EN VIVO: ATA DISTANCESYNCHRONOUS DISTANCE LEARNINGANDREW BLACK, PH.D., MBAUNIVERSITY OF UTAHCOLLEGE OF NURSING
RESEARCHA confluence of trends:- The development of new tools to support collaboration- The emergence of constructivist-based approaches to teaching and learning- The need to create more powerful and engaging learning environments (Resta & Laferrière, 2007, p. 65).Additional value:- Verbal and non-verbal communication through video and web conferencing mediums- Live chat and other communication forms providing immediate student-student and student-teacher responsesResta, P., & Laferrière, T. (2007, March). Technology in support of collaborative learning. Educational PsychologyReview, 19(1), 65-83.
STUDENT NEEDS ANDWANTSInteractivityImmediate access toinformationResponsivenessSimple to navigate UIRelationships with otherstudents and teachers
TOOLSWeb conferencingDesktop and applicationsharingMultimedia (YouTube)LMS (and beyond)Videoconferencing…And a mix of all of them
Features:- Presentation/desktop/application sharing space- Live chat area- Live polling- Acknowledgement emoticons (raised hand, smiley face, clapping, etc)- Session recording, chat history can be saved- Two-way audio- Generally one video stream at a time, showing most recent speaker
Additional Features:- Can show some video, such as YouTube- Some systems offer remote individuals to share their desktop- Some offer the remote person ability to take control of the presentationIssues:- Audio issues when two people talk at the same time; feedback- Single video feed- Multimedia and video increase latency significantly
REQUIREMENTS- Most often provided as a link to the external web conferencing system- Link must be intuitive and fast- Tie recorded content directly to the online classroom- Make recorded content available to students for review during the course
SYNCHRONOUSVIDEOCONFERENCINGMuch of the literature presents the use of synchronousvideoconferencing as a positive educational tool, takingadvantage of many of the expressed benefits found within thetraditional classroom, including live interactive communicationwith the instructor and other students, face-to-face contact wherenon-verbal communication can be utilized, and the ability to createrelationships with others (Dal Bello, Knowlton and Chaffin, 2007;O„Rourke, 2007).Dal Bello, A., Knowlton, E., & Chaffin, J. (2007, September). Interactive videoconferencing as a medium forspecial education: Knowledge acquisition in preservice teacher education. Intervention in School &Clinic, 43(1), 38-46.ORourke, J. (2007, March). Small group learning and videoconferencing: Are they compatible?. Education forPrimary Care, 18(2), 192-195.
NEEDSMultiple video feeds at a time: the virtual classroom, showingall students and the teacher liveShow multimedia presentations, including video, desktopsharing, presentations, applications, etc.In essence, must do everything that web conferencingdoes, plus multiple video feeds BENEFITReplicates the live classroom, allowingnon-verbal communication to bevisualized
TEACHINGCHALLENGESManaging the technologyPaying attention to the students in the physical class, as wellas the distance studentsResponding to questions, far, near and through chatReading non-verbal communication; video, audio, chatWorking within the latency limitationsBreaking the class in to manageable groups
TECHNOLOGICALLIMITATIONSComputer operating system platformsWeb browsersInternet connection speedsShowing multimedia within presentationsAudio and/or video problems during classLatencyDisruptionsWebcam issues
CONNECTIONSSkype Group calls are limited by Internet bandwidth- More live video feeds=slower or degraded performanceBridging services may be available, resolving bandwidthdemands, but can be very expensiveNot just limited to classroom-classroom connections withIVC equipment, but anytime-anywhere connection from anyplatform is demanded (home, office, hotel, worldwide)
WHEN IT FAILSHave a backup planWhen the Internet and videofail, use the phoneRecord all sessions andprovide for later playbackManage the content andmake it easily accessibleProvide video streaming asan option (live or playback)
FUTURE“Although frustrations with technology will continue to be aproblem for the foreseeable future, research indicates thatsocial, more than technical factors, are the main determinants ofsuccess or failure in a computer-mediated course” (Miller &King, 2003, p. 287).Miller, T., & King, F. (2003, July). Distance education: Pedagogy and best practices in the new millennium.International Journal of Leadership in Education, 6(3), 283-297.
RECENT LITERATUREIn a fully online environment, students often indicate feelingsof isolationRecent literature indicates that students desire some degreeof face-to-face or live interaction with their teachers andfellow students“…there was a statistical significance between the attitudesand perceptions of synchronous and asynchronous PhDnursing students” (Black, 2010, p. 140)
CONCLUSIONIntent for this presentation- Distance education in not limited to asynchronous online- Video is rapidly increasing in demand- Live interactive connectivity is increasing in demand- Multimedia demands are increasing Synchronous distance education is a major part of our future!