14.02, Wennersten — Lecture intro to industrial ecology

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SD Course in Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, 12-23 Febraury 2006

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14.02, Wennersten — Lecture intro to industrial ecology

  1. 1. The concept of Industrial Ecology – Key issues and future research Ronald Wennersten We have to start raising the correct questions
  2. 2. Setting goals Environment Economy Social Local Regional Global
  3. 3. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals are an ambitious agenda for reducing poverty and improving lives that world leaders agreed on at the Millennium Summit in September 2000. 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development
  4. 4. Social aspects •More resource-economical lifestyle in the wealthy countries (and developing countries) •Equity and justice •Future generation
  5. 5. Industrial Ecology From Industrial Metabolism to Sustainable Deveopment
  6. 6. Industrial Ecology - Evolution Pollution Improvement in Optimization of product and Systems and Technology-society Prevention process design Interactions relationships
  7. 7. What is Industrial Ecology? What is Industrial Ecology?
  8. 8. Examples of tools in Industrial Ecology LCA – Life Cycle Analysis MIPS – Material Input per Unit Srvice ERA – Environmnetal Risk Assessment MFA – Material Flow Acounting CERA – Cumulative Ebergy Requirement Analysis IOA – Input-Output Analysis LCC – Life Cycle Costing TCA – Total Cost accounting CBA – Cost-Benefit Analysis
  9. 9. Industrial Ecology is a dynamic systems-based framework that enables management of human activity on a sustainable basis by: •Minimizing energy and materials usage •Ensuring acceptable quality of life for people ! •Minimizing the ecological impact of human activity to levels natural systems can sustain •Conserving and restoring ecosystem health and maintaining biodiversity •Maintaining the economic viability of systems for industry, trade and commerce.
  10. 10. Industrial Ecolgy - a HOLISTIC CONCEPT for sustainable development STABLE ECOSYSTEMS SOCIAL COHERENCE AND SOLIDARITY DECENT AFFORDABLE BUILDING THE HOUSING FOR ALL LIVEABLE CITY WORK AND WEALTH EMPOWERING THE CITIZENS RESOURCE CONSERVING MOBILITY
  11. 11. The Dimensions of Industrial Ecology •Science – Values - Policy process Justice-Equity, Cleaner-Production-Consumers choice The role of technology Democracy •Time Present –Future •Space Local – Regional – Global What should be sustainable? •Sector Economy – Social – Environment (What is most important) Consumer – NGO – Company – Public sector •Development North – South Can south establish basic infrastructure built on dematerialisation
  12. 12. Discussion: 1. Equity and justice principles in Industrial ecology. If you look at Bruntlands definition of sustainability how should we treat the quot;conflictquot; between the demand among poor people today and future generations? 2. Should we strive to focus on regional and local metabolisms in accordance to ecosystem principles? Who gain from global metabolism? 3. How can developing countries make a technology leap and not get the technological and institutional lock in?
  13. 13. The metaphor with natural ecosystems – Is it correct?
  14. 14. Ecosystem – Type III Energy
  15. 15. Industrial Ecosystem Materials Materials Processor Extractor or or Grower Manufacturer Waste Consumer Processor Limited Limited Waste Resources
  16. 16. THE NATURAL STEP'S PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY The Natural Step's definition of sustainability includes four scientific principles that lead to a sustainable society. These principles, also known as quot;conditionsquot; that must be met in order to have a sustainable society, are as follows:
  17. 17. Substances from the Earth's crust must not systematically increase in the biosphere. This means that in sustainable society, fossil fuels, metals and other materials are not extracted at a faster pace than their slow redeposit into the Earth;s crust. Substances produced by society must not systematically increase in nature. This means that in a sustainable society, substances are not produced at a faster pace than they can be broken down in nature or into the Earth's crust. The physical basis for the productivity and the diversity of nature must not be systematically diminished. This means that in a sustainable society, the productive surfaces of nature are not diminished in quality or quantity, and we must not harvest more from nature than can be recreated. We must be fair and efficient in meeting basic human needs. This means that in a sustainable society, basic human needs must be met with the most resource-efficient methods possible, including a just resource distribution.
  18. 18. Waste was invented by nature not by humans • Vulcanos: e.g. carbon dioxide • Forest and planctonic algae: e.g. coal, oil and natural gas • Sea birds: e.g. guano
  19. 19. Environmental disasters and problems are invented by nature • Earthquakes • Tsunamis • Acidification by marine algae (DMS) • Green house gases e.g. Methane and Carbon dioxid
  20. 20. Two definitions Biological ecology ”The study of the distribution and abundance of organisms and their interactions with the physical world”. Industrial ecology ”The study of technological organisms, their use of resources, their potenial environmental impacts, and the ways in which their interactions with the natural world could be restructed to enable global sustainability”.
  21. 21. Industrial Agenda •Waste and by-products must systematically be valorized •Loss caused by dispersion must be minimized •The economy must be demateriallized •Energy must rely less on fossil fuels •Social aspects
  22. 22. Discussion: 1. What does industry need to do to adress sustainable production? 2. Who are the key players involved and what must they do to ensure that sustainable production is achieved? 3. How do governement policy and regulation need to evolve in order to support the shift to sustainable production 4. Must there be different strategies between companies in ”developing” countries and those in ”developed” countries?
  23. 23. What are the driving forces for industry? •Direct economy •Indirect economy •Innovation •Legislation •Standards •Recruting •Moral or ethical Which forces can be active in a change of direction? Who are the main players?
  24. 24. Question 1: IKEA Business Motivations DRIVERS •The IKEA vision- “Create a better everyday life for the many people.” •Past challenges/milestones- IKEA must be proactive towards social and environmental issues to ensure our long-term future. •External groups- NGO’s and other external groups have increased our awareness of important issues.
  25. 25. Question 1: IKEA Business Motivations ADVANTAGES •Raw material security- IKEA must be proactive to have supply! •Eco-efficiencies- Efficient raw material use has a positive effect on costs. •Marketplace differentiation- Consumer awareness of social and environmental issues is growing.
  26. 26. Question 2: Challenges, obstacles and impediments Communication-Internal/external Resources-New competencies and tools needed Varying global conditions-Different countries, different conditions
  27. 27. Question 3: Future of Sustainability Commitments Deepening commitments Partnerships will increase Systems thinking/New tools Good Products & Materials Forestry Housekeeping Suppliers Stores Transport & Warehousing
  28. 28. Question 3: Future of Sustainability Commitments Product recovery Product tracing Consumption
  29. 29. IE - research Theoretical goals Interaction between human and natural systems A theory of quantitative sustainability The role of Technology in Sustainable Development
  30. 30. IE -research Applied • Develop policy instruments to incentivize industrial ecology • Diffuse industrial ecology into developing countries
  31. 31. IE -research Experimental • Design and development of eco-industrial parks • Metabolism of cities
  32. 32. Industrial Symbiosis Kalundborg Denmark
  33. 33. Kalundborg industrial park
  34. 34. Town : Kalundborg Country : Denmark Population : 20 000 inhabitants Characteristics : The organization had not been planned originally, originally First cooperation in 1960 (Implantation of the refinery), Second project in 1970 (“Gyproc”), …
  35. 35. I - Organization : Partners Asnæs: power station Statoil: oil refinery Novo Nordisk: biotechnological and pharmaceutical Novozymes: production of industrial enzymes Gyproc: production of plasterboard for the building industry
  36. 36. I - Organization : Partners contd… • Bioteknisk Jordens: soil remediation company • Town of Kalundborg: receives excess heat from Asnæs • Novoren I/S: waste treatment plant
  37. 37. I - Organization : Energy Excess gas from the refinery is provided by Gyproc Asnæs supply the city, Novo Nordisk and Statoil with steam The power plant uses salt water from the fjord and supply the fish farm with hot water The power plant uses surplus refinery gas instead of coal Sludge from Novo Nordisk’s processes and from the fish farm’s water treatment plant is used as fertilizer on nearby farm
  38. 38. I - Organization : Material The cement company uses the power plant’s desulfurized fly ash Asnæs reacts the SO2 in its stack gas with calcium carbonate to make gypsum to eventually sell to Gyproc Pure liquid sulfur is produced from the refinery’s desulfurization process: then transported to a sulfuric acid producer Surplus yeast from insulin production at Novo Nordisk goes to farmers for use as pig food
  39. 39. IE -research Experimental • Design and development of eco-industrial parks • Metabolism of cities
  40. 40. An Industrial Ecology Model of a residential urban area with half environmental load The Hammarby Model
  41. 41. Industrial Ecology - Present – Journal of Industrial Ecology - since spring 1997 – Industrial ecology Gordon Conference - since 1998 – International Society for Industrial Ecology - since 2001 – >100 postgraduate programmes of “industrial ecology”
  42. 42. International Conference in Industrial Ecology
  43. 43. 01.Corporate Sustainability Reporting 13.Eco-Industrial Parks and Topics in Networks 02.The Spatial Dimension of IE ISIE-2005 14.Design for Environment 03.IE Management/Operations Research 15.Education 04.Tools in IE, LFA, MFA, 16.Environmental Management Input-Output Analysis 17.Waste Management 05.Sustainable Consumption 18.Eco-efficiency 06.The social Dimension/ 19.Industrial applications of IE Side of IE 20.Ecological systems theory 07.Sustainable Transportation 21.Complex Systems theory and 08.Policy Cases adaptive management 09.Sustainable Manufacturing 22.Product/servie systems 10.IE in a Global Context 23.Transitions and societal 11.Sustainable Cities and change Regional 24.Scenario methods in IE Metabolism 25.Agriculture and Industrial 12.Managing Energy and Ecology Greenhouse Gases
  44. 44. ISIE-2007
  45. 45. We are starting to raise the questions The role of Science in Industrial Ecology and Sustainable Development
  46. 46. Research areas for IE The Physical, Biological, and Societal Framework for IE Avoiding sub-optimization (ecological, economic and social) Meeting the requirements of the industries and the scientific community Analyse future needs of industries vis-à-vis ecological challenges set strategies and goals Quantify performance and measure progress at industry and societal level quantification of economic efficiency and ecological effectiveness Good practice of implementing industrial ecology in industries Case studies Trade-off between micro and macro, short-term and long-term strategies
  47. 47. The scientist should always reveal what is science and what are values independent of the opinions of the stakeholders The scientist should present material and create platforms for discussions among stakeholders
  48. 48. The Scientist should in an objective way develop methods to analyse different approaches to sustainable development on different levels The Scientist should work in co operation with other stakeholders like authorities, industries, public (The 3rd task) The Scientist should be aware of that Sustainable Development is not value free
  49. 49. Important issues •Development of industrial production and consumption patterns towards cyclic more than linear systems minimizing waste, and the development of sustainability and quality of life indicators using a combination of top down and bottom up perspective •Development of frameworks for a practical approach to the formulation of environmental objectives and targets on national, regional and local levels •Sustainable urban development with an integrated view of economic, social and environmental issues including conflict resolution strategies •The role of technological development and innovation in sustainable development and innovation of systems more than innovation of products •Creating arenas for true triple helix interactions between university, industry and government to reveal the relevant underlying questions using creative work shop and scenario techniques
  50. 50. Thank you for listening

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