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Rome: Triumphs and Fall

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  1. 1. 33 The Roman Triumph and Fall  
  2. 2. OVERVIEW Greco-Roman Republic  Augustus Caesar Rome destroyed and replaced traditional barbarian cultures Threat of Germans Christianity
  3. 3. The Rise of Rome Italy and Its Peoples  Settlements near the mouth of the Tiber River, building on the seven hills Fourteen miles from the sea Formed a city-state around 759 B.C
  4. 4. Rome in Italy
  5. 5. The Etruscans Arrived in Italy about the ninth century B.C. Moved in all directions by seventh century B.C. Greek influences Occupied Latium where they ruled Rome for a time Rome expelled the Etruscans about 500 B.C. Rome borrowed from the Greeks  In the eighth century B.C. Greece began to plant colonies in southern Italy (called Magna Graecia by the Romans) Roman contact brought absorption of Greek ideas and arts into their culture
  6. 6. The Government of the Early Republic King  Served as high priest of the sate religion, military commander, supreme judge, and chief Executive  King was advised by Senate (council of elders)  Senate members drawn from the leading families (patricians)  Senate chose the king’s successor from among its own members subject to approval by an assembly of all male citizens Rome relied on its own citizens as fighting men and thus had to give them some share in government
  7. 7. Monarchy abolished about 500 B.C. with the expulsion the Etruscans Military and executive power was transferred to two chief magistrates (consuls)  Elected annually by the Assembly of Centuries  Centuries were groups of one hundred men into which the citizens were formed for government, taxation, and military purposes  Election of a plural executive designed to protect against tyranny and was extended to every important office  In time of emergency a dictator was selected  Selected by the consuls with advice of the Senate for a term limited to six months
  8. 8. Classes Patrician (aristocrats)  Oldest and Noblest Roman families  Performed religious rituals  A fraction of the society and dominated Roman politics  Magistrates could only come from the upper classes  Senate had a fixed number, about 300 Plebeians (commoners)  Complaints  No written law code  Written down about 450 B.C. in the twelve tablets  Want admission to major public offices  Tribunes  Assembly of tribunes  By about 250 B.C. made eligible for all public offices
  9. 9. Roman Expansion Soldier-citizens  By 250 B.C., soldiers fought in small units of about one hundred men (centuries) under the command of a centurian (elected)  Light armor and oblong shields  Centuries combined into legions of about four thousand men. Protection and self-rule offered to those conquered Colonies established on the Italian peninsula  Settled by people from Rome  Rights of citizenship By 250 B.C. all of Italy south of the Po Valley was in Roman hands
  10. 10. Roman Expansion
  11. 11. Early Roman Provinces Carthage  Phoenicia  Interest in Sicily  Punic Wars, 264-146 B.C. Defeat of Carthage brought Rome’s first provinces: Sicily, Spain, and Africa  Ruled by proconsuls (governors)  Contributed auxiliary troops Roman wars in Greece
  12. 12. The Overthrow of the Republic The Impact of War and Conquest Disappearance of independent farmers  Latifundia Tenant farmers and hired hands By 150 BCE was the largest slaveholding society Urban mob (proletarians) swells in size
  13. 13. Erosion of Old Republican Virtues Senators The Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius  Resettlement  Increased number of independent farmers Close gap between rich and poor  Tiberius elected tribune of the people, 133 B.C. Broke custom of one term Murdered  Gaius tries reform and also murdered in 121 B.C
  14. 14. Change in character of the army Instead of the farmer-soldier, landless and property-less citizens drafted into the legions Bettering selves through pay, loot promotion, grants of land or money  Army commanders turn into warlords
  15. 15. Civil Wars, 88-82 B.C Gaius Marius  Plebian  Victories in Africa and western Europe  Claimed to represent the interests of the people and common soldiers  Natural death during the civil war Lucius Sulla  Patrician  Served under Marius  Commanded army in Asia Minor  Support of the senate  Appointed dictator after death of Marius  Abolished limits on powers of senate  Generously paid soldiers  Use of proscription  Retired in 80 B.C., died in 78 B.C.
  16. 16. Julius Caesar Caesar from an old patrician family First elected consul in 59 B.C. Activities in Gaul When recalled from Gaul, brought his Army  Civil war, Pompey versus Caesar Subdued opponents and returned to Rome in 46 B.C. Gathered offices  Consul and then dictator  Senators believed he destroyed the republic Assassinated March 15, 44 B.C. Marc Antony joins Octavian to defeat Cassius and Brutus  Antony and Octavian divide the Roman World  Antony ruled the east  Octavian rules the West Octavian defeats Antony at Actium in 31 B.C.
  17. 17. The Imperial Foundations Title of augustus (“revered”) The Augustan Political Settlement  Princeps (First Citizen)  Imperator (Commander-in-Chief) Reform, Reconstruction, and the End of Expansion  Governors of ability and loyalty  Census  Augustus as a deity  Restoration of virtue  Reform of the army  Cut size  Conditions of Service  Praetorian guard kept in Rome  Armies kept on the frontier
  18. 18. The Approach to One World: The Pax Romana Lack of an arrangement for orderly succession  Theoretically, with the death of Augustus, power should go back to the senate  Augustus selected stepson Tiberius as his successor  Tiberius proclaimed princeps by the senate upon Augustus’ death in 14 A.D.  Family intrigue  Flavian dynasty The Empire: Extent and Composition  Addition of Britain and Dacia  Parthia  China  Three cultural groups  Eastern – Egyptians, Jews, and Syrians  Hellenic – Aegean Sea and southern Italy  Western – Romanized section of the empire
  19. 19. Roman Empire at Its Height
  20. 20. Cities of the Empire 40 provinces comprised the empire  Basic unit: civitas (the city)  League of cities Bound together by network of sea lanes and highways  Rome at its center  Impression of wealth and grandeur Each city managed by senate Cities of the West strove to copy Rome
  21. 21. The Meaning of the Roman Peace: Prosperity, Technology, Citizenship Trajan to Marcus Aurelius Peace Technological innovation Roman citizenship Little interest in people beyond the frontiers
  22. 22. Roman Character and Thought Religion, Family Life, and Morality  Numina (spirits, each with special function)  Paterfamilias  Women  Changes in religious ideals  Values and morality
  23. 23. Roman Literature Literature as Moralistic Expression  Poets  Livius Andronicus: translated Homer’s Odyssey  Prose  Cicero  History  Livy: History of Rome Literature in the reign of Augustus (27 B.C.-A.D. 14)  Virgil: the Aeneid  Ovid: erotic poems  Plutarch: Parallel Lives – 50 short biographies  Juevenal: satiric poet
  24. 24. Roman Epicureanism and Stoicism Epicurus  Individual happiness: happiness equals pleasure minus pain  Shun pursuit of wealth or public office  Scientific and materialist view of the universe Stoicism  Zeno: founder of Stoicism  Ideal Stoic: self-sufficient, dutiful, compassionate, and calm  Universe is not chaos but rather functions according to a plan of goodness  Harmony and happiness achieved by striving for virtue rather than pleasure  Universal appeal  Marcus Aurelius  Jus Naturale (Natural Law)
  25. 25. Science and Medicine Center was Alexandria, Egypt Claudius Ptolemy, Almagest Galen of Pergamum in medicine
  26. 26. Roman Law Evolution of Roman Law  Justicia  Praetor  Jus civile  Jus gentium The Idea of “Natural Law”  Influence of Stoic philosophy  One law in nature, the law of reason Codification of the Laws  Justinian’s Corpus Juruis Civilis (Body of Civil Laws)  Novels  Institutes
  27. 27. Architecture and Engineering Architectural Forms and Aim  Arch  Vault  Cross-vault  Dome  Aqueducts  Drainage works  Roads Civic Architecture and Monuments  Forum of Trajan  Basilica  Nave  Apse  Pantheon  Rotunda  Thermae (Bathhouse)  Baths of Diocletian  Arena  Colosseum  Arches and columns
  28. 28. The End of Rome and the Beginning of Europe The problems of the Empire  Economic weakness Once able to live off the profits of conquest Increased taxes, decreasing population  Leadership No clear means of succession Barbarians  Germanic tribes
  29. 29. Reconstruction of the Empire by Diocletian and Constantine The End of the Augustan Settlement  Overhauls civil administration  New capital of Nicomedia  Maximian appointed in 286 to govern the western portion of the empire from Milan  The two augusti (Diocletian and Maximian) each assisted by a junior colleague (a caesar), who ruled over a prefecture  One hundred twenty provinces grouped into twelve units, dioceses, that were grouped into four prefectures Army  Legions broken into smaller units  Mobile armies in each diocese  The large numbers necessary meant recruitment from the barbarians Economics  Problems in unemployment, investment, rising prices  Edict of maximum prices  Critical occupations made hereditary
  30. 30. Sacred Monarchy and the Worship of the Gods: Diocletian Borrows idea from Egypt of the ruler as both god and man No longer a “barracks emperor” – chosen by his army Re-establishes imperial authority  Failed to find successor
  31. 31. Constantine and Christianity Disposed of all rivals by 324  Followed most of Diocletian’s reforms Stops persecution of the Christians  Edict of Milan, 313 Believed Christian God had helped him in battle Continues Diocletian’s tradition of the sacred monarchy  Chosen by one Christian god
  32. 32. The Burden of Empire High taxes and rising prices Barbarian invasions Country people come under the domination of a tiny elite of landowners Peasants become bound to the land Emergence of an elite of landowners and bishops in the western empire Count Bishops and landowners Barbarian generals
  33. 33. Germanic Invasions of the West Warfare under Diocletian and Constantine against their barbarian neighbors Romans take up barbarian ways The Huns The Visigoths  Adrianople  Alaric Romulus Augustulus, last emperor of the West, 475
  34. 34. Invasions of the Western Empire
  35. 35. Battle of Châlons, 451 Western empire carved up by the early sixth century  Africa belonged to the Vandals  Ostrogoths held Italy  Visigoth occupied Spain  Franks controlled Gaul  Angles and Saxons conquered Britain  Continuation of Roman government and institutions Growth of Christianity
  36. 36. Discussion Questions How did the early government of Rome develop? Why did it emerge in this manner? Who benefited from the governmental structure and how? Identify the consequences of Roman growth and expansion during the Republic. What was the impact of Augustus on Rome? In what manner did his rule change the course of Roman history and how did it affect the future of Rome? Describe intellectual developments in the period of the Roman Empire. What was the impact of these? How did the Roman Empire develop during and after the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine?
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