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Rise of Christianity

Rise of Christianity

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    04 04 Presentation Transcript

    • 4 A Conquering New Faith: Christianity
    • Overview
      • Christianity: part of a religious revolution begun centuries before Jesus
      • Replacement of polytheism by monotheism
      • Jesus lived and taught as a Jew
        • Own unique stamp on Jewish teachings
        • Missionary effort
        • Persecution and intern disagreements
        • Official religion of the East/West Roman state by 400
    • Sources of Christianity
      • The Jews in the World of Greece and Rome
      • Christianity began as Jewish sect
        • 5-6 million at the time of Jesus
        • Many Jewish religious groups
        • Jews spread throughout the world
          • Their god would protect his Chosen People
        • Did not seek out converts but Gentiles often followed their way of life
    • Jewish Disputes in a Changing World
      • Rise of a new Jewish kingdom following revolt by the priestly family of the Maccabees against the Syrian king in 166 B.C.
      • After 25 years Judea became an independent state under the Maccabees
      • Rome captured Jerusalem in 63 B.C.
      • Divisions and discontent among Jews
        • Influence of Hellenistic culture
        • Distrust of temple priests
        • Obedience of the Law
        • Pharisees
        • Groups set up separate communities
      • Rome breaks up the Jewish kingdom and made Judaea a province of the empire
        • Rome respected Jewish religion
        • Heavy Roman taxation and governors corrupt
        • Revolt in 70 A.D.
          • Destruction of the Temple
        • Revolt in 135 A.D.
          • Jerusalem turned into a Roman city
      • Rise of Rabbinic Judaism
        • Rabbi (“my teacher”
        • Mishnah (“Repetition”), rabbi’s interpretation of the Law
          • Talmud (“Commentary”)
      • Mystery Religions
        • Ancient vegetation myths
        • Mithraism
      • Greek Philosophical Thought
        • Influence of Plato’s thought on Christianity
          • Eternal soul distinct from the body
          • Doctrine of Ideas
        • Stoicism
    • The Life and Teachings of Jesus
      • The “Nature” of Jesus
        • The Gospels
          • Written by the disciples
        • Christ – the Anointed One
      • The Sermon on the Mount
        • Ethical teachings of Jesus
        • By the disciple Matthew
        • Virtue
        • Blessed are the meek
        • Code of Conduct
        • Failure of the disciples
    • The Early Church and Its Expansion
      • Missionary Beginnings: Pentecost
        • Fifty days after the Resurrection
        • First converts all Jews
        • Relationship of the Gentiles
        • Council of apostles and elders in Jerusalem in 44 A.D.
        • Importance of the destruction of the Temple, 70 A.D.
        • Gentile converts not bound by Jewish Law
        • Easter
        • Changes from Judaism
    • The Apostle Paul
      • Born a Jew
      • Apostle to the Gentiles
      • Fulfillment of historical Judaism
      • Cannot be saved by the law
      • The Gospel superseded the Law, even for Jews
      • Road to Damascus
      • Interpreter of the new faith
      • Gospel transcends all worldly relationships; all individuals are equal in the eyes of God
      • Salvation based on faith
      • How does a person receive faith
    • The Spread of Christianity
      • Apostles found congregations: Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor
      • Appeal and Rejection in the Age of Pax Romana
        • Jews in most of the cities
        • Universalism
        • Christian communities
        • Role of women
    • Spread of Christianity
    • Persecution of the Christians caused by own attitudes
      • Christians often refused to associate with non-Christians
      • Avoid public ceremonies in death
      • Spoke out against venerating the emperor
      • Declared the empire doomed to destruction
      • Declared Roman gods and goddesses false
      • MissionariesSpread of Christianity limited to eastern territory and western cities by 200 A.D.
      • Rabbis call for stricter observance of the Law
      • In the third century the pagan gods and goddesses seemed unable to protect the empire
      • Christianity remained a minority
      • Christians seen as contemptuous of established institutions
    • Growth and Persecution in the Empire’s Time of Troubles
      • Christian message more convincing as the empire began to suffer struggles for succession, epidemics, and barbarian invasion
      • Attacks from pagan philosophers
      • Christianity banned by Rome in the first century A.D. as a danger to the state, now aggressive to stop spread of the religion
        • Diocletian 304-311 sought to destroy Christianity
          • Emperors have too many other problems to concentrate on Christianity
          • Christianity still a minority in urban and rural areas
    • The Growth of Christian Organization and Doctrine
      • Baptism
      • Eucharist or Mass
      • Christianity became an institution
      • The Rise of the Priesthood and the Emergence of Bishops
        • Clergy and laity
        • Ordination
        • Priests
      • Hierarchy of the church
        • Bishop – successor of the original apostles
        • Apostolic succession
        • Diocese and parishes
          • Several diocese into a province
        • Metropolitan (Archbishop)
        • Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, Rome
        • Patriarchs
    • Roman Supremacy: The Pope
      • Power to excommunicate
      • Establishment of a monarchy
      • Question of when to celebrate Easter
      • Authority of the Roman bishop
        • Petrine tradition
        • Patriarchs of the East reject Rome’s claim
        • Roman bishop claims “Vicar of Christ” on earth
        • By fifth century, bishop of Rome calling himself pope
      • With conquests by Muslims in the seventh century (Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem), pope in Rome and patriarch in Constantinople were the only two powerful bishops left
    • The Canon of Scriptures
      • Canon of Scriptures
      • “ Old Covenant” and “New Covenant”
      • New Testament
        • Writings by Apostles or their companions
      • Vulgate
        • Jerome’s Latin translation at the end of the fourth century
    • Doctrinal Differences: Orthodoxy and Heresy
      • Doctrinal differences in ritual, rules of conduct, theology (explanation of God, the Creation, sin, and salvation)
      • Gnosticism
        • Religious philosophical origins separate from Christianity, influenced by Plato
          • Spirit is the only true good
          • Matter is a cast off from the physical world when created
          • The body (matter) is a source of evil
          • Gain knowledge by which the soul may liberate itself and join with the universal spirit
          • Mystical insight
        • Dualistic concept of the universe in teachings of Zoroaster
        • Manichaeism and Albigensian heresy
        • Donatism, Donatus, Bishop of Carthage
          • Surrender of holy books during persecution of Diocletian
          • Rites performed by treasonous bishops invalid
          • Council of Arles decided against Donatus
    • The Council of Nicaea and the Trinitarian Creed
      • Nature of Jesus and his relationship to God
        • Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria
          • Father and Son were two equal persons but of one substance
        • Arius, priest of Alexandria
          • Must have been a time when Christ did not exist and thus could not be coequal
        • Emperor Constantine
          • Christianity a source of discord, not unity
          • Council of Nicaea, 325
            • 300 bishops attend
            • Creed of Nicaea – confirms Athanasius; Arius refuses to endorse
            • Christ is man and God
        • Council of Tyre
          • Reverses Nicaea: exiles Athanasius
        • Council of Constance, 381
          • Under Emperor Theodosius I reaffirms the Nicaean decision
      • Continued divisions
    • The Worldly Victory of the Church
      • The Alliance with the State
        • Diocletian
          • Underground movement to open and public
          • Public opinion shifts fo compassion
        • Emperors came to accept Christianity after Constantine’s edict of toleration, 313
        • Advice from bishops
        • Theodosius I legalized Christianity by making it the state religion and forbidding pagan rites, 381
        • Weakness of paganism
        • The Jews
          • Theodosius orders toleration of the Jews
    • Augustine: The Philosopher of Christian Victory
      • Manichaeism - dualism
      • Bishop of Hippo, North Africa
      • Predestination
        • The “elect”
      • “ Earthly City” and “Heavenly City”
      • Sacking of Rome, 410
      • The City of God
      • Just War
      • View of the future
      • Early Christian Monasticism
          • Escape from society
        • The Ascetic Ideal
        • Self-discipline
      • The Hermit Monks: Anthony
        • Lives in the desert
        • Struggles with sexual desire
        • Influences others
      • Regulated Communities: Basil, Jerome
        • Religious houses, Pachomius
        • Basil, bishop of Asia Minor
        • Jerome
        • Translation of the Bible
      • Benedict and His Rule
        • Benedict of Nursia
        • Monastery at Monte Cassino
        • Benedictine Rule
          • Power of the abbot
          • Work
        • Regular and secular clergy
    • Discussion Questions
      • How did the early developments of Judaism have an influence on the development of Christianity?
      • What were the teachings and philosophy of Jesus? How do they reflect conditions in Judea and his own time?
      • How and why did Christianity grow and spread? What difficulties did it face? How did these affect Christianity?
      • What was the organization of the Christian Church? What were the strengths and weaknesses to this structure?
      • What were the doctrinal problems facing Christianity and how were these resolved?