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2010 Knowles pk






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  • If the instructor is re-iterating what textbook said, then classroom time is wasted. Students need to do the reading of textbook and instructors notes the day before class.
  • In an active classroom, the students have already read the text and are busy practicing the new information. The instructor guides them by giving examples or modeling how to use the information.
  • When students are reading their textbook, they might find a detail very interesting and overlook the intent of the reading.

2010  Knowles pk 2010 Knowles pk Presentation Transcript

  • Why use learning objectives?
    Because they are Elements of Effective Learning
    Evelyn Everett Knowles, Ph.D.
  • Information processing point of view
    Organize and maximize sensory input
    Activate previous knowledge – link
    Present in chunks 5-9 items at a time
    Require cognitive processing
    Allow students to select activities based on different learning styles.
    Motivate students –intrinsic or extrinsic
    Cognitivist Learning Theory
  • Active processing using meaningful activity
    Access direct information sources-not spoonfed
    Learn from other’s point of view
    Encourage reflection on learning
    Meaningful activities – personalize the learning
    Promote interaction between learner and the content
    Constructivist Learning Theory
  • Learning takes place in the frontal lobe of the brain
    Learning requires students to process the new information in their working memory
    Sleep is necessary to consolidate new knowledge into learning.
    Brain Science
    John J. Cohen M.D.
    Keynote speaker at COLTT 2010
  • What does learning theory and brain science tell us is necessary for effective learning?
    Students need to “process” new knowledge in order to convert it to long term memory.
  • Linking the new knowledge to existing knowledge.
    Recognizing recently acquired knowledge in a new context (creates a link).
    By practicing
    During discussion or writing
    Processing new learning involves:
  • Classroom Lectures today
  • Listen to what is said
    Process what was said
    Write notes
    Read a PowerPoint
    Read a handout
    Integrate new information with existing knowledge
    Current Lecture – student tasks
  • Active class instead of lecture
  • Clarify the facts
    Model appreciation for the subject
    Thinking process for decision making
    Examine ethical dilemmas
    Illustrate the concepts through stories
    Socratic dialogue – question & solution
    Give examples to tie new information to existing knowledge
    Use Class to Reinforce Learning
  • How will you keep students focusedon Learning?
  • Learning Objectives focus learning:
    Make sure students know what they are supposed to learn before reading.Tell students what they should learn from the reading or exercise.
  • Focus and consistency in design of instruction
    Guidelines for choosing course content and instructional methods
    A basis for evaluating what participants have learned
    Directions for learners to help organize their own learning
    Caffarella, R. (2002). Planning Program for adult learners. Jossey-Bass
    Learning Objectives Provide:
  • Learning objectives describe what participants will be able to do
    as a result of attending an educational session.
  • Who – the learner
    How – the action verb
    What – the content
    Elements of Learning Objectives
  • Lower level
    Knowledge – recall - match
    Comprehension (understand)- explain-describe
    Application – apply - utilize
    Higher level - Critical thinking
    Analysis – compare - differentiate
    Synthesis –propose – elaborate - design
    Evaluation – assess – disprove -judge
    Cognitive Categories
  • Example: After completing this unit, students will be able to:
    Describe the correct method for citing a book reference in APA style
    Differentiate between MLA style, Chicago style, and APA style
  • How do you know that students learned what you intended for them to learn?
  • Learning Objectives
    You know students learned when you can measure the outcome.
  • Establishes the criteria you are looking for in an exemplary paper or project.
    Keeps the grading consistent.
    Lets the students know what is expected of them.
    Measure with a Grading Rubric