2011Changing contextethicalbehavior634


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  • New Afterword cites a professor who was told by his institution if he is sued by the students for enforcing cheating countermeasures he was on his own!From Wikipedia. . . Not restricted to professions, cheating now appears in all facets of American life. According to Callahan, cheating breeds upon a dynamic between a winner class, an upper-class so influential they effectively are exempt from most rules and standards, and an anxious class, often compelled to cheat during a period of downward social mobility, downsizing, and within a cultural climate that values money and power above personal integrity.Callahan shows, however, that large-scale cheating is most prevalent among the "Winner" upper class. Despite their high salaries and opulent lifestyles, they live in constant comparison with those who have more than them, and therefore exhibit lives characterized by high spending, severe anxiety, and countless opportunities and temptations to cheat.
  • Now look at even more recent numbers
  • “On both indices there is significantly more cheating among those who belong to either a fraternity or sorority than there is among non-members. Indeed this pattern was generally true for all analyses conducted in this study.”The Relationship between Student Cheating and College Fraternity or Sorority Membership by Donald L. McCabe and William J. Bowers in NASPA Journal, 2009, Vol. 46, no. 4, p. 578
  • www.prism-magazine.org/.../feature_cheating.htm An awful lot of faculty [members] don't take cheating as seriously as they should," says Kris Pister, professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences at the University of California-Berkeley. "I don't believe the people who say there is no cheating in their class. I think they are all being naïve."
  • VietnamCell phone cheating ring50 college students worked the ringPolice confiscated over 70 cell phonesShirts designed to hide cell phones15 wigs
  • Two senior undergraduates at a major East Coast university. While one was taking the nationwide Graduate Record Examination, he used a wireless transmitter to send images of the test to his accomplice waiting in a van. The accomplice then ascertained the answers to the test questions, sending them back to the exam taker via walkie-talkies. The two young men supposedly invested $12,000 in equipment to implement their plan; they were arrested on charges of burglary and unlawful duplication of computer material.
  • IndiaAll-India Post Graduate Medical Entrance Exam28 caught using DocuPensTransferred scans to cell phones using BluetoothSent scans to contacts on the outsideOutside contacts then sent answers back to examinees
  • 1. A high school principal from New Jersey said:  "If you have a culture in your school where . . . there is an expectation that students are honest about their academic achievements, where students and the administration promote it, I think you decrease the opportunities for students to cheat” (Miners, 2009).
  • If computers are used for the assessment, communication should be made as difficult as possible between them and the rest of the Internet. Disable most networking capabilities on these machines, including wireless ones. Close all ports (critically ports 21 (file-transfer), 23 (remote-login), 25 (mail), and 443 (secure Internet connections)) except for the HTTP port which the grading server uses, and this port should be restricted to only connect to the server and not any other machines. All printer connections should also be disabled (so students cannot print screen shots) and removable-disk drives removed (so students cannot copy to or from their own storage media). Do not allow access by students to the testing computers except during the period of the test to prevent students from storing answers on it. Even with all these steps, proctoring is still important since there are so many ways to cheat electronically.
  • Culture includes- discourse and tools (material and otherwise)
  • 2011Changing contextethicalbehavior634

    1. 1. Moderator: Matthew Prineas, Ph.D. Presenters: Shirley Adams, Ph.D. Scott Howell, Ph.D.Aligning Institutional Policies Lisa Marie Johnson, Ph.D.and Faculty Support Deborah Romero, Ph.D.
    2. 2. Shirley Adams, Ph.D. Charter Oak State College 2
    3. 3. • Online education is constantly under the microscope: in the press, federal requirements, regional accreditation standards• Academic integrity is a cultural shift issue. • How do we change that culture? • Is cheating accepted in our culture today?• If a college or university doesn‘t have integrity, it has nothing. It is the glue that binds the world of virtual education together. 3
    4. 4. • Academic integrity is absolutely essential to the success of the educational enterprise. • Establishing a proper climate to achieve this goal must include unwavering support by the administration of the faculty efforts to maintain ethical standards for academic integrity (Heberling, 2002). It starts with making a commitment to ―doing the online program the right way.‖ 4
    5. 5. • The administration is responsible for making academic integrity an institutional priority and for establishing equitable and effective procedures to deal with violations of academic integrity.• The faculty shares the responsibility for educating students about the importance and principles of academic integrity and for reporting violations. ―91 Ways to Maintain Academic Integrity in Online Courses‖ by Lori McNabb and Michael Anderson, University of Texas TeleCampus, Faculty Focus Special Report, Promoting Academic Integrity in Online Education May 2010.• The Students are responsible for understanding the principles of academic integrity fully and abiding by them. How do we get them to accept this responsibility when the cost benefit is in favor of the student who cheats? • Prof. Kitahara from Troy University suggests putting ―academic dishonesty‖ on the student‘s transcript as one part of the solutionSources: Rutgers University Interim Academic Integrity Policy, http://rutgers-newark.rutgers.edu/dsanwk/pdf/aip.pdf ―Promoting Academic Integrity in Online Education, Faculty Focus Special Report, May 2010, Magna Publication 5
    6. 6. Scott Howell, Ph.D.Salt Lake Center at Brigham Young University 6
    7. 7. 7
    8. 8. Essays from faculty who actuallytaught correspondence courses• Instances of cheating rare• No greater than the classroom• Worst offenders - Resident students (Bittner and Mallory)
    9. 9. 10
    10. 10. "Rates of academic cheating have skyrocketedduring the past decade. In a huge study (DukeUniversity‘s Center for Academic Integrity) of 50,000college and 18,000 high-school students. More than70 percent admitted to having cheated. Thats upfrom about 56 percent in 1993 and just 26 percentin 1963. Internet plagiarism has quadrupled in thepast six years, . . .” NEWSWEEK, March 27, 2006 11
    11. 11. The Relationship between Student Cheating and College Fraternity orSorority Membership by Donald L. McCabe and William J. Bowers inNASPA Journal, 2009, Vol. 46, no. 4, p. 583 12
    12. 12. ―56 percent of the graduate businessstudents and 47 percent of thenonbusiness graduate students admittedto cheating one or more times in the pastyear‖ Research (2008) from Pennsylvania State, Rutgers, and Washington State universities 13
    13. 13. Cheating Today in our High Schools 14
    14. 14. a. Less than 10 percentb. About a quarterc. About a thirdd. About halfe. About two-thirds 15
    15. 15. So is it not just the students who are cheating? ―In a 2000 survey, McCabe found that one third of professors who said they were aware of a cheating incident in their classroom in the last two years did nothing about it.‖ 16
    16. 16. 17
    17. 17.  Easy to do No time to study—the student is employed A friend/coworker needed help must pass the class Everyone else is cheating ―No one cares if I cheat‖ Sabotage—‖my file was stolen‖ Course is too hard/teacher is unfair Course information is useless G. J. Cizek, Cheating on Tests: How to Do It, Detect It, and Prevent It (Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999), p. 39 18
    18. 18. 19
    19. 19. ―The single item that was most commonly reported is•neglecting to footnote or cite reference material‖ used in a writtenassignment.One third (33.3%) of students surveyed admitted to this form of plagiarismduring the prior semester.•Fairly substantial proportions of students also reported copyinghomework or lab assignments (26.7%),•copying from another student’s exam (26.3%),•giving false excuses to delay an exam or assignment (22.7%),•and allowing their exam to be copied from (22.1 %).•10.4% used notes or crib sheets in an exam;•9.3% accessed exam questions or answers before the exam;•8.2% turned in other student’s paper as their own;•8.0 % turned in published work as their own;•and 5.2% studied a “hot” copy of an exam‖(The Relationship between Student Cheating and College Fraternity or Sorority Membership by Donald L. McCabe and William J. 20Bowers in NASPA Journal, 2009, Vol. 46, no. 4, p. 583.)
    20. 20. Notes are written on a stretched rubber band. Un-stretched notes aren‘t visible. Stretch to view notes. Flip to conceal.© Caveon Test Security 21
    21. 21. © Caveon Test Security 22
    22. 22. Notes are attached to the wrapper or the wrapper is scanned into a computer. Ingredients list on wrapper is edited to include notes. Wrapper is printed on a color printer and re-attached on food item.© Caveon Test Security 23
    23. 23. Notes on a small piece of paper inserted into the casing of a clear pen.© Caveon Test Security 24
    24. 24. Notes are written on a stick of gum. After notes are used, the evidence can be eaten.© Caveon Test Security 25
    25. 25. The label on a water bottle is peeled off and notes are written on the inside face of label. Label is re- applied and is visible at the proper angle.© Caveon Test Security 26
    26. 26. Notes are written on the underside of a hat brim. Notes can be viewed by simply tilting hat up or by removing the hat.© Caveon Test Security 27
    27. 27. Notes are stuffed into a tie. Notes can be viewed by flipping end of tie.© Caveon Test Security 28
    28. 28. Notes are placed in pockets and are visible during tests.© Caveon Test Security 29
    29. 29. Notes are taped on underside of shirt tail. Quick flip during test reveals answers.© Caveon Test Security 30
    30. 30. •Palm •Band-aid•Forearm •Pencil Case•Fingernail •Calculator Case•Thigh •Calculator Battery•Skirt Compartment•Shirt •Desk•Pant Waistband •Chair 31
    31. 31. 32
    32. 32. Examinee takespictures of a test with acamera phone andsends picture toanother person whocan text messagecorrect answers back. 33© Caveon Test Security
    33. 33. ―More than one-third of teens with cellphones admit to having stored informationon them to look at during a test or textingfriends about answers.‖ U.S. News and World Report (June 23, 2009) 34
    34. 34. ―Only 3 percent of parents ‗believe their own teenis using a cell phone to cheat‘ Even though 75percent of them assumed that cheating wastaking place at their children‘s school. The resultsshould be a wake-up call for educators andparents, says James Steyer, CEO and founder ofCommon Sense Media.‖ U.S. News and World Report (June 23, 2009) 35
    35. 35. Notes are entered into calculators that have memory for storing notes. 36© Caveon Test Security
    36. 36. Song names arerenamed with notes ortest answers for viewingon the screen.Text files can be stored.Audio notes can bestored.Video notes can bestored. 37© Caveon Test Security
    37. 37. PDA stores test notes oranswers. Examinee cangather answers duringtest from web sources.Examinee may setuptheir own website withnotes to access duringtest. 38 © Caveon Test Security
    38. 38. 39© Caveon Test Security
    39. 39. Small video cameradisguised as a pen isplaced is front pocket.Video signal is picked upby a remote laptop andtest images arecaptured. 40© Caveon Test Security
    40. 40. Pen sized personal scannerused to copy test questions.The DocuPen can storehundreds of pages of text intomemory. Data can betransmitted via Bluetooth cellphone. 41© Caveon Test Security
    41. 41. 42© Caveon Test Security
    42. 42. Audience Question #2:Which of the following countermeasures doyou think cheaters considered most effective? a. Identification b. Assigned seating c. Randomly presenting questions d. ―Hot line‖ to report cheating 43
    43. 43. Cheaters Non-CheatersScramble Tests 80.3 84.6Small Classes 69.8 71.5Several Proctors 67.4 70.5Unique Makeups 67.1 71.12+ Forms of Exams 65.5 69.0Use Study Sheets 56.6 50.9More Essays 55.2 53.3Pass Out Old Exams 54.6 47.8Checks IDs 45.6 49.7Give DifferentAssignments 42.1 44.3
    44. 44. Cheaters Non-CheatersSpecify Paper Topics 28.6 33.5Marked Answer Book 28.8 31.1Names on Test Book 28.0 29.3Assign Seats 25.3 30.3Check Footnotes 27.4 24.3More Exams, Less TakeHomes 22.8 25.6Pencils only in exams 21.4 25.6No leaving exam 22.0 22.1Less Exams, More TakeHomes 19.7 12.7"Hot Line" to Report 14.5 19.0
    45. 45. Data from both samples revealed significantlylower levels of self-reported cheating at schoolswith honor codes. (Academic Dishonesty among Males in College: AThirty Year Perspective. Journal of College Student Development, v35 n1 p5-10Jan 1994)In Texas testing officials introduced a newapproach to mitigate cheating by invitingstudents to sign pledges that they will not cheatalong with other measures including “randommonitors and seating charts”(Hacker, 2008) 46
    46. 46. ―Experts also say that if teachers hold opendiscussions, issue warnings, and presentguidelines for taking tests and writing papers,kids will be more hesitant about cheating‖(Miners, 2009)(See also ―Destined to cheat,‖ 2008; Rivera, 2008; Loughlin, 2008;Warnock, 2008; Kwoll, 2009; Zetter, 2009; White, 2009; Wood, 2009). 47
    47. 47. Control the assessment situation. Prohibit all handheld devices (calculators, personal organizers, pagers, cell phones, headphones, etc.) since all can store and transmit information from outside the assessment room (Lathrop and Foss, 2000).Cheating in Online Student Assessment: Beyond Plagiarismby NC Rowe – 2004, www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/summer72/rowe72.html 48
    48. 48. Lisa Marie Johnson, Ph.D. Pearson eCollege Colorado Mountain College Colorado Community Colleges Online 49
    49. 49. • Who can I talk with about my skills and concerns?• What are the expectations in this class? That class?• Where is the policy and procedure information?• When do the policies matter?• Why aren‘t they being punished? 50
    50. 50. Materials and Activities Set the Tone 1. Model Expectations 2. No-Stakes Options – e.g., Check My Draft 3. Collaboration 4. Guided Research 5. Formative Assessment 6. Just in Time Reminders – not threats 7. Reasonable Deadlines & Workloads 8. Discuss the Policies and Consequences 9. Explore honesty, ethics, and ―academic integrity‖ 10. Student generated content and activities 51
    51. 51. Deborah Romero, Ph.D. University of Northern Colorado 52
    52. 52. Student Actual Perceptions behaviorsn=195 53
    53. 53. 28% 40% admitted never ignoring seen cheating due to lack of cheating 48% evidence never seen cheating on exam 19% actual incidentsn=116 54
    54. 54. Institutional ContextUniversity Learning Environment Campus Classroom Social Participants College Online Faculty Students classroom 55
    55. 55. Consider how to address academic misconduct• Optimal class size and instructor learner ratio• Support student participation and facilitate positive relationships• Clear academic expectations and a culture of integrity 56
    56. 56. Knowledge about institutional support• Disseminated across range of forums• Understanding about how to prevent dishonesty and promote integrity• Availability of time, resources and mechanisms 57
    57. 57. Responsibility to cultivate climate for teaching andlearning• Pro-actively • Resources and mechanisms, Code of Conduct etc.• Processes and procedures • To support faculty if and when behavior occurs 58
    58. 58. Understanding why students cheat• Individual and social forcesUltimately academic dishonesty or misconduct is a concernfor us all, not just faculty and institutions but societyat large. 59
    59. 59. ChangingResponsive Learning Institution Contexts Culture of Understanding Informed Responsible Faculty Students 60
    60. 60. Callahan, D. (2004). The Cheating Culture. Why more Americans doing wrong to getahead. Orlando, FL: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Follendore III, R. D. (2002). Why Students Cheat. An essay concerning the systemicorigins and implications of academic cheating from a socially contextual view.Retrieved from http://www.noisetoknowledge.com/why_students_cheat.htmGlassner, Barry. (2000) The Culture of Fear: Why Americans are afraid of the wrongthings. Basic Books.Jenkins, R. (2011). Toward a Rational Response to Plagiarism. The Chronicle of HigherEducation. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/Toward-a-Rational-Response-to/128611/Kozol, Jonathan (1991) Savage Inequalities. New York: Crown.Reagle, J. M. (2010). Good Faith Collaboration: The culture of Wikipedia: MIT Press.Waryold, D. (2003). Report on cheating and plagiarism. Durham, NC: Duke University,Center for Academic Integrity. 61
    61. 61. Brigham Young Universityhttp://saas.byu.edu/catalog/2009-2010ucat/GeneralInfo/HonorCode.phpCharter Oak State Collegehttps://acorn.charteroak.edu/ICS/Students/Academic_Integrity_Policy.jnzColorado Community Colleges Online Policy, Procedures, and Tutorialshttp://links.ccconline.org/integrityMichigan State Universityhttps://www.msu.edu/unit/ombud/dishonestyFAQ.htmlUniversity of Northern Coloradohttp://www.unco.edu/dos/academicIntegrity/index.htmlhttp://www.unco.edu/dos/communityStandards/student_code_conduct/index.html 62
    62. 62. Moderator: Matthew Prineas, Ph.D. Presenters: Shirley Adams, Ph.D. Scott Howell, Ph.D.Aligning Institutional Policies Lisa Marie Johnson, Ph.D.and Faculty Support Deborah Romero, Ph.D.