Meiji Restoration

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Meiji Restoration

  1. 1. Authoritarian Regimes: Japan<br />From Samurai to Steamships<br />*NOT EXAMINABLE<br />
  2. 2. Japan: Some key facts<br />Known as Nippon (Land of the Rising Sun)<br />4 Major islands (Honshu, Kyushu, Hokkaido & Shikoku)<br />Shinto Religion: Emperor divine, descendant of Sun Goddess<br />Majority of population peasants<br />
  3. 3. Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1868)<br />Japan ruled by Emperor (religious) & Shogun (military) <br />Samurai as lords & nobles<br />Hermit kingdom – closed its doors to the world<br />Homogeneous language & culture<br />The Samurai were not as chivalrous as popular culture today depicts them to be.<br />
  4. 4. East Meets West<br />1853 – Arrival of Commodore Perry<br />Japan thrown into turmoil<br />Shogunate discredited – signed unfavourable treaties<br />Dissidents wanted to topple the Shogun and restore power to Emperor<br />In 1868, the Meiji Emperor ascended the throne of Japan, & a new era of modernisation began.<br />Japanese depiction of Perry’s arrival. The Japanese had no answer to the American cannons.<br />
  5. 5. Meiji Restoration<br />Meiji leaders understood that in order to save Japan from being colonised & to be accepted by the west, they had to modernise.<br />Leaders were all young, western educated & idealistic<br />Impressed by the power of the west & felt Japan could follow suit<br />“Rich Country, Strong Military”<br />The Meiji emperor reigned from 1868-1912. He was 15 when he ascended the throne.<br />
  6. 6. “Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of imperial rule. . . Evil customs of the past shall be broken off and everything based on the just laws of nature.”<br />Meiji Charter Oath – 1868<br />
  7. 7. Meiji Reforms - Political<br />Constitution based on German model<br />Constitutional monarchy – cult of Emperor established<br />Parliament or Diet established<br />Power centralised – no more domains<br />The Meiji Oligarchy or Genro<br />
  8. 8. Meiji Reforms - Military<br />Abolition of Samurai class<br />Introduction of conscript army – Blood tax<br />New army put down Satsuma Rebellion<br />Disgruntled Samurai rose up against the new conscript army: Swords vs. Guns, the outcome was predictable…<br />
  9. 9. Meiji Reforms - Economic<br />Massive industrialisation – Textiles as Japan’s no.1 export.<br />Rise of Zaibatsu<br />Land reforms to help peasants grow more crops<br />Mitsubishi didn’t just manufacture cars and fridges in those days<br />
  10. 10. Meiji Reforms - Social<br />Education encouraged – pple taught to embrace modernity & revere Emperor.<br />Foreign talent – about 5000 by 1880<br />The Japanese people were encouraged to embrace modern changes.<br />
  11. 11. A Meiji era factory – women were encouraged to work as well.<br />
  12. 12. Meiji Reforms – Report Card<br />Victories in Sino-Japanese War, 1894, Russo-Japanese War, 1905 & WW I, 1918<br />Strong industrial base<br />Modern infrastructure, economy and army<br />By Meiji Emperor’s death in 1912, Japan was considered the major power in the Far East<br />The world sat up and took notice as Japan became the first Asian nation to defeat a European nation in war.<br />
  13. 13. In 20 years, Japan went from…<br />This<br />To this!<br />

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