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Transformation and Expansion of Europe

Transformation and Expansion of Europe

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    07 07 Presentation Transcript

    • 7 The Transformation and Expansion of Europe  
    • Overview
      • Late Middle Ages, series of disasters
        • Consequences of population increase
        • Expansion of Islam
      • Capitalism, money and credit
      • Inventions
      • Government
        • Taxes
        • Armies
      • Struggle between subjects and rulers
        • Representative assemblies
      • Contact with the Far East and renewed Muslim threat
      • Change in Western Europe
    • Crisis and Problems of the Late Middle Ages
      • The Calamitous Fourteenth Century
        • Weather
        • Population increase
        • Peasant uprising in northern France, 1320
          • Seek a Christian commonwealth
          • Put down by bands of knights
        • Jacquerie, 1358
        • Hundred Years’ War
        • Bubonic Plague or Black Death
          • Began in western China about 1340
          • Rats
          • Drastic economic, social, and psychological effects
    • Eastern Europe in the Late Middle Ages
      • Byzantium and Orthodoxy
        • Chaos in the Balkans
          • Schism
          • Spiritual and cultural hold of Byzantium over Orthodox people
          • National orthodox churches
          • Catholic Church regarded as an enemy
      • Eastern European States and Societies
        • Europe divided into two
          • West: stronger with more highly developed countries
          • East: weaker and less highly developed countries
        • Colonization and immigration
          • German colonists into Poland and Hungary
          • Jews fleeing eastward
        • Conflict
          • Teutonic Knights
        • Serfdom
      • Mongols, Tartars, and Russia
        • Asiatic attack
          • Ghenghis Khan, Mongols
          • Batu Khan
          • Kiev and Russia
    • The Mongol Empire
    • The Turks in Europe
      • Arrive in Europe in 1352
      • Conquest of the Bulgarians and Serbs
      • Fall of Constantinople, 1453
      • Brought unity and peace to the Balkans
      • Religious freedom
        • Non-Muslims had second-class status
        • Conversions
      • Greek upper class
        • Greek patriarchs and bishops held religious and worldly power throughout the Balkans
    • The New Economy
      • The Birth of Modern Capitalism
        • Italian merchants lead the revival of trade in the eleventh century
        • Reinvestment of surplus
        • Expansion of trading activities
        • Hanseatic League
        • Antwerp and Bruges
      • Innovations in Business Organization
        • After 1200: throw off the shackles of the guilds
        • Partnership
          • Woolens Industry
            • “ Putting-out,” or “domestic” system
    • The Rise of Banking and Bankers
      • Economy geared to trade
      • Use of coins
      • Bill of Exchange
      • Banking
        • Successful merchants
          • Money lending
            • Usury
            • Jews
        • Christian banking
            • Italian merchants, Florence
            • Jacques Coeur
            • Jacob Fugger
    • The Impact on Social Structure and Values
      • The End of Serfdom in Western Europe
        • Disrupted relationship between the nobles and peasants
          • Nobles rent out their demesnes to free tenants
          • Services converted into money payment
        • Emancipation of the serfs
          • Serfdom disappeared in England by 1500
      • The Challenge to Medieval Values
        • Dislocations in society led to dislocations in ethics
          • Pride, envy, and greed now regarded as the main- springs of economic life
          • The Church succumbed to materialism
          • Emergence of the bourgeois, or middle class
    • The New Technology
      • Exposure to the technology of the Arabs and the Far East
      • Navigation
        • Charts
      • Navigation and Ship Design
        • Magnetic compass – China
        • Astrolabe – Arabs
        • Carrack – three masted ship
      • Firearms
        • Gunpowder – China
          • “ Fire-pots” or “tubes” (canones)
          • Bronze cast cannons
      • Paper and woodcut printing
        • Black printing did not catch on until Johann Guttenberg developed it about 1450
        • Reduced the cost of printing allowing for the publishing cheaply of books
        • Mechanical clock
    • The New Politics
      • Government
          • Use of money
          • Levy tariffs on trade
      • New Developments in warfare
        • Past use of knights
        • New weapons equalized foot soldiers and horsemen
          • Longbow
          • Pike
          • Cannon
          • Combined forces of infantry, cavalry, and artillery
      • Nobles still the leaders in society and government
    • Absolutism in Practice: Italy
      • City-States and the Rise of Despotism
        • Italian city-state
        • Struggle between the pope and Holy Roman emperors
        • Localism
        • Struggle between rival states in north Italy
        • Three leading states – Venice, Milan, Florence
        • By the end of the thirteenth century most of the cities had won self-rule from the feudal nobility and emerged as sovereign republics
        • Emergence of political strongmen, supported bankers and capitalists
        • Despots
        • Condottieri
        • Francesco Sforza, ruler of Milan in 1540
        • Florence in the hands of the Medici beginning in 1434
        • Venice
      • Despotism in Central and Southern Italy
        • Papal States
        • Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
    • Fifteenth-Century Italy
    • The Theory of Absolutism: Machiavelli
      • Need for unified absolute government
      • Despotic rule put down internal dissension in Milan and Florence
      • The Secularization of the State
        • Thomas Aquinas
          • Temporal power is invested by God in the people as a whole who delegate it to suitable persons
          • State receives its authority from God (through the people) and must exercise the power for Christian purposes and in a Christian manner
        • Machiavelli
          • Modern view of politics and the state
          • Blamed papacy for keeping Italy divided
          • Removed politics from Christian theology and placed it in the secular world
      • The Pursuit of State Power
        • The Prince seeks to achieve and maintain a strong state.
        • Machiavelli regarded Italians as corrupt beyond correction
        • Use of the military to keep strength
        • “ Lion and the fox”
        • Princes should never reveal true motives and methods
      • Building the National Monarchies:
        • Unification of Spain
          • Spain unified through the marriage of Queen Isabella of Castile and King Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469
          • Broke the independence of feudal lords
    • France: The Monarchy & the Nation
      • Hundred Years’ War, 1338-1453
        • Edward III of England laid claim to the throne of France
      • England triumphed by 1420 and most of France north of the Loire River was given to Henry V, now the English King
      • Joan of Arc, 1429
      • Charles VII
        • Estates-General of France summoned in 1439
        • Taille
        • Eliminated feudal officeholders and replaced them with royal administrators recruited from the nobility
        • Estates-General never developed into a constitutional body due to class and sectional rivalries
      • Louis XI
        • Duchy of Burgundy gained in 1477
      • Independence of the French Clergy
        • Self-governing “Gallican” Church
        • Declaration of administrative independence in 1438
        • King has the right to appoint French bishops and abbots
    • England: The King and Parliament
      • Magna Carta, 1215
      • Edward I held “Model Parliament” 1295
        • Evolution into two chambers
        • Approved new revenues
        • Determines the line of succession
      • Defeat by France in Hundred Years’ War
        • War of the Roses
        • Henry VII
    • The Eclipse of the Universal Empire: Germany and the Habsburgs
      • Germany was a patchwork of hundreds of fiefs
      • “ Electors,” seven in number
      • Hapsburgs
        • Emperor Charles V
          • A large empire of political and military problems
          • Divided his lands into west & east when he abdicated in 1556
    • Europe in 1526
    • The New Geography
      • Capitalism and materialism provided incentives for exploration and empire building
      • Response to Islam
      • The Impulse to Overseas Expansion
          • Crusades had carried Europeans to the Middle East and excited curiosity
        • Wider Horizons
          • Mongols
          • Marco Polo
          • Mali, Africa
        • Venice’s Monopoly and the Muslim Threat
          • Impact of the Black Death
          • Venice – eastern Mediterranean
          • Genoa – western Mediterranean
    • New Routes to the East
      • Desire for the luxuries of the Orient
      • Eliminate the middleman profits of Venice
        • Paid for with the gold of West Africa
      • Two routes to the Indian Ocean
        • West to China
        • South down the coast of Africa
        • Hope to find riches to strengthen the economic base, power, and glory
        • Seeking an ally against Islam
    • The Voyages of European Discovery
      • Portugal and the African Route
        • Occupy the Madeira Islands and Azores
        • Vasco da Gama, 1498, down the coast of Africa
      • Spain and the Atlantic Route
        • Christopher Columbus
          • Proposal to sail west rejected by many nations
          • Support of Queen Isabella of Spain in 1492
          • Bahamas Islands
          • Three more voyages
      • The “New World” and the Pacific Ocean
        • Amerigo Vespussi
        • Demarcation Line of the Treaty of Tordesillas
        • Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
        • Ferdinand Magellan
        • Giovanni da Verrazano
    • European Explorers and Empires, 1492-1534
    • The Colonial Empires
      • The Portuguese in the Far East
        • Vasco da Gama to Calicut, India, 1498
        • Portuguese had naval bases and trading stations from western Africa to the Far East by 1530 – Portugal now dominated trade between Europe and the East
      • The New World Empires
        • Hernando Cortéz in Mexico, 1519-1521, against the Aztecs
        • Francisco Pizarro
          • Peru controlled by Spain,1534
      • The Newcomers: England, France, and Holland
        • Eager for profits overseas
        • Three states dominated commercial trade by 17th century
        • Wars of the 18th century were worldwide, being fought overseas as well as in Europe
    • Overseas Consequences of Europe’s Expansion
      • Clash of the Old World and the New World
      • Exploitation
      • Christianization
      • Spain brought “Rome” to the New World
        • Organized new cities, towns, churches and missions, plantations, and industries
        • Native people as “wards”
      • Destroyed native civilization
      • Portugal begins developing Brazil after 1600
      • Asia: The Limits of European Power
        • Impact of the West on Asia was at first hardly noticeable
        • Unable to conquer and Christianize any Asian
        • territories other than their tiny commercial footholds and the Spanish Philippines
        • Missionaries
      • Africa and the Slave Trade
        • Civilization and cultures in black Africa south of the Sahara could not be destroyed by the Europeans
          • First attracted by gold and then by slaves
          • African population movement between 1523 and 1880s
          • Impact of the slave trade on America and Africa
            • For Africa, loss of human resources
            • Profits for western countries through the slave trade
    • Consequences for Europe
      • Economic, nourishing the roots of capitalism
      • Shift in the geographical distribution of prosperity and power
      • Britain, France, and Holland became the main trading gateways between Europe and the rest of the world
        • Joint-stock companies
      • Triumph of capitalism assured by the acceleration of trade and production making it a worldwide system
      • New foods
      • Christianity grows into an intercontinental religion
      • Materialism
      • Western civilization became a worldwide civilization
    • Worldwide Trade and Empire about 1770
    • Discussion Questions:
      • What were the important events of the fourteenth century and how did these affect the civilization of Europe?
      • What were the changes in the economy and how did this affect both the rich and the poor?
      • What new technology appeared and what were its consequences?
      • What adjustments were made in politics? Compare and contrast the political changes in the nations of Europe.
      • Why did Europe become involved in overseas expansion? What were the consequences of this both for Europe, the lands conquered, and Africa?