from Air Command Force Element Groups to undertake specialist tasks. The AOC structure and relationships are shown in Figure 4–3. The AOC is the peak element of the Tactical Air Control System and allows the centralised control and decentralised execution of air power. This image shows the AOC Combat Operations Division during Exercise TALISMAN SABER 2007 on 15 June 2007. 4-8
    • Air Force Principal Executives and their Command Authorities Full Command CAF CJOPS Theatre Command Forces Assigned ACAUST COS DGACOPS/DGAIR J1/J4 SPT J3 OPS J6 CIS J2 INT J5 PLANS J7 JCE AOC Director Command, Control, Comms and Computers A1 Pers, Deployments and Exercise Manning Strategy and Combat Plans Division Strategic Aeromedical Evacuation Combat Operations Division Joint Airspace Control Cell A2 Intelligence ISR Division A3/A5 Operations and Plans A4 Logistics A6 Comms and Information Systems Air Staff AOC (HQAC) (HQJOC) FEG based planning and execution Centres of Excellence Figure 4–3: The DGACOPS/DGAIR C2 Structure. Note: All Air Staff (A1 to A9) may support DGACOPS in the planning, coordination and execution of air operations. 4-9
    • AAP 1000.1 THE FIRST AUSTRALIAN JOINT AIR COMPONENT COMMANDER EXPERIENCE OPERATION WARDEN, EAST TIMOR, 1999 In 1999 Australia led a United Nations endorsed multinational peacekeeping force to assist in the restoration of peace in East Timor. Australian forces were committed to Operation WARDEN (provision of Australian Theatre support) and Operation STABILISE (Australian forces deployed to East Timor). The Commander Deployable Joint Forces Headquarters (DJFHQ), Major General Peter Cosgrove was appointed Commander International Force East Timor (INTERFET) and his DJFHQ staff formed the staff cadre for Headquarters INTERFET. A RAAF Air Commodore was appointed Combined Air Component Commander (CACC) and was assigned all aerial assets in the AO, including Army Blackhawk helicopters, as part of an INTERFET Combined Air Wing (ICAW). Army Kiowa light observation helicopters providing direct tactical support to 3rd Brigade were not assigned to the CACC. Likewise, Australian-based RAAF assets, such as P-3C and F-111 aircraft that were assigned to support INTERFET, were not force assigned to the INTERFET CACC. The ICAW was multinational comprising forces from Australia, Germany, Italy, New Zealand Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom and the United States. A RAAF Group Captain commanded the ICAW, performing the functions of a Task Group Commander. A Combined Air Operations Centre was established at Darwin with a forward deployed Air Operations Centre element located in Dili supporting the ACC. Comment: In current and future operations the Air Component Commander will be supported by an Air Staff. Depending on the operational circumstances, the Commander Task Group (CTG) may also have an AOC with the headquarters or may have to rely on the HQJOC AOC operating in a reachback capacity. Alternatively, the Air Component Commander may be integrated into a forward coalition structure and therefore be required to provide integrated or embedded personnel within the Coalition AOC (CAOC) in order to ensure Air Force capabilities are appropriately integrated into the coalition air effort in accordance with Australian national guidance and objectives, Australian law, Australian rules of engagement and associated directives. 4-10
    • Air Force Principal Executives and their Command Authorities Air Force Ground Defence elements provide security of Air Force capabilities during operations from forward operating bases. Here, an officer from No 2 Airfield Defence Squadron farewells an Indonesian Air Force Special Forces officer, at Comoro Airport, near Dili, East Timor, during Operation STABILISE in 1999. Relationships with other Defence groups and Services 4.22 Air Force develops and maintains relationships with organisations, both internal and external to the Department of Defence. The Department of Defence comprises a large number of Groups and Services and is thus very complex—with a significant number of interdependencies. The effective maintenance of these relationships is of paramount importance to Air Force’s ability to undertake its mission. Within Air Force, DCAF and ACAUST liaise with a range of other headquarters and Defence service providers. 4-11
    • AAP 1000.1 4.23 For example, at the strategic level, Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF) Group has several key organisations, such as Military Strategic Commitments (MSC), Joint Logistics Command (JLC) and Joint Health Command (JHC), that interact with DCAF on a continual basis. DCAF also has close working relationships with the Chief Finance Officer (CFO) Group, Capability Development Group (CDG) and the Defence Materiel Organisation (DMO) due to resource management, capability development and strategic logistics responsibilities. Additionally, ACAUST deals regularly with CJOPS on operational matters as well as Navy and Army operational level commanders. 4.24 Key organisations, such as the Defence Intelligence and Security agencies, Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), Chief Information Officer Group (CIOG) and Defence Support Group (DSG), interact with Air Force at the strategic, operational and tactical levels depending upon the level and location of the issue. 4-12
    • CHApTER 5 AIR FORCE TACTICAL FORMATIONS, UNITS AND BASES Introduction 5.1 The command and control of the Air Force’s tactical elements is based on a series of cascading building blocks organised along functional lines with delegated command authority starting from the Air Force, led by CAF, down to the groups, wings and squadrons; each commanded by an officer appointed by CAF. This chain of command is shown in Figure 2–1. Additionally, there are specific C2 arrangements for each of the Air Force’s air bases. Force Element groups 5.2 The Force Element Group (FEG) is the highest tactical formation and each FEG has a unique functional output within Air Command. The FEGs are the capability management components of Air Command; for example, Air Lift Group is responsible for Air Force’s airlift capability. FEGs comprise a headquarters and one or more wings. 5.3 Each FEG Commander (FEG CDR) is directly responsible to ACAUST for the management and development of the FEG’s respective elements in order to deliver Air Force capabilities, and exercises Full Command of their FEG on behalf of CAF. FEG CDRs have forces assigned by ACAUST on a standing basis to realise the specific air power functions and roles for which they are responsible. 5.4 Several FEGs maintain elements that have responsibilities for the planning, coordination and/or execution of tasks related to their areas of expertise on behalf of the HQAC Air Staff and/or the AOC. These responsibilities include the deliberate and immediate planning of 5-1
    • AAP 1000.1 operations and exercises, and the execution of operational or preparedness tasks. 5.5 FEG CDRs are accountable to ACAUST for: a. the command of the FEG; b. implementing the goals and objectives of the FEG; c. providing direction and leadership toward the achievement of the FEG philosophy, mission, strategy, and its annual goals and objectives; and d. the operations of FEG wings and squadrons/units on a day-to-day basis, including the management of risk. wings 5.6 A wing is a formation that comprises one or more squadrons. Wings are the operational elements of Air Command. The Officer Commanding (OC) of a wing exercises Full Command of their wing on behalf of CAF. 5.7 The complete wing or part thereof, the wing HQ, individual squadrons or other wing elements may be force assigned under Theatre Command of CJOPS for the conduct of operations, exercises or other activities. Additionally, wing elements may be required to provide specialist personnel in support of the C2 of such activities and thus augment HQAC’s Air Staff or the AOC. Squadrons and Units 5.8 Squadrons and units of squadron size are the core tactical elements around which the Air Force operates. The function and role of the squadron or unit will normally be based around a single output, support function or platform. A squadron Commanding Officer (CO) is the lowest level at which a commander exercises Full Command on behalf of CAF. 5-2
    • Air Force Tactical Formations, Units and Bases 5.9 Like wings, the complete squadron, or part thereof, may be force assigned under Theatre Command of CJOPS for the conduct of specified operations, exercises or activities. Flights and Sections 5.10 While squadrons comprise flights and flights comprise sections, their C2 is based on delegated control authority appropriate to rank and position rather than exercising Full Command authority on behalf of CAF. Flights are the first level of sub-unit within a squadron or unit. Force Element Groups manage the capability to deploy and sustain air power. Pictured is the first operational C-17 Aeromedical Evacuation (AME) flight conducted in support of Operation SLIPPER on 7 September 2008. This is an example of two Force Element Groups, Air Lift Group (No 86 Wing/No 36 Squadron) and Combat Support Group (Health Services Wing), working together to achieve a single outcome utilising both permanent and reserve personnel. 5-3
    • AAP 1000.1 Defence Materiel Division System program Offices 5.11 The Defence Materiel Organisation (DMO) is responsible for the acquisition and sustainment of specialist military equipment and services for the ADF, and it is responsive as appropriate to VCDF, the Service Chiefs and CJOPS for the delivery of acquisition and sustainment outcomes. DMO delivers its acquisition and sustainment outcomes through System Program Offices (SPO) and System Support Offices (SSO). The SPOs, which primarily deliver outcomes to Air Force and which contain a large proportion of RAAF personnel, are commanded by a RAAF officer with the title of Officer Commanding (OC). The OC is appointed by CAF as per other RAAF commanders. CAF will also normally appoint a Commanding Officer (CO) in each SPO for command and discipline of the RAAF workforce in the SPO. 5.12 SPOs have the same status as wings in terms of their importance to the Air Force mission, but they are not operational units within Air Command, instead being in the DMO chain of command. SPOs are also comprised of units normally based around functions (engineering management, project management and logistics management) or by products (aircraft or support systems). Air Bases 5.13 Air bases are a key aspect of Air Force’s ability to sustain and project air power. Air bases, whether they are permanent main operating bases or impermanent forward bases, give Air Force the capability to carry out two important functions: firstly they allow the raising, training and sustaining of Air Force capabilities so that they are prepared for operations; and 5-4
    • Air Force Tactical Formations, Units and Bases secondly, they allow Air Force to project air power during both peace and war, to achieve Government’s objectives. 5.14 Under the implementation of the Base Accountabilities Model (BAM), the CDF and the Secretary of Defence directed CAF to appoint a Senior Australian Defence Force Officer (SADFO) for each Air Force air base.1 2 Air Bases Air bases are the geographical locations from which the Royal Australian Air Force flies, fights and commands air operations. The RAAF’s ability to provide the Government with effective air power for Australia’s security is dependent on the capability of the force to optimally operate as a system combining its airborne platforms, air power support systems and air bases. This ability to produce and effectively apply air power across the full range of military operations is critically reliant on assured access to secure air bases, in the right locations and with adequate base utilities, essential support personnel and services.2 5.15 There are unique C2 arrangements for ADF members on bases within Australia because, while members within military units operate under their traditional military C2 structures, the SADFO has the authority to take command and control of the base when needed to enable a unified response to a base security, emergency or similar incident. The SADFO is also the ADF authority for Base Orders, Instructions and Plans. The SADFO has the additional management responsibilities of being CDF’s 1 Secretary and Chief of the Defence Force Directive 04/08—Control, Management and Accountability at Defence Bases and Establishments, 3 November 2008. 2 Kainikara, Dr Sanu and Richardson, Wing Commander Bob, 2008, CAF Occasional Paper No 3 – Air Bases: The Foundation of Versatile Air Power, Air Power Development Centre, Canberra, p 1. 5-5
    • AAP 1000.1 and CAF’s (in the case of those personnel on air bases) representative and is responsible for Defence’s reputation and relationship with the local community. CAF appoints the SADFO for Air Force bases. 5.16 Communication and good relationships between Air Force commanders, members and the respective SADFOs are essential to ensuring command relationships are clearly understood and deconflicted on bases. They are also vital to the SADFO’s broader community relationship responsibilities. 5.17 Additionally, in recognition of the key role that the air base plays in Air Force’s ability to project air power, an Air Base Executive Officer (ABXO) for each base is appointed who is primarily responsible to the SADFO for the delivery of the air base capability and for the airworthiness of the associated emergency systems. 5.18 Additionally, the Defence Support Group (DSG) Base Support Manager (BSM) is responsible for the provision of support services and has an important role in the management of the common areas of each base and in the coordination and administration of base plans. 5-6
    • CHApTER 6 AIR FORCE COMMAND AND CONTROL IN OpERATIONS Introduction 6.1 Air Force personnel, elements and/or units may conduct operations from either permanent main operating bases in Australia, or from deployed forward operating bases in Australia or overseas. C2 mechanisms are therefore designed to ensure that robust and redundant C2 arrangements, which are congruent with the air power C2 tenet of centralised control and decentralised execution and joint operational principles, are in place. The C2 structures and levels of authority will vary according to the size of the force, the complexity of the operation and the nature of the area of operations. Command and Control Structures and Mechanisms in Operations 6.2 Air Force elements will normally conduct operations as part of a joint force. In such cases, Air Force elements are integrated into a joint C2 structure implemented specifically for the operation. The joint C2 structure may be simple or complex depending on the mission, operation or campaign, and/or the area of operations. C2 is operation-dependent and will not be exactly the same in different operations; differing significantly to peacetime Air Force C2. 6.3 The ADF uses the Task Organisation system—a standardised C2 organisational framework used by the United States, the United Kingdom 6-1
    • AAP 1000.1 and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The system is based on a series of subordinate organisations as detailed in Figure 6–1.1 Task Force Commander Task Force Task Group Task Group Task Group Commander Commander Commander Task Unit Task Unit Commander Commander Task Element Commander Task Element Commander Figure 6—1: The Task Organisation C2 structure framework. 6.4 CJOPS will appoint a JTF Commander to command a specific operation within a defined area of operations (AO). The commander may be of any Service—but this is often dependent on the nature of the operation and whether it is oriented towards a particular type of military activity. The JTF will comprise a headquarters and one or more Task Groups. 1 For additional information, see Royal Australian Air Force, 2006, AAP 1002—The Operational Air Doctrine Manual, Second Edition, Headquarters Air Command, RAAF Glenbrook (AL1 to Revision 1 (Foreword) 23 February 2009). 6-2
    • Air Force Command and Control in Operations The Australian Defence Glossary defines: Joint Task Force (JTF) as: A force composed of assigned or attached elements of two or more Services established for the purposes of carrying out a specific task or mission. 6.5 Air Force elements will normally be organised into one Task Group and a RAAF officer will be appointed as its Commander Task Group (CTG). This officer will function as the JTF commander’s air component commander and principal air power adviser. Dependent on the operational circumstances, a range of joint ADF air power elements may be grouped into the one task group. In accordance with the air power tenant of centralised control and decentralised execution, and the principle of war of unity of command, the air component commander should control all air power elements in order to ensure the effective and efficient use of available air and space power resources and to prevent the often disastrous results that occur when air power is parcelled out in small quantities. 6.6 The Task Organisation system is employed during all operations— whether they are single Service, joint or combined. If operating in a combined (or coalition) environment, an Australian commander will at all times hold National Command. Operational/Tactical Command or Operational/Tactical Control may be delegated, depending on the operational requirements, to foreign commanders by CDF, but National Command is retained at all times by the senior deployed Australian officer to ensure that the ADF is used in accordance with the Australian Government’s direction and objectives. The Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 00.1—Command and Control defines: National Command (NATCOMD) as: A command that is organised by, and functions under the authority of a specific nation. 6-3
    • AAP 1000.1 RAAF C2 WITHIN A MAJOR COALITION AIR CAMPAIGN OPERATION BASTILLE/SLIPPER, IRAQ, 2003 On 1 February 2003, the Australian Government announced it was deploying ADF elements to the Middle East on Operation BASTILLE to join the US-led Coalition preparing for possible military actions against Iraq. Operation BASTILLE was the initial pre-deployment of forces, acclimatisation and in-theatre training, and Operation FALCONER covered combat operations to disarm Iraq. Operation SLIPPER, the ADF support to the international coalition against terrorism, continued in Afghanistan. On CDF advice, and in close consultation with CAF, the Australian Government committed to Operation BASTILLE/FALCONER F/A- 18 Hornet fighters, C-130 Hercules transport aircraft, an Air Forward Command Element, and their respective aircrews and support personnel. These elements joined the AP-3C detachment already in theatre for Operation SLIPPER which was subsequently also force assigned to Operation FALCONER. During the operations, the ADF retained command of Air Force elements at all times. CAF assigned the elements directly under the Theatre Command of Commander Australian Theatre (now Chief of Joint Operations) for deployment to the Middle East. In theatre, Commander Australian National Headquarters - Middle East Area of Operations exercised National Command of all ADF forces deployed on Operations BASTILLE, FALCONER and SLIPPER at all times. Meanwhile, CAF retained Full Command of the deployed forces. With the commencement of hostilities, ADF elements were required to operate under the Operational Control of Coalition component commanders. This arrangement let Coalition commanders assign specific tasks to ADF forces while they remained under the Operational Command of Australian officers. Although ADF force elements worked towards the overall Coalition campaign plan, there were also processes in place to ensure that Australian forces were always employed in accordance with Australian Government policies. For example, the appointment of a Commander Air Task Group with a Forward Command Element collocated in the US AOC ensured the seamless allocation 6-4
    • Air Force Command and Control in Operations of Coalition tasks to Australian air elements. The overall C2 construct ensured centralised command chains and unity of purpose but also provided significant flexibility to enable command processes to flex and adapt to changing requirements. Group Captain Geoff Brown (Commander, Australian Air Task Group) alongside General Tommy Franks (Commander, US Central Command), Lieutenant General T. Michael ‘Buzz’ Moseley (Commander, US Central Command Air Forces) and Air Vice-Marshal Glenn Torpy (Commander, United Kingdom Air Contingent) briefing the President of the United States via video conference the night before the strategic air campaign against Iraq commenced on 20 March 2003. 6-5
    • AAP 1000.1 6-6
    • CHApTER 7 CONCLUSION 7.1 Air Force’s C2 system is the means through which CAF commands the RAAF in order to meet the responsibilities as directed by Government, CDF and the Secretary of Defence. CAF commands through a C2 framework that facilitates effective organisation, the RTS of forces, the planning for and conduct of operations, and continual liaison within Air Force and with external partners. These C2 structures are formal and directed by CAF. They include links between the military and civilian components of Air Force and are designed so that, when CAF deems necessary, they can be adapted to meet the demands of emerging circumstances. 7.2 This publication describes Air Force’s C2 arrangements at the highest level, focusing on the direct links between CAF and his most senior commanders—DCAF and ACAUST—that strategically bind the Air Force’s organisational and operational dimensions into a seamless enterprise. Through this structure, CAF commands Air Force and, where appropriate, authorises DCAF and ACAUST to communicate his intent and to command and employ forces. This hierarchical arrangement empowers DCAF and ACAUST to develop and exercise C2 relationships tailored to their responsibilities. It also ensures the effective and unambiguous understanding of these responsibilities in order to meet CAF’s intent. 7.3 All Air Force commanders are directed by CAF to carry out his intent and to command and employ their forces to achieve Air Force’s objectives. This includes the processes which are designed to provide the clear and unambiguous delegation of command and control authorities. This delegation focuses staff effort and ensures that Air Force continues to make the superior decisions that are essential to its operations. Air Force’s C2 is carefully designed and applied to ensure that it achieves the desired outcomes in the most demanding of circumstances and in support of the 7-1
    • AAP 1000.1 nation’s security. It accomplishes this through a centralised control and decentralised execution framework derived from lessons learned from the employment of air power and captured in Air Force’s air power doctrine. 7.4 Although the command relationships described in this publication are those that are exercised at the highest levels of Air Force, it is important that all members understand that the direction they receive is based on CAF’s authority and founded on his intent. Likewise, commanders must use the Air Force C2 framework to communicate their command decisions, intent and purpose in clear and timely ways. In this respect, while a key part of C2 is the framework and mechanisms put in place to enable it, C2 largely comes down to being an art where one’s leadership abilities dictate how successful Air Force C2 will be. Of note, the direction provided by commanders at all levels of the Air Force is at all times provided through the unbroken delegated authority of CAF. ANNExES 7-2
    • Annex A ANNEx A ORDERS, INSTRUCTIONS AND pUBLICATIONS DI(G) ADMIN 0-0-001—The System of Defence Instructions describes the System of Defence Instructions (SoDI) used by the Department of Defence and the Australian Defence Force to facilitate effective and efficient administration. These instructions are listed in Figure A–1. Instruments within Instruments outside the SoDI Framework the SoDI Framework • Defence Instructions (General) – • Commonwealth Publications DI(G)s • Defence Reference Books (DRBs) • Defence Instructions (Navy) – DI(N)s • Determinations • Defence Instructions (Army) – DI(A)s • Doctrine • Defence Instructions (Air Force) – • Guides DI(AF)s • Handbooks • Chief Executive Instructions (CEIs) • Legislation • Defence Manuals (DMs) • Manuals not endorsed by the • Standing Instructions Secretary or CDF • Departmental Instructions • Memorandums of Understanding • Group Instructions (MOUs) • DEFGRAMS • Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) The following policy instruments • Standard & Specifications remain valid and enforceable until • Strategic Documents • Treaties they are cancelled or incorporated into an instrument type within the SoDI framework. They do not form part of the SoDI framework per se: • Circular Memoranda (CM) • Defence Information Management Policy Instruction (DIMPI) Figure A–1: Instruments within and outside the SoDI. A-1
    • AAP 1000.1 A-2
    • ANNEX B ANNEx B CHIEF OF AIR FORCE COMMITTEES Defence Committees 1. CAF is a member of the following Defence committees: a. Defence Committee (DC). The DC is the pre-eminent committee within Defence supporting the Secretary and CDF in meeting their joint obligations under the Ministerial Directive. The objective of the DC is to provide holistic senior management advice to the Secretary and CDF on strategic management and governance issues, and to monitor the overall performance of the Defence Organisation. The DC membership is Secretary of Defence, CDF, VCDF, Chief Executive Officer (Defence Materiel Organisation), Chief of Navy, Chief of Army, Chief of Air Force, Deputy Secretary Strategy, Deputy Secretary Intelligence and Security, Deputy Secretary Defence Support, Deputy Secretary People Strategies and Policy, Chief Finance Officer, Chief Capability Development Group, Chief Information Officer, Chief Defence Scientist and First Assistant Secretary Ministerial Support and Public Affairs. The DC has the following subcommittees: – Defence Capability and Investment Committee (DCIC). CAF is a member of the DCIC. • The Defence Capability Committee (DCC) is a subcommittee of the DCIC. DCAF is a member of the DCC. – Defence Information and Communications Technology Committee (DICTC). – Defence Occupational Health and Safety Committee (DOHSC). DCAF is a member of the DOHSC. – Defence People Committee (DPC). DCAF is a member of the DPC. B-1
    • AAP 1000.1 – Financial Management and Controls Committee (FMCC). DCAF is a member of the FMCC. – Workforce and Financial Management Committee (WFMC). b. Chiefs of Service Committee (COSC). The COSC provides military advice to the CDF to assist him in the discharge of his responsibilities as the commander of the ADF and as the principal military adviser to the Government, as outlined in the Ministerial Directive. The COSC membership is CDF (Chair), Secretary of Defence, VCDF, Chief of Navy, Chief of Army, Chief of Air Force, Deputy Secretary Strategy, Coordination and Governance, Chief Capability Development Group, and CJOPS. c. Strategic Command Group (SCG). The SCG provides situational awareness on intelligence, policy and operational issues and advice regarding military options to CDF. The SCG supports CDF in his roles as the principal military adviser to Government and as commander of the ADF. Air Force Committees 2. There are four principal Air Force committees that assist CAF in his command function. The roles and functions of these committees are summarised in Figure B–1. The committees are: a. Air Force Board (AFB). The AFB is CAF’s highest level forum, and has a strategic focus on Air Force as an enterprise. The AFB comprises CAF (Chair), DCAF and ACAUST, as well as non-executive members providing an alternative Defence perspective and advice on logistics and DMO processes. The AFB provides: – the list of key enterprise risks from which Air Force strategy and plans are developed; – the Air Force strategy; – prioritised goals (from the Air Force Plan) for the Chief of Air Force Advisory Committee (CAFAC) and Air Force Capability B-2
    • ANNEX B Committee (AFCC) to implement; – key performance targets for the Organisational Performance Agreement (OPA); – the endorsed Air Force governance and accountability frameworks; and – endorsed strategic documents including the Future Air and Space Operating Concept (FASOC) and the Air Force Plan. b. Chief of Air Force Advisory Committee (CAFAC). CAF chairs the CAFAC, which is the pre-eminent committee supporting CAF in meeting his obligations as set out in his Charter. In exercising command of the RAAF, CAF may refer any matter on which he requires advice to the CAFAC. The CAFAC has a strategic focus on Air Force as a military capability. This includes ensuring Air Force meets its preparedness requirements as directed by CDF and conducts strategic planning to ensure that the future force continues to meet preparedness targets. c. Air Force Capability Committee (AFCC). Chaired by DCAF, the AFCC focuses on Air Force management issues that do not require endorsement by CAF. The key role of the AFCC is to proactively support the CAFAC and AFB through close liaison with the FEG CDRs. The AFCC delivers Air Force strategies and plans through efficient and effective management of capability—including capability transition—and the endorsement of the resource allocation necessary to generate and transition that capability. d. Air Force Risk Committee (AFRC). The AFRC supports the AFB in identifying and developing risk management strategies. B-3
    • AAP 1000.1 Expected Committee Role Level Outcome Air Force Board Assist CAF to Strategic Setting the (AFB) execute the CAF (enterprise) enterprise vision, Charter and the mission and Organisational strategy Performance Agreement (OPA) Chief of Air Strategic focus Strategic (military) Managing the Force Advisory on Air Force as a Air Force goals Committee military capability to meet the (CAFAC) AFB directions and providing guidance to the AFCC Air Force Management Administer/ Managing Capability issues that do manage the resources and Committee not need CAF priorities and providing resource (AFCC) endorsement resource trade-offs input to the AFB for capabilities and CAFAC identified by the CAFAC Air Force Risk Identify enterprise Strategic Providing input Committee risks and develop (enterprise) to guide strategy (AFRC) risk management Links with business development strategies for and operational AFB review and levels endorsement Figure B–1: The Air Force’s principal committees B-4
    • Annex C ANNEx C AIR FORCE HEADQUARTERS – ROLES AND FUNCTIONS AFHQ Staff Coordination • Communications and reputation management • Ministerial liaison • Entitlements and scaling Strategy and Planning • International engagement • Strategic planning and governance • Strategic design • Defence space coordination Capability Planning • Combat capability planning and management • Enabling capability planning and management • Strategic operations and preparedness • Strategic airspace management • Infrastructure planning Resource Planning • Budget management • Accounting policy and asset management • Investment and resource analysis • Air Force Group APS planning and management Logistics • Supply capability • Technical capability Personnel • Military administration • Personnel management and development • Personnel capability management • Psychological services Reserves • Reserve capability planning and management Cadets • Air Force Cadet program management Chaplaincy • Chaplaincy and welfare services Health • Medical • Dental C-1
    • AAP 1000.1 AFHQ Agencies Air Power Development • Air power doctrine • Air power strategy, development and advice • Air Force history • Air power education and fellowships Airworthiness • Operational airworthiness regulatory framework • Airworthiness coordination • Airworthiness policy Technical Airworthiness • Technical airworthiness regulatory framework including engineering (design), maintenance and quality assurance Infrastructure • Manage and develop Air Force infrastructure proposals Development Aviation Capability • ADF aviation capability coordination Improvement Safety • Defence aviation safety • Air Force ground safety • Education • Publications C-2
    • Annex D ANNEx D HEADQUARTERS AIR COMMAND – ROLES AND FUNCTIONS AIR STAFF Plan Air Operations A1 - Personnel, • Air Command personnel planning Deployments and Exercise Manning A2 - Intelligence • Intelligence aspects of operational planning • RTS management of the intelligence capability A3/5 - Operations and • Cross FEG RTS planning Plans • Operational planning • Coordinate air input to Army and Navy activities • Force protection planning and management A4 - Logistics • Logistics systems management and governance • Manage air weapons and air weapons ranges • Logistics support to operations and exercises A6 - Communications • CIS aspects of operational planning and Info Systems • Spectrum management and communications security • Development of CIS policy, capability and training Support Air Operations A7 - Training • Training management and policy advice • Represent Air Force in joint training forums • Provide standardisation • Professional development of FEG training capability A8 - Development • Oversight of FEG capability management • C2 systems and procedures development • Manage operational airworthiness, flight safety and occupational health and safety. A9 - Maintenance • Articulate strategic maintenance requirements • Manage Air Command maintenance governance D-1
    • AAP 1000.1 Business and • Resource management of Air Command operations and Workforce exercises Management • Sensitive administration and reporting • Capability evaluation • Integrated workforce management and preparedness AIR AND SPACE OPERATIONS CENTRE Manage and Execute Air Operations Strategy and Combat • Coordinate HQJOC, AFHQ and HQAC interaction Plans Division (SCPD) • Crisis action planning • Air and space power guidance • Space integration into exercises and operations • JTF support Combat Operations • Current JOC operations monitoring and reporting Division (COD) • Air Force RTS activity monitoring and reporting • Replan operational tasks in execution • Diplomatic clearances • Short-notice crisis response coordination and tasking • Joint Personnel Recovery (including SAR) coordination and tasking Intelligence, • ADF airborne ISR plans, operations and assessment Surveillance and • Provide intelligence situational awareness across the AOC Reconnaissance • Liaise with Air Force, joint, national and allied/coalition Division (ISRD) intelligence organisations Joint Airspace Control • Airspace management Cell (JACC) • Plan, coordinate and provide airspace control volumes, systems and solutions • Integrate air operations into the airspace environment Command, Control, • Manage current data interchange and manipulation Communications capability within Air Force and ADF networks and Computers (C4) • Monitor the development of C4 capabilities and transition Division into the AOC baseline Strategic Aeromedical • AME System planning, coordination, monitoring and Evacuation (AME) control Division • AME crisis, immediate and deliberate planning • AME advice and training support D-2
    • Annex E ANNEx E THE COMMON JOINT STAFF SYSTEM 1. ADDP 00.1—Command and Control defines the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) joint staff system used by Australia—called the Common Joint Staff System (CJSS). 2. HQAC (see Chapter 4) is organised on such a system, as are a number of other subordinate Air Force and joint headquarters. Letter designators are used followed by up to three numerals, where the letter identifies a ‘joint’ or ‘component’ headquarters position and the numerals identify the branch and the function within the branch. 3. The key letter and number designators are described in Figure E–1. Letter designators Numeral designators The letter designator indicates a The first number designator indicates joint, component or environmental the headquarters branch. These are: headquarters position. These are: 1 – Personnel J – Joint 2 – Intelligence N – Naval 3 – Operations G – Ground (at Divisional level and 4 – Logistics above) 5 – Policy and Plans S – Ground (at Brigade level and 6 – Communications and below—and including RAAF’s Information Systems Combat Support Group unit 7 – Doctrine and Training and formation headquarters 8 – Force Structure and staffs) Development A – Air 9 – HQ specific SO – Special Operations Follow on numbers (ie, the second and third numbers) indicate the position within the branch. Additionally, beyond A6, the staff numbers may not accord completely with the above due to the differing requirements of various headquarters. Figure E–1: The Common Joint Staff System E-1