Because they are Elements of Effective Learning
Evelyn Everett Knowles, Ph.D.
Information processing point of view
Organize and maximize sensory input
Activate previous knowledge – link
Present in chunks 5-9 items at a time
Require cognitive processing
Allow students to select activities based on
different learning styles.
Motivate students –intrinsic or extrinsic
Active processing using meaningful activity
Access direct information sources-not spoonfed
Learn from other’s point of view
Encourage reflection on learning
Meaningful activities – personalize the learning
Promote interaction between learner and the
Learning takes place in the frontal lobe of the
Learning requires students to process the
new information in their working memory
Sleep is necessary to consolidate new
knowledge into learning.
John J. Cohen M.D.
Keynote speaker at COLTT 2010
What does learning theory and
brain science tell us is necessary
for effective learning?
Students need to “process” new knowledge in
order to convert it to long term memory.
Linking the new knowledge to existing
Recognizing recently acquired knowledge in a
new context (creates a link).
During discussion or writing
Listen to what is said
Process what was said
Read a PowerPoint
Read a handout
Integrate new information with
Clarify the facts
Model appreciation for the subject
Thinking process for decision making
Examine ethical dilemmas
Illustrate the concepts through stories
Socratic dialogue – question & solution
Give examples to tie new information to
Learning Objectives focus learning:
Make sure students know what they are
supposed to learn before reading.
Tell students what they should learn from
the reading or exercise.
Focus and consistency in design of
Guidelines for choosing course content and
A basis for evaluating what participants
Directions for learners to help organize
their own learning
Caffarella, R. (2002). Planning Program for adult learners. Jossey-Bass
participants will be
able to do
as a result of
Who – the learner
How – the action verb
What – the content