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The Reformation

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  1. 1. 99 The Reformation: Division and Reform in the Church
  2. 2. Overview Grievances against the Church Martin Luther, 1517  Equality of all Christians  Rejects Church’s belief that Christians could help themselves and others get into heaven  Spread of his message
  3. 3. Background of the Reformation Decay of the Church  Height of the Church’s power in the thirteenth century under Pope Innocent III  By 1500, the Church’s power at its low point  Failure of Boniface VIII Avignon papacy, 1303-13777  England regarded the papacy at Avignon an ally of France  Papacy moved back to Rome in 1377 The Great Schism, 1378-1417  Council at Constance, 1414 Decline of the clergy and monasteries: self-indulgence and corruption Reform becomes urgent
  4. 4. The Awakening Reform Spirit Revival of mysticism and pietism in northern Europe Brethren of the Common Life John Wiclif  Questions the need for a priesthood  Challenged the established role and powers of the clergy  Urged laymen to read the Bible themselves  Condemned and forced to retire  Followers in England known as Lollards Jan Hus  Bohemia  Inspired by Wiclif  Wants to reform the clergy  Summoned to the Council of Constance, 1414, to stand trial for heresy
  5. 5. Catholicism and Protestantism in 1560
  6. 6. The Influence of Political and Social Forces Growth of nationalism Desire of princes and kings to gain control over the Church in their own territories and build their own state churches  By 1520 this had been accomplished in Spain and France by securing the right to appoint the bishops in their kingdoms  In Germany and England, princes and kings enlarged their powers if a religious break with Rome: heresies were successful  Higher social classes began to sense a benefit from a break with Rome  The Church in Germany was wealthy and owned much land
  7. 7. The Revolt of Luther: “Justification by Faith” Luther’s Spiritual Search: His Doctrine of Salvation  From peasant class  Brethren of the Common Life  Augustinian  Wittenberg  Faith alone to assure salvation The Provocation: The Sale of Indulgences  Johann Tetzel, a Dominican Friar in Germany was selling papal indulgences  Luther’s “Ninety-five Theses” on the door at Wittenberg Castle church
  8. 8. The Widening Split with Rome Pope Leo X directed a reply to Luther’s theses In a series of exchanges, Luther began to question the basic authority of the papacy and the whole Catholic system Luther questioned the number and meaning of the holy sacraments  Only two sacraments: baptism and the Eucharist  No transubstantiation but a “real presence” of Christ at the Eucharist Pope Leo ordered Luther excommunicated in 1520 Diet of Worms, 1521  Luther refuses to recant  Emperor orders Luther put under ban Elector Frederick of Saxony gives Luther protection at Wartburg Castle
  9. 9. Building the Lutheran Church Emergence of numerous sects  Anabaptists – baptism only meaningful after someone is only enough to comprehend its ideas  Some refused military service  Some sought an egalitarian community Luther is conservative  Obedience to the state  Opposed rebellion against political authorities  Peasants Revolt, 1524  Anti-Semitism  Blasphemers
  10. 10. Augsburg Confession, 1530 Philipp Melanchthon – statement on Luther’s doctrinal views Germany split between Catholic states and Lutheran states Religious Peace of Augsburg, 1555  Prince decides religion for his state – Lutheranism or Catholicism Kings of Scandinavia recognized the advantages of a state church and established Lutheran faith as the official religion Abolishment of monastic orders Permission of clergy to marry Worship service similar to Catholic service
  11. 11. Calvin and the Elect: “Predestination” Calvin: The International Reformer  A Frenchman, studied law  Conversion to idea of religious reform  Institutes of the Christian Religion  John Calvin fled from France to Switzerland and settled in Geneva in 1536  Emerged the leader in religious and political turmoil in the city The Doctrine of God’s Omnipotence  Like Luther, Calvin saw the Bible as the sole source of authority and rejected a priesthood based on apostolic succession  Agreed with Luther that salvation was determined by God’s grace alone  Luther was obsessed with his soul’s salvation and Calvin was obsessed with a sense of God’s omnipotence and human depravity  Predestination  No one deserves salvation but granted through God’s mercy  God’s will is right  Luther accepts predestination but does not stress it  Calvin’s teachings condemned by the Church  The elect  No one knows who is elect and who is reprobate  All should act as if they enjoy God’s favor.
  12. 12. Calvinist Ethics: The Puritan Discipline Although a person’s behavior is not the means of his salvation, it must be subject to close scrutiny All distractions of the flesh must be removed  Puritanical life Praised capitalist virtues of hard work, thrift, and the accumulation of money  Attractive idea to businessmen and colonial pioneers Keep the conscience on guard  “Brother’s keeper” Consistory of Geneva  Responsible for public morals and discipline Michael Servetus  Challenged Christian doctrine of the Trinity  Executed in 1555
  13. 13. Relations of Church and State  Calvin opposed union of spiritual and civil authority but the church was above the state  Purpose of government is to regulate society according to the will of God and the Church was the interpreter of that will  Geneva a theocracy Calvinist Ministry and Ritual  Ministers given no special powers to set them apart from baptized laymen  Presbyterian form of church government  Ritual based on Scripture  Music, art, and ornamentation has no place in the Church
  14. 14. Henry VIII & the Church of England Henry’s Desire for Independence  Henry VII laid foundation of royal absolutism  Henry VIII accepted Roman Catholic doctrine but resented Roman interference in the affairs of his kingdom Henry married Catherine of Aragon to preserve the alliance between England and Spain  Catherine had six children, all but Mary being stillborn or died in infancy  Fears of a weak female ruler Anne Boleyn  Henry decided in 1527 to marry Anne and directed his chancellor to have the marriage with Catherine annulled  Pope Clement VII refused annulment of marriage to Catherine  The annulment was opposed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Catherine’s nephew  In 1533, Henry married Anne after newly appointed archbishop, Thomas Cramner, declared the marriage to Catherine annulled  Pope Clement excommunicated Henry and released his subjects from obedience to the crown.
  15. 15. Break with Rome: The Act of Supremacy The Act of Supremacy passed Parliament in 1534  Declared that the king was the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England Sir Thomas More  Refuses to take oath of supremacy – beheaded Henry did not wish to reform the doctrine of the Church  Six Articles Monasticism was suppressed and most of the property turned over to the crown Creates new ranks of landed noblemen who will be loyal to Henry’s break with Rome Anne Boleyn was executed for adultery but bore him a daughter, Elizabeth Jane Seymour delivered Henry a son in 1537, the future Edward VI Edward inherited the throne in 1547 but was sickly and the crown went to Henry’s eldest daughter, Mary
  16. 16. The Struggle over Doctrine: Protestant Advance and Catholic Reaction Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cramner sought to bring reform to the church Mary succeeded Edward in 1553  She was a devout Catholic determined to restore the nation to Rome  Mary wed Philip, heir to the Spanish throne
  17. 17. The Elizabethan Compromise Elizabeth was the daughter of Anne Boleyn and inherited the throne in 1558 Raised a Protestant Act of Supremacy, 1559 The Thirty-nine Articles Act of Uniformity Spanish Armada, 1588  Pope excommunicated Elizabeth in 1570, declared her deposed, and opened the door for Philip’s attempted invasion  Spanish Armada routed by British in the English Channel
  18. 18. The Roman Catholic Response: Reform and Reaffirmation Changes inspired by the same ideas and ideals that had motivated the religious rebels Loyola and the Society of Jesus  Cardinal Ximenes  Theatines  Capuchines Ignatius Loyola  Spanish nobleman and soldier  Personal sense of sin and unworthiness Order: Society of Jesus created in 1540  Education  At the service of the pope  Strict military lines with a chain of command  Founded schools and colleges to inculcate young minds with the true doctrine  Vow of chastity, poverty, and obedience as well as absolute acceptance of orthodox doctrines and authority of the pope  Spiritual exercises and rules of conduct
  19. 19. The Reforming Popes Pope Paul III the first of the reformation popes Disturbed by report by a committee of cardinals on the abuses among the clergy Council of Trent  Met 1545-1563  Reform and reinvigoration  Bishops to regain strict discipline over the clergy  Better education for priests  No compromise with Luther or Calvin  Reaffirmed traditional doctrines Repression and Censorship  Inquisition  Revived in Spain, Italy, and the Low Countries  Secret trials, torture, and burnings to gain conformity through terror  No special tribunals in some Catholic countries but use of intimidation and punishment  Censorship of books  Index of prohibited books
  20. 20. Art During the Reformation The Impact of Protestant: Holbein, Brueghel  In Calvinist areas, art banned from churches and private homes  Hans Holbein  German painter Italian and northern styles  Pieter Brueghel  Common people The Development of the Baroque: Rubens, Rembrandt  Art had provided religious instruction during the Middle Ages; would now be renewed its in defense of Catholic teaching  Baroque  Threw off the restraints of classical rules  Peter Paul Rubens  Produced portraits, altar paintings, huge murals  Workshop  Paintings have movement and vigor  Rembrandt van Rijn  Subjects from the middle or lower classes  Psychological interest
  21. 21. Baroque Sculpture and Architecture: Bernini Source of the baroque style was Rome Baroque artists fuse architecture, sculpture, and painting into single structure of grandeur and truth Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini  Blended sculpture with architecture  St. Peter’s Baroque architecture an adaptation of Renaissance models  Escorial  Versailles
  22. 22. Religion, Politics, and War Several “religions” in Europe Nonreligious struggles for power, land, and trading opportunities as well as dynastic and national glory Wars of religion in three stages  Wars in the Holy Roman Empire  Civil and international wars involving the Netherlands and France  Catholic efforts to recover lost territory
  23. 23. The Calvinist Wars: The Netherlands and France Netherlands  Center of trade and industry  Spanish Habsburgs gains control of the Netherlands  Rebellion of Netherlands in 1566 under William “the Silent,” prince of Orange-Nassau  1581 declared independence  Catholic Netherlands in the south remained under the Habsburgs France  Weak rulers after 1547 results in nobles limiting power of monarchy  Huguenots – French Calvinists  Series of civil wars  Politiques – religious compromise for the sake of political unity  Victory of Henry IV (a Huguenot) defeat Catholic forces and then converts to Catholicism
  24. 24. The Counter-Reformation Wars: The Holy Roman Empire and the Thirty Years’ War Peace of Augsburg, 1555 Revolt breaks out in Bohemia  Bohemian nobles select a Calvinist prince to be their king  Catholic league of princes move in to support Ferdinand of Styria (Catholic) to claim Bohemian throne, crush the rebellion  Holy Roman Emperor in 1619 contributed his army to the princes and his army moves into the Rhineland in Germany  King of Denmark intervenes in Germany to protect Lutheranism  Help from English, Dutch, and Sweden
  25. 25. The Peace of Westphalia and the End of Wars of Religion Wars from 1618 to 1648 Germany destroyed, population cut by a third Peace of Westphalia  Peace of Augsburg restored and extended to include Calvinism as well as Lutheranism and Catholicism  Each prince retained the right to prescribe one of these faiths for his subjects Religious conflict still existed  Louis XIV turned to persecution of the Huguenots in 1685 Religion, generally, excluded from European conflicts Emergence and practice of international law  Hugo Grotius, Law of War and Peace, 1625  Just and unjust conflicts  “Humane” methods for waging war
  26. 26. Europe After Westphalia (1648)
  27. 27. Discussion Questions What were the background causes of the Reformation? Who were the early leaders and what were their complaints? Why did the Catholic Church act in the manner that they did? Why did Martin Luther succeed in initiating a widespread challenge to the Church whereas that of Wiclif and Hus did not grow beyond the local area? What were the main criticisms of Martin Luther? What were his radical ideas? Why did Luther seek to create a religious revolution but not a social revolution? How did John Calvin mark a change from the ideas of Luther? What were the consequences of his new ideas? Why did England become involved in the Reformation? What changes were made religiously? How does this affect England? What kind of compromises are made? How did the Catholic Church respond to the challenges of the Reformation? Why did wars of religion erupt? What were the consequences of those wars?