Road To War Pacific


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Road To War Pacific

  1. 1. War in the Pacific<br />* SEQ Examinable<br />
  2. 2. What is an Expansionist Power?<br />A state that takes over countries & keeps extending territory whenever & wherever it can.<br />Imperialism - the policy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions <br />The revamped Jp military was hungry for more action<br />
  3. 3. Japanese Imperialism before 1930<br />1st Sino-Jp War (1894-95) – Gained Formosa or Taiwan<br />Russo – Jp War (1905) – Gained Port Arthur in Manchuria, S. Sakhalin & Liaotung<br />1910 – Annexed Korea<br />1919 – Gained Shantung Peninsula from WW I settlement<br />Korea as the “dagger pointing to the heart of Japan”<br />
  4. 4. Japan’s Foreign Policy Aims<br />To build an empire in the Asia – Pacific<br />To free Asians from western control<br />To find room for Jp’s growing population<br />To control resources & raw materials<br />By the 1930s, the Japanese military was one of the most advanced in the world & was ready for action<br />
  5. 5. Building an Empire in the Pacific<br />Jp wanted to become the leading power in the Asia Pacific region<br />To do this, it needed to build an empire<br />Jp was casting glances over territories in the Far East.<br />
  6. 6. To “Liberate” Asia<br />Most of SEA under western colonial control<br />Jp initiated propaganda to “liberate” them<br />“Asia for Asians” – Asians should stand up against western imperialism<br />“Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” – Resources should be for the benefit of Asia, not westerners.<br />Jp as the leader of Asia, should lead the fight against western colonial powers.<br />A propaganda poster on Asian cooperation<br />
  7. 7. Colonialism in SEA<br />
  8. 8. Find Room for Population<br />Population in 1870: 30 million<br />Population in 1930: 70 million<br />Jp could no longer find living space & food for its exploding population<br />Needed to resettle its population elsewhere<br />Tokyo in the early 1900s. Japan was fast becoming over-crowded<br />
  9. 9. Control Natural Resources<br />The Great Depression made it hard for Jp to import resources & exports its goods<br />Overseas territories would provide resources & give Jp a market to sell its goods.<br />Manchuria was a prime target:<br />Cheap abundant manpower<br />Raw materials like coal, timber, iron, grain & gold<br />An overseas market<br />
  10. 10. Where in the world is Manchuria?<br />Manchuria was extremely rich in natural resources which Jp coveted. Only problem: it belonged to China<br />
  11. 11. Mukden Incident, 1931<br />A bomb exploded on the S. Manchurian Railway track in Mukden which was owned by Jp<br />The Jp army accused the Chinese govt of sabotage.<br />Events shrouded with controversy<br />The scene of the railway “sabotage”<br />
  12. 12. Kwantung Army Acts<br />In retaliation, the Kwantung Army stationed in Manchuria attacks Chinese positions<br />It’s excuse was to “defend Jp interests” in the region<br />Manchuria is soon captured<br />They established the state of Manchukuo with the last Qing emperor, Pu Yi, installed as its puppet ruler<br />Kwantung Army marches into Manchurian cities<br />Henry Pu Yi, The last Emperor of China<br />
  13. 13. Japanese Govt Powerless<br />Kwantung army acted independently of Japanese Govt<br />PM Ki Inukai protested against the invasion, but was powerless to do anything<br />PM Inukai’s opposition to the Kwantung Army would cost him dearly.<br />
  14. 14. League of Nation’s Response (or lack of)<br />Convened the Lytton commission to Manchuria to investigate<br />Commission declared Manchurian invasion illegal & that Japan should withdraw immediately<br />Jp did withdraw… but from the LON in 1932<br />LON took no further action & Jp was convinced the west were too weak to prevent it’s expansionist ambitions<br />
  15. 15. League of Nation’s Response (or lack of)<br />West were too busy recovering from Great Depression to care about Manchuria <br />LON also had no army to force Japan to do anything<br />Newspaper article on the Mukden Incident<br />
  16. 16. Fascists Unite!<br />Anti – Comintern Pact (1936)<br />Nazi Germany & Japan pledge to fight communism<br />However, Japan was concerned with the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact in 1940.<br />Tripartite Pact (1940)<br />Italy, Germany & Japan become allies<br />Axis representatives signing the Tripartite Agreement.<br />
  17. 17. Why did War break out in the Pacific?<br />Japan’s desire to conquer China<br />Japan’s neutrality with the Soviets<br />Europeans more worried about Hitler <br />Worsening relations with the U.S.<br />Appointment of Hideki Tojo as PM.<br />
  18. 18. Jp’s Desire to Conquer China <br />Historically, Japan had always been China’s tributary.<br />Wanted to assert its dominance over China once & for all.<br />Wanted access to China’s rich port cities & resources<br />China was also weak, having civil war.<br />Zaibatsus were also pushing for war to gain assess to lucrative Chinese markets, industries & resources<br />
  19. 19. China in Turmoil<br />The Chinese were too busy fighting among themselves than to worry about the Jp threat. Left: Mao Zedong leads the Chinese Communist Party while Chiang Kai shek on the right leads the Nationalists.<br />
  20. 20. Marco Polo Bridge Incident – 7th July 1937<br />A misunderstanding led to an exchange of fire between both sides at Marco Polo Bridge.<br />Jp demanded that Chinese troops withdraw but the latter refused.<br />Became a full-scale invasion of China<br />The Pacific War had begun<br />Chinese troops engage Jp forces at MP bridge<br />
  21. 21. Neutrality with Soviets<br />Jp initially coveted Soviet lands as well. <br />However they were defeated in battles at Changkufeng & Nomonhan.<br />Sued for peace & signed neutrality pact with Soviets in 1941 to concentrate on China<br />The Imperial Jp Army took a beating at Nomonhan by the Soviets.<br />
  22. 22. European pre-occupation with Hitler<br />Hitler had been re-arming Germany since the mid 1930s <br />Britain, France & Holland were more concerned about defending their own countries.<br />Could spare little resources to defend SEA colonies.<br />The west obviously gave priority to Europe rather than Asia. This would come back to bite them later.<br />
  23. 23. General Tojo Becomes PM<br />With the appointment of a general as PM, it was obvious that Jp would pursue an aggressive foreign policy stance<br />Tojo, a former Kwantung Army commander, believed war with the U.S. could not be avoided.<br />General (later PM) Hideki Tojo – 1884 – 1948<br />
  24. 24. Worsening Relations with the U.S.<br />U.S. declared Chinese invasion illegal.<br />Placed trade embargo on oil, steel & scrap iron to Japan.<br />Forced Jp to look at SEA for for resources.<br />Despite this, both sides were keen to avoid war & had last ditch talks<br />However, Jp refused American demands to withdraw from China & talks broke down.<br />
  25. 25. American Pacific Fleet<br />U.S. had a powerful fleet stationed at Pearl Harbour, Hawaii<br />This posed a huge obstacle to Japanese advance into SEA.<br />The solution was obvious…..<br />American President Franklin Roosevelt pushed for a tough stance on Jp aggression in the Pacific.<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Pearl Harbour – 7 Dec 1941<br />Without warning, Jp bombers attacked the Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbour.<br />2400 killed, 1200 wounded<br />3 cruisers, 3 destroyers, 188 planes destroyed<br />Despite heavy losses for the Americans, the Jp failed to knock out fuel storage & maintenance capabilities<br />This enabled America to rebuild their fleet later on.<br />
  28. 28. “A Date Which Will Live in Infamy”<br />Mitsubishi Zero Fighters, preparing to launch from their aircraft carrier.<br />Sinking of the USS Arizona<br />USS Arizona Memorial today<br />
  29. 29. American Response<br />1st ever attack on America<br />America declare war on the Axis<br />Hitler & Mussolini declare war on America.<br />U.S. enters WW II on the side of the Allies<br />Formally ends American policy of isolationism<br />Allies against the Axis: From left, Winston Churchill (PM of Britain), Franklin Roosevelt (American President), Joseph Stalin (Soviet Leader)<br />
  30. 30. A Very Brief Summary of the Pacific War<br />*Non-examinable<br />
  31. 31. Japan vs. China<br />After M.P. bridge, Jp forces pour into China<br />However, realised China was too huge for Jp to conquer.<br />Had to settle for China’s rich coastal cities like Beijing, Nanjing, Shanghai etc...<br />Jp rule was extremely brutal<br />Jp forces march into Nanjing, the capital of the Nationalist govt.<br />
  32. 32. Rape of Nanjing<br />Wanton looting, murder & rape by Jp army<br />Casualties ranged from 100,000 – 300,000<br />Even infants & elderly women were not spared rape<br /> Jp textbooks today play down the Nanjing Massacre, a source of contention between Jp & China.<br />These 2 Jp Officers had a contest to see who can collect 100 Chinese heads first<br />
  33. 33. Sons were forced to rape their mothers, fathers were forced to rape daughters. One pregnant woman who was gang-raped by Japanese soldiers gave birth only a few hours later; although the baby appeared to be physically unharmed. Monks who had declared a life of celibacy were also forced to rape women. <br />An eye-witness account of the Rape of Nanjing<br />Mass graves containing massacred Chinese infants<br />
  34. 34. Japan Sweeps into SEA<br />Attack on Pearl Harbour coordinated with advance into SEA.<br />1941 – Hong Kong, Malaya, Philippines & Burma fell<br />1942 – Singapore & Dutch East Indies fell<br />Thailand signed alliance with Jp to avoid being conquered<br />French Indo-China became Jp ally as well. <br />SEA came under Jp control by 1942<br />
  35. 35. At the height of its empire…<br />
  36. 36. American Wartime Propaganda<br />
  37. 37. The Tide Turns…<br />America rebuilds Pacific Fleet by 1943 & was out for revenge.<br />Naval battles at Coral Sea & Midway saw America cripple Jp Navy.<br />U.S. marines begin the “island-hopping” strategy hatched by Gen. Douglas McArthur.<br />American navy wins a decisive battle against the Jp at the Pacific island of Midway<br />
  38. 38. Island Hopping<br />
  39. 39. By early 1945…<br />Allied forces had retaken Philippines, fighting to retake Burma, & preparing to retake Malaya.<br />Island hopping brought U.S. marines within striking range of Japan.<br />General Douglas Macarthur – “I have returned!”<br />
  40. 40. Approaching Japan<br />Costly battles at Iwo Jima & Okinawa convinced Americans that invasion of Japan would result in high casualties.<br />Jp kamikaze tactics showed desperation<br />The solution?<br />The iconic American flag raising at Iwo Jima. The battle gave the U.S. marine corps its highest casualty rate in any battle in history.<br />Kamikaze plane in action<br />
  41. 41. Truman drops the Bomb<br />Top & left: Hiroshima flattened.<br />Right: Radiation burns from survivors<br />
  42. 42. Aftermath<br />Emperor Hirohito declares unconditional surrender<br />Jp comes under American occupation<br />Hirohito absolved from all blame.<br />Tojo & many Jp tried & executed for war crimes.<br />Zaibatsus & military dismantled<br />Jp becomes staunch U.S. ally in Cold War<br />Hirohito with Macarthur, who was the Supreme Allied Commander for occupation forces in Japan.<br />
  43. 43. Why did Japan Lose?<br />Economic Collapse<br />US submarines sank more than 75% of Japan’s merchant ships<br />US bombing destroyed Japanese homes & factories<br />1945 - people starving & collapse of industrial production<br />
  44. 44. Why did Japan Lose?<br />Resources Over-stretched<br />Rapid conquests ==> had too large an area to control & defend.<br />No allies & not enough troops<br />Many of the conquered territories were vulnerable by sea & Jp had no more control of the seas after 1943.<br />How do you defend an empire as large as this?<br />
  45. 45. Why did Japan Lose?<br />Air & Sea power of USA<br />Battles of Coral Sea, Midway and Leyte Gulf, Americans gained command of sea & air.<br />Essential for successful operations in Pacific Islands.<br />Superior Resources<br />US able to produce more aircraft, aircraft carriers and weapons than Japan due to its industrial power.<br />Jp factories constantly bombed, diff to sustain production<br />Incendiary bombing of Tokyo – bombed to the stone age.<br />
  46. 46. Why did Japan Lose?<br />Atomic Bomb<br />Showcased firepower of US<br />The destruction shocked the Jp military & Emperor<br />No way Jp could compete with such weaponry.<br />