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2010 Knowles pk



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  • If the instructor is re-iterating what textbook said, then classroom time is wasted. Students need to do the reading of textbook and instructors notes the day before class.
  • In an active classroom, the students have already read the text and are busy practicing the new information. The instructor guides them by giving examples or modeling how to use the information.
  • When students are reading their textbook, they might find a detail very interesting and overlook the intent of the reading.


  • 1. Because they are Elements of Effective Learning Evelyn Everett Knowles, Ph.D.
  • 2. Information processing point of view  Organize and maximize sensory input  Activate previous knowledge – link  Present in chunks 5-9 items at a time  Require cognitive processing  Allow students to select activities based on different learning styles.  Motivate students –intrinsic or extrinsic
  • 3. Active processing using meaningful activity  Access direct information sources-not spoonfed  Learn from other’s point of view  Encourage reflection on learning  Meaningful activities – personalize the learning  Promote interaction between learner and the content
  • 4.  Learning takes place in the frontal lobe of the brain  Learning requires students to process the new information in their working memory  Sleep is necessary to consolidate new knowledge into learning. John J. Cohen M.D. Keynote speaker at COLTT 2010
  • 5. What does learning theory and brain science tell us is necessary for effective learning? Students need to “process” new knowledge in order to convert it to long term memory.
  • 6.  Linking the new knowledge to existing knowledge.  Recognizing recently acquired knowledge in a new context (creates a link). How?  By practicing  During discussion or writing
  • 7.  Listen to what is said  Process what was said  Write notes  Read a PowerPoint  Read a handout  Integrate new information with existing knowledge
  • 8.  Clarify the facts  Model appreciation for the subject  Thinking process for decision making  Examine ethical dilemmas  Illustrate the concepts through stories  Socratic dialogue – question & solution  Give examples to tie new information to existing knowledge
  • 9. Learning Objectives focus learning: Make sure students know what they are supposed to learn before reading. Tell students what they should learn from the reading or exercise.
  • 10.  Focus and consistency in design of instruction  Guidelines for choosing course content and instructional methods  A basis for evaluating what participants have learned  Directions for learners to help organize their own learning Caffarella, R. (2002). Planning Program for adult learners. Jossey-Bass
  • 11. Learning objectives describe what participants will be able to do as a result of attending an educational session.
  • 12.  Who – the learner  How – the action verb  What – the content
  • 13. Lower level  Knowledge – recall - match  Comprehension (understand)- explain-describe  Application – apply - utilize Higher level - Critical thinking  Analysis – compare - differentiate  Synthesis –propose – elaborate - design  Evaluation – assess – disprove -judge l
  • 14.  Describe the correct method for citing a book reference in APA style  Differentiate between MLA style, Chicago style, and APA style
  • 15.  You know students learned when you can measure the outcome.
  • 16.  Establishes the criteria you are looking for in an exemplary paper or project.  Keeps the grading consistent.  Lets the students know what is expected of them.