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Transformation and Expansion of Europe

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  1. 1. 77 The Transformation and Expansion of Europe  
  2. 2. Overview Late Middle Ages, series of disasters  Consequences of population increase  Expansion of Islam Capitalism, money and credit Inventions Government  Taxes  Armies Struggle between subjects and rulers  Representative assemblies Contact with the Far East and renewed Muslim threat Change in Western Europe
  3. 3. Crisis and Problems of the Late Middle Ages The Calamitous Fourteenth Century  Weather  Population increase  Peasant uprising in northern France, 1320  Seek a Christian commonwealth  Put down by bands of knights  Jacquerie, 1358  Hundred Years’ War  Bubonic Plague or Black Death  Began in western China about 1340  Rats  Drastic economic, social, and psychological effects
  4. 4. Eastern Europe in the Late Middle Ages Byzantium and Orthodoxy  Chaos in the Balkans  Schism  Spiritual and cultural hold of Byzantium over Orthodox people  National orthodox churches  Catholic Church regarded as an enemy Eastern European States and Societies  Europe divided into two  West: stronger with more highly developed countries  East: weaker and less highly developed countries  Colonization and immigration  German colonists into Poland and Hungary  Jews fleeing eastward  Conflict  Teutonic Knights  Serfdom Mongols, Tartars, and Russia  Asiatic attack  Ghenghis Khan, Mongols  Batu Khan  Kiev and Russia
  5. 5. The Mongol Empire
  6. 6. The Turks in Europe Arrive in Europe in 1352 Conquest of the Bulgarians and Serbs Fall of Constantinople, 1453 Brought unity and peace to the Balkans Religious freedom  Non-Muslims had second-class status  Conversions Greek upper class  Greek patriarchs and bishops held religious and worldly power throughout the Balkans
  7. 7. The New Economy The Birth of Modern Capitalism  Italian merchants lead the revival of trade in the eleventh century  Reinvestment of surplus  Expansion of trading activities  Hanseatic League  Antwerp and Bruges Innovations in Business Organization  After 1200: throw off the shackles of the guilds  Partnership  Woolens Industry  “Putting-out,” or “domestic” system
  8. 8. The Rise of Banking and Bankers Economy geared to trade Use of coins Bill of Exchange Banking  Successful merchants  Money lending  Usury  Jews  Christian banking  Italian merchants, Florence  Jacques Coeur  Jacob Fugger
  9. 9. The Impact on Social Structure and Values The End of Serfdom in Western Europe  Disrupted relationship between the nobles and peasants  Nobles rent out their demesnes to free tenants  Services converted into money payment  Emancipation of the serfs  Serfdom disappeared in England by 1500 The Challenge to Medieval Values  Dislocations in society led to dislocations in ethics  Pride, envy, and greed now regarded as the main- springs of economic life  The Church succumbed to materialism  Emergence of the bourgeois, or middle class
  10. 10. The New Technology Exposure to the technology of the Arabs and the Far East Navigation  Charts Navigation and Ship Design  Magnetic compass – China  Astrolabe – Arabs  Carrack – three masted ship Firearms  Gunpowder – China  “Fire-pots” or “tubes” (canones)  Bronze cast cannons Paper and woodcut printing  Black printing did not catch on until Johann Guttenberg developed it about 1450  Reduced the cost of printing allowing for the publishing cheaply of books  Mechanical clock
  11. 11. The New Politics Government  Use of money  Levy tariffs on trade New Developments in warfare  Past use of knights  New weapons equalized foot soldiers and horsemen  Longbow  Pike  Cannon  Combined forces of infantry, cavalry, and artillery Nobles still the leaders in society and government
  12. 12. Absolutism in Practice: Italy City-States and the Rise of Despotism  Italian city-state  Struggle between the pope and Holy Roman emperors  Localism  Struggle between rival states in north Italy  Three leading states – Venice, Milan, Florence  By the end of the thirteenth century most of the cities had won self-rule from the feudal nobility and emerged as sovereign republics  Emergence of political strongmen, supported bankers and capitalists  Despots  Condottieri  Francesco Sforza, ruler of Milan in 1540  Florence in the hands of the Medici beginning in 1434  Venice Despotism in Central and Southern Italy  Papal States  Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
  13. 13. Fifteenth-Century Italy
  14. 14. The Theory of Absolutism: Machiavelli Need for unified absolute government Despotic rule put down internal dissension in Milan and Florence The Secularization of the State  Thomas Aquinas  Temporal power is invested by God in the people as a whole who delegate it to suitable persons  State receives its authority from God (through the people) and must exercise the power for Christian purposes and in a Christian manner  Machiavelli  Modern view of politics and the state  Blamed papacy for keeping Italy divided  Removed politics from Christian theology and placed it in the secular world
  15. 15. The Pursuit of State Power  The Prince seeks to achieve and maintain a strong state.  Machiavelli regarded Italians as corrupt beyond correction  Use of the military to keep strength  “Lion and the fox”  Princes should never reveal true motives and methods Building the National Monarchies:  Unification of Spain  Spain unified through the marriage of Queen Isabella of Castile and King Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469  Broke the independence of feudal lords
  16. 16. France: The Monarchy & the Nation Hundred Years’ War, 1338-1453  Edward III of England laid claim to the throne of France England triumphed by 1420 and most of France north of the Loire River was given to Henry V, now the English King Joan of Arc, 1429 Charles VII  Estates-General of France summoned in 1439  Taille  Eliminated feudal officeholders and replaced them with royal administrators recruited from the nobility  Estates-General never developed into a constitutional body due to class and sectional rivalries Louis XI  Duchy of Burgundy gained in 1477 Independence of the French Clergy  Self-governing “Gallican” Church  Declaration of administrative independence in 1438  King has the right to appoint French bishops and abbots
  17. 17. England: The King and Parliament Magna Carta, 1215 Edward I held “Model Parliament” 1295  Evolution into two chambers  Approved new revenues  Determines the line of succession Defeat by France in Hundred Years’ War  War of the Roses  Henry VII
  18. 18. The Eclipse of the Universal Empire: Germany and the Habsburgs Germany was a patchwork of hundreds of fiefs “Electors,” seven in number Hapsburgs  Emperor Charles V A large empire of political and military problems Divided his lands into west & east when he abdicated in 1556
  19. 19. Europe in 1526
  20. 20. The New Geography Capitalism and materialism provided incentives for exploration and empire building Response to Islam The Impulse to Overseas Expansion  Crusades had carried Europeans to the Middle East and excited curiosity  Wider Horizons  Mongols  Marco Polo  Mali, Africa  Venice’s Monopoly and the Muslim Threat  Impact of the Black Death  Venice – eastern Mediterranean  Genoa – western Mediterranean
  21. 21. New Routes to the East Desire for the luxuries of the Orient Eliminate the middleman profits of Venice  Paid for with the gold of West Africa Two routes to the Indian Ocean  West to China  South down the coast of Africa  Hope to find riches to strengthen the economic base, power, and glory  Seeking an ally against Islam
  22. 22. The Voyages of European Discovery Portugal and the African Route  Occupy the Madeira Islands and Azores  Vasco da Gama, 1498, down the coast of Africa Spain and the Atlantic Route  Christopher Columbus  Proposal to sail west rejected by many nations  Support of Queen Isabella of Spain in 1492  Bahamas Islands  Three more voyages The “New World” and the Pacific Ocean  Amerigo Vespussi  Demarcation Line of the Treaty of Tordesillas  Vasco Nuñez de Balboa  Ferdinand Magellan  Giovanni da Verrazano
  23. 23. European Explorers and Empires, 1492-1534
  24. 24. The Colonial Empires The Portuguese in the Far East  Vasco da Gama to Calicut, India, 1498  Portuguese had naval bases and trading stations from western Africa to the Far East by 1530 – Portugal now dominated trade between Europe and the East The New World Empires  Hernando Cortéz in Mexico, 1519-1521, against the Aztecs  Francisco Pizarro  Peru controlled by Spain,1534 The Newcomers: England, France, and Holland  Eager for profits overseas  Three states dominated commercial trade by 17th century  Wars of the 18th century were worldwide, being fought overseas as well as in Europe
  25. 25. Overseas Consequences of Europe’s Expansion Clash of the Old World and the New World Exploitation Christianization Spain brought “Rome” to the New World  Organized new cities, towns, churches and missions, plantations, and industries  Native people as “wards” Destroyed native civilization Portugal begins developing Brazil after 1600
  26. 26. Asia: The Limits of European Power  Impact of the West on Asia was at first hardly noticeable  Unable to conquer and Christianize any Asian territories other than their tiny commercial footholds and the Spanish Philippines  Missionaries Africa and the Slave Trade  Civilization and cultures in black Africa south of the Sahara could not be destroyed by the Europeans First attracted by gold and then by slaves African population movement between 1523 and 1880s Impact of the slave trade on America and Africa  For Africa, loss of human resources  Profits for western countries through the slave trade
  27. 27. Consequences for Europe Economic, nourishing the roots of capitalism Shift in the geographical distribution of prosperity and power Britain, France, and Holland became the main trading gateways between Europe and the rest of the world  Joint-stock companies Triumph of capitalism assured by the acceleration of trade and production making it a worldwide system New foods Christianity grows into an intercontinental religion Materialism Western civilization became a worldwide civilization
  28. 28. Worldwide Trade and Empire about 1770
  29. 29. Discussion Questions: What were the important events of the fourteenth century and how did these affect the civilization of Europe? What were the changes in the economy and how did this affect both the rich and the poor? What new technology appeared and what were its consequences? What adjustments were made in politics? Compare and contrast the political changes in the nations of Europe. Why did Europe become involved in overseas expansion? What were the consequences of this both for Europe, the lands conquered, and Africa?