Sustainable Development

  What´is the problem?


           Department of Industrial
       Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
Painting the future
•   Dramatic increase in global population
•   Population concentration in Mega cities
•   Low birth r...
Todays industrial system – a linear flow
              of resources


Unlimited   Material     Production     Consumption ...
From local effects

       Department of Industrial
   Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
To regional
effects                                       The Aral Sea




                  Department of Industrial
    ...
The Aral Sea




    Department of Industrial
Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
The Aral Sea




    Department of Industrial
Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
To global effects




      Department of Industrial
  Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
Pollution affecting the earth
                         • The way we live influence the
                           planet.
...
Huge change since 1950s

Exponential growth of:
• Consumption
• CO2 emissions
• Technology
  development




             ...
Ecosystem services

  • Ecosystem Services are the
    processes by which the
    environment produces resources
    that ...
Hazardous substances




                Department of Industrial
            Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
The situation today
•Around 30 000 chemicals on the commercial
 market

•Around 2 800 substances are produced in
 volumes ...
A growing hole in the earths ozone layer

We have started to realize that



     The sky is the limit




               ...
Sustainable Development
1.Brundtland Commission, 1987
Safeguarding possibilities for future
generations

2. Rio Conference...
Sustainable Development
     In 1987 the United Nations Commission on
     Environment and Development ( the
     Bruntlan...
THE NATURAL STEP'S PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY
The Natural Step's definition of sustainability includes four
scientific p...
Substances from the Earth's crust must not systematically
increase in the biosphere.
This means that in sustainable societ...
The dimensions of sustainability



                                    Socio-Centric
                                    ...
The dimensions of sustainability
                                                            Moral


                     ...
Sustainable Development
       Global - Future




         Global - Now




          Local - Now

            Department...
Is technology going to save the world?




                 Department of Industrial
             Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wenne...
We need science and
technology to solve
problems that have
been created by
science and
technology




      Department of ...
Definition of technology
Technology is the technical means people use to improve
their surroundings. It is also a knowledg...
But –
Are we becoming prisoners in the world of technology?




                     Department of Industrial
            ...
Department of Industrial
Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
Is technology evil?




        Department of Industrial
    Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
Who is controlling the development
of technology

         •Individuals
         •Authorities
         •Politicians
      ...
Reflections




 Is technology good or bad?

 Is technology the driving force for economic development?

 Is there a given...
Four interacting parts
                                         Economics
 Technology




                      Interactio...
The root cause for the growing ecological
•




crisis is the massive and frequently
indiscriminate use of natural resourc...
Sustainable Development



If all people on earth should live
like we do in western Europé

We will need two more earths

...
On the average, more than 30 tons of non-
renewable natural resources are invested today
for every ton of goods, with incr...
MIPS stands for material input per
unit service (utility)




               Department of Industrial
           Ecology/K...
Use of material in products

                       While the amount of material in a
                        technical pr...
An example for
              energy


During the past 30 years the energy efficiency in the
aviation sector has increaed w...
Are there technical solutions for a
sustainable society?

  A technical solution can be defined as a
  solutions demanding...
When people get more money
they will spend it in a way that will
       Department of Industrial
demand new resources
   E...
Decisions taken by individuals will be the best
decisions for society
Adam Smith, The Wealth of the Nations, 1776



By ex...
The role of the consumer

o How can information to consumers be developed?

o Who is forming our visions of the future?

o...
Department of Industrial
Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
Reflections




 Are there “Sustainable Technologies”

 Can we create visions for a Sustainable Future?

 Holistic concept...
Are we creative
as engineers?




               Department of Industrial
           Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
How are we educated?




        Department of Industrial
    Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
What is a sustainable energy system?




               Department of Industrial
           Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
...
12.02, Wennersten — lecture on sustainable development
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

12.02, Wennersten — lecture on sustainable development

1,520

Published on

SD Course in Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, 12-23 Febraury 2006

Published in: Technology
1 Comment
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Global doesn't need too much out put of resource but needs good utilizing of resources and equity of contribution of energy to global societies, because parts of men die for hunger while others recycle 45% of the food they purchase and produce the maximum carbon dioxide to the global!
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,520
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
128
Comments
1
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

12.02, Wennersten — lecture on sustainable development

  1. 1. Sustainable Development What´is the problem? Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  2. 2. Painting the future • Dramatic increase in global population • Population concentration in Mega cities • Low birth rate/low death rate demographic state • Increase in income • Increased demand on services/resources • Rapid societal transformation • Dramatic environmental degradation • Signs of dysfunctions in planetary processes • Vigorous reliance on technology Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten http://www.nasa.org
  3. 3. Todays industrial system – a linear flow of resources Unlimited Material Production Consumption Unlimited Ecosystem Resources extraction Waste damage Problems •Limitied resources •Waste •Environmental degradation Powered by •Conflicts cheap fossile fuels Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  4. 4. From local effects Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  5. 5. To regional effects The Aral Sea Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  6. 6. The Aral Sea Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  7. 7. The Aral Sea Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  8. 8. To global effects Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  9. 9. Pollution affecting the earth • The way we live influence the planet. Human activity makes a foot print through change on earth. Department of Industrial Ecological footprint Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  10. 10. Huge change since 1950s Exponential growth of: • Consumption • CO2 emissions • Technology development Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten From Will Steffen’s presentation
  11. 11. Ecosystem services • Ecosystem Services are the processes by which the environment produces resources that we often take for granted such as clean water, timber, and habitat for fisheries, and pollination of native and agricultural plants. What is the carrying capacity? Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  12. 12. Hazardous substances Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  13. 13. The situation today •Around 30 000 chemicals on the commercial market •Around 2 800 substances are produced in volumes more than 1 000 tons/year •Since 1993 around 5 substances in EU has been “completely” been investigated concerning risks for humans and environment Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  14. 14. A growing hole in the earths ozone layer We have started to realize that The sky is the limit Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  15. 15. Sustainable Development 1.Brundtland Commission, 1987 Safeguarding possibilities for future generations 2. Rio Conference, UNCED, 1992 The 40 chapters in Agenda 21 3. The natural Step Foundation Four systems conditions for sustainable development Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  16. 16. Sustainable Development In 1987 the United Nations Commission on Environment and Development ( the Bruntland Commission) drew attention to the fact that economic development often leads to a deterioration, not an improvement, in the quality of people's lives. Just because it is new does not mean that it is better - or at least not for everybody! The Commission therefore called for a form of sustainable development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  17. 17. THE NATURAL STEP'S PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY The Natural Step's definition of sustainability includes four scientific principles that lead to a sustainable society. These principles, also known as quot;conditionsquot; that must be met in order to have a sustainable society, are as follows: Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  18. 18. Substances from the Earth's crust must not systematically increase in the biosphere. This means that in sustainable society, fossil fuels, metals and other materials are not extracted at a faster pace than their slow redeposit into the Earth;s crust. Substances produced by society must not systematically increase in nature. This means that in a sustainable society, substances are not produced at a faster pace than they can be broken down in nature or into the Earth's crust. The physical basis for the productivity and the diversity of nature must not be systematically diminished. This means that in a sustainable society, the productive surfaces of nature are not diminished in quality or quantity, and we must not harvest more from nature than can be recreated. We must be fair and efficient in meeting basic human needs. This means that in a sustainable society, basic human needs must be met with the most resource-efficient methods possible, including a just resource distribution. Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  19. 19. The dimensions of sustainability Socio-Centric Concerns Technical and Social acceptance Techno-Centric Economical Concerns viability Eco-Centric Concerns Carrying Capacity The relation between Eco Centric, Techno Centric, and Socio Centric concern Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  20. 20. The dimensions of sustainability Moral Socio-Centric Concerns Technical and Social acceptance Techno-Centric Economical Concerns viability Eco-Centric Concerns Time Carrying Capacity The relation between Eco Centric, Techno Centric, and Socio Centric concern Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  21. 21. Sustainable Development Global - Future Global - Now Local - Now Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  22. 22. Is technology going to save the world? Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  23. 23. We need science and technology to solve problems that have been created by science and technology Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  24. 24. Definition of technology Technology is the technical means people use to improve their surroundings. It is also a knowledge of using tools and machines to do tasks efficiently. We use technology to control the world in which we live. Technology is people using knowledge, tools, and systems to make their lives easier and better. People use technology to imrove their ability to do work. Through technology, people communicate better. Technology allows them to make more and better products. Our buildings are better through the use of technology. We travel in more comfort and speed as a result of technology. Yes, technology is everywhere and can make life better. Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  25. 25. But – Are we becoming prisoners in the world of technology? Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  26. 26. Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  27. 27. Is technology evil? Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  28. 28. Who is controlling the development of technology •Individuals •Authorities •Politicians •Companies •NGOs Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  29. 29. Reflections Is technology good or bad? Is technology the driving force for economic development? Is there a given direction for development? Who should control the development of technology (GMF)? How can developing countries make a technology leap and not get the technological and institutional lock in? Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  30. 30. Four interacting parts Economics Technology Interaction Health Ecosystems Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  31. 31. The root cause for the growing ecological • crisis is the massive and frequently indiscriminate use of natural resources, including energy carriers, land and water. At the present time, worldwide use of natural resources increases dramatically, in part due to an increasing world population, but much more pronounced because of economic growth of emerging countries like China and India. www.factor10-institute.org/ Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  32. 32. Sustainable Development If all people on earth should live like we do in western Europé We will need two more earths Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  33. 33. On the average, more than 30 tons of non- renewable natural resources are invested today for every ton of goods, with increasing tendency. In order to approach ecological sustainability, the resource productivity in western countries has to be increased by at least a Factor 10, compared to today A demateralization of this magnitude will also dampen the energy demand by ca. 80% opening completely new vistas for de-carbonization and for supplying sufficient energy to the 2 billion poor of this world. www.factor10-institute.org/ Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  34. 34. MIPS stands for material input per unit service (utility) Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  35. 35. Use of material in products While the amount of material in a technical product has flow per unit decreased… 1970 1980 1990 2000 …the global use of material has increased due to more wealthy people. global flow Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten 1970 1980 1990 2000
  36. 36. An example for energy During the past 30 years the energy efficiency in the aviation sector has increaed with 50% The total fuel consumption for the aviation sector has increased because the volume of flights has increased faster than the increase in energy efficiency för Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  37. 37. Are there technical solutions for a sustainable society? A technical solution can be defined as a solutions demanding changes only in technology based on natural sciences without demands for changes in values, ethics, moral etc. Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  38. 38. When people get more money they will spend it in a way that will Department of Industrial demand new resources Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  39. 39. Decisions taken by individuals will be the best decisions for society Adam Smith, The Wealth of the Nations, 1776 By exploiting the commons for free individuals and companies will profit mote than those who don´t The Tragedy of the Commons Garret Hardin, Science, 1968 Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  40. 40. The role of the consumer o How can information to consumers be developed? o Who is forming our visions of the future? o How are our visions of the future affecting our behavior? o Alternative lifestyles starting from health, religion or voluntary simple ness Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  41. 41. Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  42. 42. Reflections Are there “Sustainable Technologies” Can we create visions for a Sustainable Future? Holistic concepts in research, education, planning Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  43. 43. Are we creative as engineers? Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  44. 44. How are we educated? Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten
  45. 45. What is a sustainable energy system? Department of Industrial Ecology/KTH/Ronald Wennersten http://www.nasa.org
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×