From Democracy To Fascism
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From Democracy To Fascism

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    From Democracy To Fascism From Democracy To Fascism Presentation Transcript

    • Authoritarian Regimes: Japan
      From Democracy to Fascism
      *SEQ Examinable
    • Reasons for Failure of Japanese Democracy
      Diet’s ineffectiveness
      Corruption
      Economic problems
      Taisho Emperor - son of the Meiji Emperor. His reign was known as the era of Taisho Democracy (Reigned from 1912 – 1926)
    • The Diet’s Limited Power
      2 houses
      House of Peers – members of imperial family, Japanese nobles who’re nominated by Emperor
      House of Representatives – Elected by Japanese pple. Emperor can dissolve house.
      The Imperial Diet in session
    • The Diet’s Limited Power
      However, real power was with Emperor, Genro, army & navy ministers
      Japan had no democratic tradition
      Emperor usually appointed ministers who were loyal to him – many of these were old & conservative.
      Many saw civilian politicians as weak & soft, esp. in Jp foreign policy
    • Corruption
      Zaibatsus were supporting & bankrolling politicians & their election campaigns
      Had a lot of influence in the govt.
      Could influence law-making in their favour.
    • Economic Problems
      Rice farmers had little land & had to pay high rental
      Workers also had to put up with long hours & harsh working conditions
      Trade imbalance – needed to import food to feed growing population
      Japanese rice farmers faced very harsh working conditions
    • Great Depression
      Protectionism occurred
      Japanese exports suffered
      Silk industry was hardest hit
      High unemployment & inflation
      Japanese began to blame the democratic govt.
      Japanese silk farmers feeding silk worms – silk was Japan’s major export in the early 1900s.
    • The Rise of Fascism
      External Reasons
      Worsening foreign relations with west
      Rise of Chinese nationalism
      Internal Reasons
      Showa Restoration
      Patriotic Societies
      Strong Military Influence
      Il Duce’s influence had extended to the far east.
    • External – Worsening Foreign Relations
      Competition with America over Pacific islands
      LON refused to acknowledge the equality of races
      Washington Naval Conference (1921) – Japan received unfavourable naval ratio America (5) : Britain (5) : Japan (3)
      Competition over the Pacific Islands strained Japanese relations with America.
    • The Imperial Navy resented being treated as a 2nd rate power, especially when it had defeated the Russians & Chinese in naval battles
    • Worsening Foreign Relations
      London Disarmament Conference (1930) – Military felt that civilian govt was soft.
      Strict American immigration laws (1920s) – made Japanese feel inferior
      By the early 1900s, many Japanese immigrants or issei had flocked to America in search of a better life
    • External – Rise of Chinese Nationalism
      Japan defeated China in 1894-95 Sino-Japanese War
      Since then, exploited China’s weakness
      TOV awarded Shantung Peninsula to Japan – sparked off May 4th Movt & anti-Japanese sentiments
      Saw China’s vast resources as answer to economic problems
      Wanted to supplant China as Asia’s no. 1 power
    • Rise of Chinese Nationalism
      Chinese protestors take to the streets in outrage over Japanese seizure of Shantung.
      The foreign powers helping themselves to a piece of China
      The giant killer
    • Internal Reasons – Showa Restoration
      Showa Restoration – education emphasised intense nationalism & anti-foreign sentiments
      Also focused on blind loyalty to the emperor.
      Showa Emperor or more commonly known by his name, Hirohito. (Reigned 1926 – 1989)
    • Patriotic Societies
      Ultra-nationalistic organisations
      Pushed for aggressive foreign policy & militarism
      Believed Jp’s destiny was to “go forth, conquer & rule!”
      Many of these societies worked against the civilian govt whom they believed were soft
      The rising sun flag of Imperial Japan. A symbol of Japanese aggression & imperialism
    • Increasing Military Influence
      Military had been successful in battles since 1895.
      Made military very influential
      People saw military action as the answer to their probs, also saw civilian govt as weak
      Military were soon acting independently from civilian govt.
    • Military Takeover of Japan
      PM Ki Inukai was assassinated by army in 1932
      His murderers served light sentences
      Succeeding PMs felt increasingly pressured by military’s ambitions.
      By the mid 1930s, Japan had become a military controlled government.
    • Reasons for Failure of Japanese Democracy
      Diet’s ineffectiveness
      Corruption
      Economic problems
      Rise of Fascism
      Internal Reasons
      Showa Restoration
      Patriotic Societies
      Strong Military Influence
      External Reasons
      Worsening foreign relations with west
      Rise of Chinese nationalism