55
The Creation of Europe: Political and Social
Foundations
 
OVERVIEW
Invasions by Germanic and Slavic
barbarians and nomads from Asia
Invasions of Muslims in North Africa and
souther...
The Germanic Kingdoms of the
West
The Germanic Barbarians
 Political and military institutions
Assembly – council and co...
The Kingdom of Franks
Anglo-Saxons
Christianity
England and Ireland
 England
Angles and Saxons from northwestern Germany...
Clovis and the Franks
Loose confederacy along the lower Rhine River
Clovis
 Campaigns east in 486
 Government
 Shared t...
Western Christendom, Byzantium, and Islam about 750
Byzantium and Its Neighbors
Danube to the Euphrates Rivers
Centralized control
Economic strengths provided support for
adm...
Byzantium and Its Invaders, 565- c. 750
The Survival of Byzantium
Reconquest and New Invasions
 Justinian
Came to the throne in 527
Corpus Juris Civilis
Contr...
The Slavs
Indo-European, living east of the Germans
Sixth and seventh centuries under the leadership
of Avars, the Slavs c...
Persian and Muslim Invasions
Persian invasion in late sixth century, conquering
Syria and Egypt
Persians driven out in 630...
Byzantine Culture and Architecture
Corpus Juris Civilis
Influence of Greek culture through the
Hellenistic period
Educatio...
The Book and Sword of Islam
The Arabs and Muhammad
Muhammad (the Prophet) born about 570 in Mecca
 No formal education
 ...
The Saracen Empire
Muhammad left no son as a successor
 Muhammad’s disciples chose a caliph (successor)
Wars of Abu Bakr ...
Islam and Christianity
Teachings of Islam
 Muhammad never claimed divinity
 Muhammad was the last and greatest of Allah’...
Islamic Social and Ethical Ideas
Koran
Does not demand self-denial beyond powers of
most people
Moderate polygamy – four w...
Obligations of the Faithful
Five Pillars of Faith
 “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet.”
 Daily pray...
Religious and Political Division
Sunnites
 Ummayad Dynasty
 Accept certain traditions (Sunna) outside the Koran
Shiites
...
Islam and Europe
Long distance commerce
Exotic goods, knowledge of geography and
navigation
Arabic numerals
Medicine
Prese...
Islamic Culture
Architecture
 Blend of Persian and Mediterranean style
 Geometric and floral designs
Literature
 Arabia...
The Carolingians
Rebuild the Frankish Kingdom
Spread Christianity and Roman civilization
The Rise of the Carolingian Dynas...
The Alliance of the Franks and the
Papacy
Pepin, son of Charles Martel
 Deposes the monarch with the aid of the Pope, 751...
Charlemagne
Son of Pepin and grandson of Charles Martel
46 year reign
Conquests: Italy, Germany, Spain
 Pushed the bounda...
Charlemagne’s Empire
Government: The Church and the
State
Church only institution accepted by all his
subjects
Charlemagne used the religious s...
Art and Literature: The Carolingian
Renaissance
Aachen, Germany
 Chapel
Modeled on San Vitale in Ravenna and Hagia
Sophi...
The Restoration of the “Roman
Empire”
Christmas Day, 800
Pope Leo III
Defined the relationship between the restored
(Weste...
Europe Takes Shape
The Dissolution of Charlemagne’s Empire
Internal Collapse and Renewed Invasions
 Inner weakness of the...
Treaty of
Verdun,
843
The Norsemen
Vikings out of Scandinavia attack Europe
after 800
Northern Europe attacked
 England, the Danelaw
 Normandy...
Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
 Shift of Power to Leading Nobles
 With the central government far away, people sought
protection
 Peasants bound thems...
Rise of Western Europe
Government did not disintegrate but developed into new forms
Primogeniture
Reform of the Church
Rev...
Europe About 1000
The Rise of Byzantine Eastern
Europe
Pushed into the areas of the Slavs
Conversion of the Slavs
 Wars and migration broug...
Feudalism
Describes governmental institutions as well as social and political
relationships
 Begins in northern France du...
Homage and Knighthood
Homage was a pledge of personal loyalty
Vow of fealty (faithfulness)
Investiture
Feudal contract las...
The Feudalization of the Church
Church lands held as fiefs by archbishops,
bishops and abbots
 Clerical vassals satisfied...
Feudal States
Hereditary family territories and “royal
domain”
The feudal monarch was chosen by God
 Leader in wars of de...
France: The Strengthening of
Monarchy
Power of the king began growing in the
twelfth century
 Duel with English kings
Des...
The Holy Roman Empire: The
Weakening of Monarchy
Emperor Otto I
Enemies were the Slavs and Hungarians
Control of the Churc...
England: The King’s Government
and the Common Law
• Introduction of feudalism by Duke William
of Normandy
 Shires and shi...
The Crisis of English Feudal
Monarchy: Magna Carta
• King John I
• Rebellion of barons
• Magna Carta, 1215
 Consent of ba...
Manorialism
• The Manorial Estate
 Peasants
 Fief – average estate about 1000 acres
supporting two or three hundred peop...
The People of the Manor
• The Lord and His Family
 The word of the lord was law
 Overseers (stewards or baliffs)
 Payme...
The Rise of Trade and Towns
• Growth of Trade
 Rise of population and increased production
 Marketed goods in towns
 Ca...
Trading Routes and Towns, 1300
• The Location and Appearance of Towns
 Trading posts
 Protection of the merchants
 Structure of the town
Towers and s...
Economic Theory and Control: The
Guilds
• Authority over trade and industry was
delegated to special corporations called
g...
Discussion Questions
• What was the role of the Franks in the development of western
Europe? What kind of institutions wer...
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  1. 1. 55 The Creation of Europe: Political and Social Foundations  
  2. 2. OVERVIEW Invasions by Germanic and Slavic barbarians and nomads from Asia Invasions of Muslims in North Africa and southern Europe Western Europe in the Early Middle Ages
  3. 3. The Germanic Kingdoms of the West The Germanic Barbarians  Political and military institutions Assembly – council and court of justice Comitatus, military war band  Tribal confederacies take over the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century Took up Roman ways and often intermarried New European elite Enhancement of the powers of the chieftains Religion Disappearance of the frontier
  4. 4. The Kingdom of Franks Anglo-Saxons Christianity England and Ireland  England Angles and Saxons from northwestern Germany Christian in the seventh century  Ireland Celtics Never conquered by Rome Saint Patrick in fifth century Monasteries
  5. 5. Clovis and the Franks Loose confederacy along the lower Rhine River Clovis  Campaigns east in 486  Government  Shared the conquered land with principal warriors  Conversion to orthodox Christianity  Collapse of Clovis’ kingdom upon his death The Kings, the Nobles, and the Church  The kingdom of Clovis divided among his four sons  Kings not only landlords but rulers and protectors of the peasants as well as warriors  Give positions and royal lands to keep loyalty of nobility  Nobility controls these lands  Kings grow weaker  Mayors of the Palace  Main elements of the feudal state
  6. 6. Western Christendom, Byzantium, and Islam about 750
  7. 7. Byzantium and Its Neighbors Danube to the Euphrates Rivers Centralized control Economic strengths provided support for administration and defense Sixth and seventh century attempts to regain the western Roman Empire Empire of Islam
  8. 8. Byzantium and Its Invaders, 565- c. 750
  9. 9. The Survival of Byzantium Reconquest and New Invasions  Justinian Came to the throne in 527 Corpus Juris Civilis Control of the Greek Church Reconquer the territories in the West Spread too thin Huns, Visigoths, and Avars Lombards
  10. 10. The Slavs Indo-European, living east of the Germans Sixth and seventh centuries under the leadership of Avars, the Slavs crossed the Danube River and brokethe defenses of Byzantium Other Slavs move north and west By 800, the Slavs occupied almost all of eastern and central Europe Slav Chieftains had no desire to destroy civilized states Slavs move south in rebellion against Avars and become influenced by Byzantium
  11. 11. Persian and Muslim Invasions Persian invasion in late sixth century, conquering Syria and Egypt Persians driven out in 630 -- both sides exhausted  Persian and Byzantine Empires easy prey to the Muslim expansion  By 750 all that was left of the Byzantine Empire was Asia Minor Byzantine rulers see themselves as Roman emperors and rulers of the Church Defense of Constantinople  Falls in 1453
  12. 12. Byzantine Culture and Architecture Corpus Juris Civilis Influence of Greek culture through the Hellenistic period Education Decorative arts and architecture  Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom)
  13. 13. The Book and Sword of Islam The Arabs and Muhammad Muhammad (the Prophet) born about 570 in Mecca  No formal education  Merchant Direct revelations from Allah (God)  The Archangel Gabriel told Muhammad to take the revelations to the people Mecca is where the Kaaba is located which housed idols and the Black Stone Fled from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) in 622  Hegira is the flight of Muhammad from Mecca Islam means submission Muslim is one who had submitted Jihad (“striving”) Preservation of the Black Stone when Mecca conquered Muhammad dies in 632
  14. 14. The Saracen Empire Muhammad left no son as a successor  Muhammad’s disciples chose a caliph (successor) Wars of Abu Bakr and Omar  Caliphate is an empire  Conquered Persia, Egypt and Syria  By 720 Spain was taken from the Christianized Visigoths  Raiding across the Pyrenees into France, stopped at Tours in 732  Arab merchants take over from warriors Why were the Arab conquests so successful?  Share in rich booty if victorious  Warrior goes straight to paradise if he falls in battle  Effects of bubonic plagues  Weakness of Byzantium and Persia  Saracen raiders welcomed by Egyptians and Syrians due to heavy Byzantine taxation and persecution of Christian heretics  Tolerance
  15. 15. Islam and Christianity Teachings of Islam  Muhammad never claimed divinity  Muhammad was the last and greatest of Allah’s prophets  Set revelations in the context of Judaism and Christianity  Identified Allah with Yahweh (Jehovah) and Accepted the line of Jewish prophets from Abraham to Jesus  Not a new religion but fulfillment of the old
  16. 16. Islamic Social and Ethical Ideas Koran Does not demand self-denial beyond powers of most people Moderate polygamy – four wives  No limit on concubines Absence of a formal priesthood  Religious scholars – mullahs and ayatollahs No saints to mediate No mysterious rites only a priest can perform
  17. 17. Obligations of the Faithful Five Pillars of Faith  “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet.”  Daily prayer – four times a day  Giving to the poor, alms  Fasting  Pilgrimage to Mecca  In early Islam a sixth duty was to participate in a jihad The Five Pillars are only the minimum requirements Do the will of Allah as revealed in the Koran God has predestined the ultimate fate of humanity Pool of fire and Paradise
  18. 18. Religious and Political Division Sunnites  Ummayad Dynasty  Accept certain traditions (Sunna) outside the Koran Shiites  Abide strictly to the Koran  Only descendents of the Prophet could become caliph  Abbasid Dynasty Saracen empire breaking up after the eighth century The Muslim Legacy to the West  Reached height in 9th and 10th centuries  Replaced Greece as the internationally dominant culture in northeastern Africa and the Middle East
  19. 19. Islam and Europe Long distance commerce Exotic goods, knowledge of geography and navigation Arabic numerals Medicine Preservation of philosophical and scientific writings of the ancient Greeks  Centers of learning in Cairo, Toledo, and Palermo  When Muslim power declined, the rich depositories seized by European scholars
  20. 20. Islamic Culture Architecture  Blend of Persian and Mediterranean style  Geometric and floral designs Literature  Arabian Nights  Omar Khyyam, Rubaiyat
  21. 21. The Carolingians Rebuild the Frankish Kingdom Spread Christianity and Roman civilization The Rise of the Carolingian Dynasty  Charles Martel, 714  Mayor of the palace  Tours, 732  Heavy cavalry  Light cavalry  Expense  Church property seized and distributed as military grants  “Feudal compact” – warriors bound themselves to supply an armed cavalry when called upon
  22. 22. The Alliance of the Franks and the Papacy Pepin, son of Charles Martel  Deposes the monarch with the aid of the Pope, 751 Monarchy has special holiness and authority from God  Popes stress that divine authority to rule is conferred by the Church Pope Stephen II appeals for protection from the Lombards  Lombards defeated, 756  Donation of Pepin, 756  Papal States  Donation of Constantine
  23. 23. Charlemagne Son of Pepin and grandson of Charles Martel 46 year reign Conquests: Italy, Germany, Spain  Pushed the boundaries of Christianity  Lombards in Italy  Saxons  Avars  North March  East March  Spanish March  Song of Roland
  24. 24. Charlemagne’s Empire
  25. 25. Government: The Church and the State Church only institution accepted by all his subjects Charlemagne used the religious structure as part of the royal administration  No uniform legal code  Use of counts in a region called the county  Larger units headed by a duke  Use of royal inspectors  Revenue
  26. 26. Art and Literature: The Carolingian Renaissance Aachen, Germany  Chapel Modeled on San Vitale in Ravenna and Hagia Sophia in Istanbul Art of Constantinople enters the Frankish heartland Palace school, 780  Alcuin- leading monk  Scribes  Course of studies
  27. 27. The Restoration of the “Roman Empire” Christmas Day, 800 Pope Leo III Defined the relationship between the restored (Western) empire and the Church Pope set himself up as a donor and thus secured the superior position  Papacy had the right to withdraw what it had given Charlemagne’s empire incorporates three major elements of medieval civilization  Roman idea of universality and order  Christian religion  Frankish military power
  28. 28. Europe Takes Shape The Dissolution of Charlemagne’s Empire Internal Collapse and Renewed Invasions  Inner weakness of the Frankish Kingdom Louis the Pious succeeded his father in 814  Tradition dictated equal shares to sons  Warfare led by Louis’ son Lothar  Treaty of Verdun, 843 Muslim raiders from North Africa established in Sicily and Sardinia Magyars, or Hungarians, appear on the eastern frontier
  29. 29. Treaty of Verdun, 843
  30. 30. The Norsemen Vikings out of Scandinavia attack Europe after 800 Northern Europe attacked  England, the Danelaw  Normandy  Attack Constantinople in 860
  31. 31. Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
  32. 32.  Shift of Power to Leading Nobles  With the central government far away, people sought protection  Peasants bound themselves and their descendant to labor on the lands of local warriors as serfs  Lesser warriors served the greater ones as their vassals  Great warriors secured possession of land  Grants from Carolingian rivals
  33. 33. Rise of Western Europe Government did not disintegrate but developed into new forms Primogeniture Reform of the Church Revival of Royal Power: France, England, the Holy Roman Empire  Hugh Capet, count of Paris, replaced the last Carolingian monarch in 987  New forms of government developed to defend countries against barbarians  King Alfred in England  Otto I in Germany  Holy Roman Empire of the German nation Barbarian Conquerors and the Spread of Civilization  The Vikings, in Danelaw and Normandy, agreed to become Christian in return for recognition of their conquests by English and French Kings  Christianity and Roman Civilization spread back to Norse homelands by 1000  Duke William of Normandy conquered Anglo-Saxon England in 1066  Sicily Absorption of the eastern European barbarians into European civilization
  34. 34. Europe About 1000
  35. 35. The Rise of Byzantine Eastern Europe Pushed into the areas of the Slavs Conversion of the Slavs  Wars and migration brought Slavs into contact with Byzantines  Sought to bring Christianity of the Greek Church as a means of control The Balkans  Serbs Russia  Relations with Byzantium  Prince Vladimir of Kiev, 988, baptized into the Greek Church End of Barbarian Way of Life  Turmoil comes to an end about 1000 and Europe civilized  Unity from Christianity and Greek and Roman inheritance
  36. 36. Feudalism Describes governmental institutions as well as social and political relationships  Begins in northern France during the tenth century  As warriors, personal ties of mutual trust and loyalty  Rights over lands and peasants  Warrior-landholder obligated to protect lesser ones Feudal Compact  Exchange of property for personal service  Lord, vassal, fief, feudal duties  Fief – piece of land granted by a lord to a vassal  Political responsibilities  Nobility  Military service  Lord’s court, held once a month  Court procedures rested on custom growing out of Germanic practices  Ordeal  Payments to the lord  Relief, hospitality, and ransom
  37. 37. Homage and Knighthood Homage was a pledge of personal loyalty Vow of fealty (faithfulness) Investiture Feudal contract lasted until lord or vassal died  Primogeniture – eldest son Knights Spiritual and religious overtone of the ceremony Heir
  38. 38. The Feudalization of the Church Church lands held as fiefs by archbishops, bishops and abbots  Clerical vassals satisfied military obligations by assigning portions of their properties as fiefs to warrior-nobles
  39. 39. Feudal States Hereditary family territories and “royal domain” The feudal monarch was chosen by God  Leader in wars of defense or conquest  Could build up his power by backing reliable vassals against unreliable vassals  Go directly to vassals for support, bypassing the Barons  Reward trusted followers  Increase territory
  40. 40. France: The Strengthening of Monarchy Power of the king began growing in the twelfth century  Duel with English kings Descendants of Duke William of Normandy rule England independently but also have French territorial possessions King Philip Augustus of France  In 1204 King John I of England declared an unfaithful vassal as the Duke of Normandy King Louis IX
  41. 41. The Holy Roman Empire: The Weakening of Monarchy Emperor Otto I Enemies were the Slavs and Hungarians Control of the Church Emperor Frederick I of Barbarossa  Great lords forced to accept status of vassals • Church reform movement  Popes seek independence from emperors  Disruption of the emperor’s power
  42. 42. England: The King’s Government and the Common Law • Introduction of feudalism by Duke William of Normandy  Shires and shirereeve (sheriff) • King Henry II  Standardized justice  Use of juries
  43. 43. The Crisis of English Feudal Monarchy: Magna Carta • King John I • Rebellion of barons • Magna Carta, 1215  Consent of baron council for raising taxes  Not deprive any freeman of life, liberty, property, or protection of the law • Barons want to make sure the government works to their benefit • The king was under the law
  44. 44. Manorialism • The Manorial Estate  Peasants  Fief – average estate about 1000 acres supporting two or three hundred people • Farming Methods: Wheeled Plows and the Three-Field System  Arable land  Plowshare  Lord’s demesne  “Strip system”  Three field system and use of open fields
  45. 45. The People of the Manor • The Lord and His Family  The word of the lord was law  Overseers (stewards or baliffs)  Payments in kind or crops, half the total produce of the manor went to the lord • Peasants and Serfdom  Serfs bound to the manor  Cultivation of strips of land  Build roads, clear forests, and other work  Freemen  A tenant farmer  Can be evicted by the lord at any time • Manorialism and Increasing Wealth  Three-field system led to increased production  Internal colonization
  46. 46. The Rise of Trade and Towns • Growth of Trade  Rise of population and increased production  Marketed goods in towns  Cash  Free serfs and charge rents to be paid in money • Long Distance Trade  Intercontinental trade – Byzantium and Islam vigorous commercial societies  Wool and textile goods, weapons, horses, timber, fur, slaves • Industry and Technology  Technological progress – “industrial revolution”  Metalworking
  47. 47. Trading Routes and Towns, 1300
  48. 48. • The Location and Appearance of Towns  Trading posts  Protection of the merchants  Structure of the town Towers and spires Guilds  Escape for peasants from the manors • A New Social Element: The Bourgeois  Townspeople who were commoners  Charters  Governing council
  49. 49. Economic Theory and Control: The Guilds • Authority over trade and industry was delegated to special corporations called guilds • Merchant guild  Craft guild Master Journeyman Apprentices  Personal and social functions
  50. 50. Discussion Questions • What was the role of the Franks in the development of western Europe? What kind of institutions were created and how did these have an impact on the people and the land? • Why and how did Byzantium survive when the western Roman Empire collapsed? What advantages did Byzantium have? How will Byzantium affect the civilization process of eastern Europe? • How and why did an Islamic Empire develop? What were its strengths and weaknesses? How did this empire affect Europe? • Define feudalism. How and why did it develop? What were its characteristics and what were its consequences on the development of civilization? How does it affect the higher and lower classes? • How and why did towns develop? What is their significance in the civilizing process?

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