20140520 Technology Mediated Reminiscence (PhD Oral Exam)

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  • 1. Wenn-Chieh Tsai, PhD Candidate, Graduate Institute Of Networking And Multimedia, National Taiwan University Advisors: Jane Yung-jen Hsu PhD, Rung-Huei Liang PhD 2014.05.20 Technology Mediated Reminiscence Designing Interactions with Digital Mementos
  • 2. What is reminiscence? 2
  • 3. 3 What is reminiscence?
  • 4. 4 What is reminiscence?
  • 5. Physical vs. Digital Mementos 5
  • 6. Traditional/Tangible Memory Aids 6
  • 7. 7 What if digital media are more than just a reflection?
  • 8. Initial Questions ✤ How do we design a reminiscence aid with digital materials? ✤ How do we mediate reminiscence through digital artifacts? ✤ How do we extract significant mementos from personal collections? ✤ What is a preferred state of technology-mediated reminiscence? 8
  • 9. Figure 1. An illustration of the pathways and deliverables between and among Interaction Design Researchers and other HCI Researchers. The model emphasizes the production of artifacts as vehicles for embodying what “ought to be” and that influence both the research and practice communities. CHI 2007 Proceedings • Design Theory April 28-May 3, 2007 • San Jose, CA, USA “how” “true” “real” Zimmerman, J., Forlizzi, J., and Evenson, S. Research through design as a method for interaction design research in HCI. Proc. CHI 2007, 493–502. Research for Design Research through Design 9 Our Approach
  • 10. Expected Contributions ✤ Knowledge answering the question: “How would you design a [reminiscence aid]?” ✤ A series of artifacts ✤ A concrete problem framing ✤ Articulation of the preferred state ✤ Documentation of the design process Cross, N. Designerly Ways of Knowing. Springer, 2006. 10
  • 11. Digital Memory Aids ✤ Utility-oriented Design ✤ “Memory Prosthesis” ✤ “Memory Augmentation” Sparrow, B., Liu, J., and Wegner, D.M. Google effects on memory: cognitive consequences of having information at our fingertips. Science 333, 6043 (2011), 776–8. 11
  • 12. Living Memory Box Stevens, M.M. et al. Getting into the Living Memory Box: family archives & holistic design. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 7, 3-4 (2003), 210–216. authentic 12
  • 13. Lifelogging Sellen, A.J., Fogg, A., Aitken, M., Hodges, S., Rother, C., and Wood, K. Do life-logging technologies support memory for the past? Proc. CHI 2007, 81–90. recollecting 13
  • 14. CIRCA Alm, N., Dye, R., Gowans, G., Campbell, J., Astell, A., and Ellis, M. A communication support system for older people with dementia. Computer 40, 5 (2007), 35–41. objective facts 14
  • 15. CaraClock Uriu, D., Shiratori, N., Hashimoto, S., Ishibashi, S., and Okude, N. CaraClock. Proc. CHI EA 2009, 3205–3210. indexical 15
  • 16. FM Radio Petrelli, D., Villar, N., Dib, L., and St, P. FM Radio  : family interplay with sonic mementos. Proc. CHI 2010, 2371–2380. evocative 16
  • 17. Audiophotography Frohlich, D. and Fennell, J. Sound, paper and memorabilia: resources for a simpler digital photography. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 11, 2 (2006), 107–116. reconstructive 17
  • 18. Pensieve Peesapati, S.T., Schwanda, V., Schultz, J., Lepage, M., Jeong, S., and Cosley, D. Pensieve: supporting everyday reminiscence. Proc. CHI 2010, 2027–2036. dialogical 18
  • 19. Definition Memory Aid Reminiscence Aid Interaction Attribute Indexical Evocative Interaction Attribute Monological DialogicalInteraction Attribute Authentic Reconstructive Output/Product Facts (Objective) Meaning (Subjective) Human Experience Recollecting Interpreting/Reflecting Research Approach Cognitive Psychology Ethnomethodology 19
  • 20. A Preferred State 20 The Reflexive Printer
  • 21. 21 It prints and deletes one digital photo from a personal archive everyday.
  • 22. Users can have the thermal printout participating in their live, 22
  • 23. 23 Restore its original back to the digital archive,
  • 24. 23 Restore its original back to the digital archive,
  • 25. 23 Restore its original back to the digital archive,
  • 26. 24 Or, only keep the tangible embodiment in their lifeworld.
  • 27. 3 Framing Artifacts, 3 Lessons ✤ How to initiate a reminiscence dialog? (The Retro Jukebox) ✤ Experiential resonance for being evocative ✤ How to intervene this dialog? (The Oblivescence Board) ✤ Self-presentation for being dialogical ✤ What to expect from this dialog? (The SoundTag) ✤ Alternative perspective for being reconstructive 25 Ylirisku, S., Halttunen, V., Nuojua, J., and Juustila, A. Framing design in the third paradigm. Proc. CHI 2009, 1131–1140.
  • 28. 26 Reminiscence Mode interpersonal interpersonal intrapersonal Digital Media music photo sound Context hospital dorm room in the wild Participant 14 inpatients (> 65 y/o), 1 research nurse two 22 y/o female close friends 10 young adults Method unstructured weekly meeting experimental research semi-structured interview Evaluation usability testing, user feedback memory retention event records, user experience HCI Paradigm pragmatic cognitive situated Focus evocative dialogical reconstructive The Retro Jukebox The Oblivescence Board The SoundTag
  • 29. NSC 99-2218-E-002-002 Research Report 2008-2011 The Retro Jukebox Music Listening in a Ward 27
  • 30. How might we evoke a reminiscence dialog through digital media? 28 The Retro Jukebox is a conversation aid used in bedside activity for elder inpatients and their care givers. In addition to a music playing function, three cognitive (one categorization and two memorization) games are integrated in the interaction design to maintain inpatients’ mental fitness.
  • 31. Usability Testing 29
  • 32. 30
  • 33. Findings & Reflection ✤ Empathic resonance ✤ “I’m not feeling well!” (Patient) ✤ “I feel like a saleswoman every time I step into the ward with the device.” (Research Nurse) ✤ Situated usage in wards ✤ impromptu, appropriated ✤ Music-mediated experiential resonance ✤ embodied rapport 31
  • 34. CHI 2013 The Oblivescence Board Photo Sharing in a Close Relationship 32
  • 35. How might we shift responsibility from digital to personal memory in a reminiscence dialog? 33 The Oblivescence Board is a digital memory board for people to remember more. The photos shared on it will fade over time according to a forgetting curve as human memory. The fading photos can be revived through users’ selective viewing behavior. Our hypothesis is that a “forgetful” and self-presentative artifact would result in more users’ cognitive participation and retention of their valuable memories.
  • 36. Transactive Memory System Processor 1 Processor 2 Dir 1 Memory 1 Dir 2 Dir 2 Memory 2 Dir 1 Wegner, D.M.A computer network model of human transactive memory. Social Cognition 13, 3 (1995), 319–339.
  • 37. Our Model 35
  • 38. Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve (Min.) (%) self-presentation of forgetting being reminded Ebbinghaus, H. Memory: a contribution to experimental psychology.Teachers College, Columbia University, 1913.
  • 39. General Hypothesis • If the limitation of memory of a system is embodied in a reminiscence dialogue, transactive memory would be formed and encourage users to remember more 37
  • 40. Field Experiment 38
  • 41. Findings • Keeping memories on fading photos no significant memory decay (Z=-1.890, p=.059>.05) • Losing memories on constant photos significant memory decay (Z=-2.271, p=.023<.05) • Tapping more on fading photos t=-12.248, p=.000<.01 • Viewing correlates with event richness r=.468, p=.037<.05 39
  • 42. Reflection ✤ Limitations in our experimental approach ✤ ownership of the system ✤ fixed dialogical pattern ✤ Require a situated approach to unfold the phenomenon and felt experiences in one’s life 40
  • 43. DIS 2012, IASDR 2013 The SoundTag Soundscape Association in Everyday Life 41
  • 44. How might we provoke self-reflection and reinterpretation on personal memories? 42 The SoundTag, a self-associative artifact, is used to explore the design space of using sounds as tags to annotate and associate event records. It intends to provide alternative perspectives for personal reminiscence in everyday life. We utilize timbre as the metric to determine the similarity between soundscapes of events and implement a proof-of- concept on smartphones.
  • 45. What if we tag the world with sound? 43
  • 46. Human Artifact Event Cluster Reminiscence Dialog 44 Brown, N.R. and Schopflocher, D. Event clusters: an organization of personal events in autobiographical memory. Psychological Science 9, 6 (1998), 470–475.
  • 47. Human Artifact Event Cluster Auditory-Association Reminiscence Dialog 44 Brown, N.R. and Schopflocher, D. Event clusters: an organization of personal events in autobiographical memory. Psychological Science 9, 6 (1998), 470–475.
  • 48. Human Artifact Event Cluster Reminiscence Dialog 45
  • 49. The SoundTag a self-associative artifact 46
  • 50. 47 user-subjective Deterministic system-subjective Random intersubjective Self-Associative
  • 51. Findings & Reflection ✤ Encoded personal meaning in sound tags ✤ System limitation increase sensibility in situ ✤ Internalization of self-association ✤ Personal value on digital mementos 48
  • 52. Technological Imagination? "…cultivating and shaping the technological imagination is a cultural imperative of the highest order" (Balsamo, 2011)
  • 53. MoreThan Physical Form 50 Vallgårda, A. Giving form to computational things: developing a practice of interaction design. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 18, 3 (2013), 577–592.
  • 54. The Design Space Interaction Attribute Evocative Dialogical Reconstructive Intended Outcome Self-initiation Responsibility- Shifting Reinterpretation Human Value Empathy Subjectivity Reflexivity Technological Mediation Experiential Resonance Self-presentation Alternative Perspective Design Quality Familiarity, Serendipity Extemporaneity, Negotiability Ambiguity, Perceived Drawbacks 51
  • 55. DIS 2014 The Reflexive Printer Perceived Drawbacks in Technology-Mediated Reminiscence 52
  • 56. 53
  • 57. 3Themes (Norms) ✤ The normality of digital photo consumption: ✤ Powerful Artifact and Feeble User ✤ Fast Consumption and Slow Rumination ✤ Simple Materiality and Monological Performance 54
  • 58. 3 Designed Drawbacks ✤ One-bit Halftone ✤ memory recollection ✤ Slow Rumination ✤ memory storage ✤ Material Decay ✤ memory retention 55
  • 59. Prototype for Probing ✤ 4 Users ✤ 1 Week ✤ Initial & Final Interviews ✤ Diary Method 56
  • 60. 57
  • 61. 58
  • 62. 59
  • 63. Lessons Learned 60 ✤ Just Enough Information ✤ Feeling of Being Accompanied ✤ Biomorphic Form
  • 64. 61
  • 65. 62 Field Study ✤ Two (one male and one female) young adults ✤ Digital photo natives ✤ Retrospective interviews (elicited by diaries)
  • 66. ParticipantYT 2013.12.10 installation in YT’s room 12.12 12.20 1st week interview & app reinstall 3rd week interview 12.25 double prints 2014.1.3 (print at 10:00pm) (print at 9:00am) ! 63 initial interview
  • 67. ParticipantYJ initial interview (pilot study) 2013.11.14 installation in YJ’s room 12.25 2nd week interview 2014.1.6 pilot final interview 11.26 (print at 8:00am) 64
  • 68. Findings Humble form and function initiate intersubjective dialog ! 65
  • 69. ✤ “The photo was printed when I woke up, and a series of characters were printed: ‘UUUUUU.’ It feels like it was talking to me by saying ‘you you you you you’, I was like, are you talking to me?” (YT) ✤ “It is not a robot, and it is for sure not a printer. Oh, yes, it should have a ‘wanting to communicate with me about something’ kind of setting.” (YJ) 66
  • 70. Findings Minimal information encourages active and personal interpretation 67
  • 71. ✤ “Although it is in black and white, it enables me to recall the colors and sound from the memory. [...] It is easier for me to recall the feeling of that moment when the photo is blurry. [...] That feeling is like, there is no word to explain or be written, maybe, it is just different from the real photo. Maybe it is the medium.” (YT) 68
  • 72. Findings Materiality enriches the context for reminiscence 69
  • 73. ✤ “I’ll bring it with me. I was thinking that maybe when I am free I could just conveniently take it out [of my pocket], because if I put it on the shelf, it could too easy get blown away by the wind.” (YJ) ✤ “I could simply take it from my pocket, but then I find out that it is not in these pants, so I have to go back and look for it” (YJ). 70
  • 74. Findings Embodiment anchors expectations in the routine grounds of everyday activities ! 71
  • 75. ✤ “I imagine it as something that is always there. It gives me a sort of expectation and curiosity to find out which photo will be printed. And it could become something that I can interact with when I am free, or put aside when I am busy.” (YJ) ✤ “In the morning, I thought I heard the printing sound from the machine. I felt excited, but I continued my sleep. When I woke up, I found no printed photos—it was like I was dreaming” (YT) 72
  • 76. Contributions ✤ 3 framing artifacts and 1 design example ✤ The design space of technology-mediated reminiscence ✤ 1 experiential design quality ✤ Design implications for reminiscence aids 73
  • 77. DemoVideo The Preferred State
  • 78. https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B-rOc4S9n-4yeFVVR0RZZVRiaVE/edit
  • 79. The Design Space Evocative Dialogical Reconstructive Intended Outcome Self-initiation Responsibility- Shifting Reinterpretation Human Value Empathy Subjectivity Reflexivity Technological Mediation Experiential Resonance Self-presentation Alternative Perspective Design Quality Familiarity, Serendipity Extemporaneity, Negotiability Ambiguity, Perceived Drawbacks 76
  • 80. Related Publications 77 ✤ Tsai, W.-C. (2014). Technology-mediated reminiscence: designing interactions with digital mementos (Doctoral dissertation, National Taiwan University, Taiwan). ✤ Tsai, W.-C., Wang, P.-H., Lee, H.-C., Liang, R.-H., and Hsu, J.Y. (2014, accepted). The Reflexive Printer: toward making sense of perceived drawbacks in technology-mediated reminiscence. In proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS 2014). (Full paper oral presentation) ✤ Tsai, W.-C., Hsiao, J.C.-Y., Lee, H.-C., Huang, C.-H., Hu, J.-C., Liang, R.-H., and Hsu, J.Y. (2013). Designing a reminiscence aid in personal soundscape. In proceedings of the 5th International Congress of International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR 2013), 5150–5160. (Full paper oral presentation) ✤ Tsai, W.-C., Lee, H.-C., Hsiao, J.C.-Y., Liang, R.-H., and Hsu, J.Y. (2013). Framing design of reminiscence aids with transactive memory theory. In extended abstracts of the 2013 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2013), 331–336. (Work-in-Progress extended abstract and poster presentation) ✤ Tsai, W.-C., Hsiao, C.-Y., Lee, H.-C., Huang, C.-H., and Hsu, J.Y. (2012). In search of lost sounds: designing a reminiscence aid in everyday soundscape. In poster abstracts of the 9th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS 2012). (Poster abstract and poster presentation)
  • 81. Q & A 78