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Rome: Triumphs and Fall

Rome: Triumphs and Fall

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  • 1. 3 The Roman Triumph and Fall  
  • 2. OVERVIEW
    • Greco-Roman
    • Republic
      • Augustus Caesar
    • Rome destroyed and replaced traditional barbarian cultures
    • Threat of Germans
    • Christianity
  • 3. The Rise of Rome
    • Italy and Its Peoples
      • Settlements near the mouth of the Tiber River, building on the seven hills
        • Fourteen miles from the sea
        • Formed a city-state around 759 B.C
  • 4. Rome in Italy
  • 5. The Etruscans
    • Arrived in Italy about the ninth century B.C.
    • Moved in all directions by seventh century B.C.
    • Greek influences
    • Occupied Latium where they ruled Rome for a time
    • Rome expelled the Etruscans about 500 B.C.
    • Rome borrowed from the Greeks
      • In the eighth century B.C. Greece began to plant colonies in southern Italy (called Magna Graecia by the Romans)
    • Roman contact brought absorption of Greek ideas and arts into their culture
  • 6. The Government of the Early Republic
    • King
      • Served as high priest of the sate religion, military commander, supreme judge, and chief Executive
      • King was advised by Senate (council of elders)
      • Senate members drawn from the leading families (patricians)
      • Senate chose the king’s successor from among its own members subject to approval by an assembly of all male citizens
    • Rome relied on its own citizens as fighting men and thus had to give them some share in government
  • 7. Monarchy abolished about 500 B.C. with the expulsion the Etruscans
    • Military and executive power was transferred to two chief magistrates (consuls)
      • Elected annually by the Assembly of Centuries
      • Centuries were groups of one hundred men into which the citizens were formed for government, taxation, and military purposes
      • Election of a plural executive designed to protect against tyranny and was extended to every important office
        • In time of emergency a dictator was selected
        • Selected by the consuls with advice of the Senate for a term limited to six months
  • 8. Classes
    • Patrician (aristocrats)
      • Oldest and Noblest Roman families
      • Performed religious rituals
      • A fraction of the society and dominated Roman politics
      • Magistrates could only come from the upper classes
      • Senate had a fixed number, about 300
    • Plebeians (commoners)
      • Complaints
        • No written law code
        • Written down about 450 B.C. in the twelve tablets
        • Want admission to major public offices
        • Tribunes
        • Assembly of tribunes
        • By about 250 B.C. made eligible for all public offices
  • 9. Roman Expansion
    • Soldier-citizens
      • By 250 B.C., soldiers fought in small units of about one hundred men (centuries) under the command of a centurian (elected)
      • Light armor and oblong shields
      • Centuries combined into legions of about four thousand men.
    • Protection and self-rule offered to those conquered
    • Colonies established on the Italian peninsula
      • Settled by people from Rome
      • Rights of citizenship
    • By 250 B.C. all of Italy south of the Po Valley was in Roman hands
  • 10. Roman Expansion
  • 11. Early Roman Provinces
    • Carthage
      • Phoenicia
      • Interest in Sicily
      • Punic Wars, 264-146 B.C.
        • Defeat of Carthage brought Rome’s first provinces: Sicily, Spain, and Africa
          • Ruled by proconsuls (governors)
          • Contributed auxiliary troops
    • Roman wars in Greece
  • 12. The Overthrow of the Republic
    • The Impact of War and Conquest
    • Disappearance of independent farmers
      • Latifundia
    • Tenant farmers and hired hands
    • By 150 BCE was the largest slaveholding society
    • Urban mob (proletarians) swells in size
  • 13. Erosion of Old Republican Virtues
    • Senators
    • The Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius
      • Resettlement
      • Increased number of independent farmers
        • Close gap between rich and poor
      • Tiberius elected tribune of the people, 133 B.C.
        • Broke custom of one term
        • Murdered
      • Gaius tries reform and also murdered in 121 B.C
  • 14. Change in character of the army
    • Instead of the farmer-soldier, landless and property-less citizens drafted into the legions
    • Bettering selves through pay, loot promotion, grants of land or money
      • Army commanders turn into warlords
  • 15. Civil Wars, 88-82 B.C
    • Gaius Marius
      • Plebian
      • Victories in Africa and western Europe
      • Claimed to represent the interests of the people and common soldiers
      • Natural death during the civil war
    • Lucius Sulla
      • Patrician
      • Served under Marius
      • Commanded army in Asia Minor
      • Support of the senate
      • Appointed dictator after death of Marius
        • Abolished limits on powers of senate
        • Generously paid soldiers
        • Use of proscription
      • Retired in 80 B.C., died in 78 B.C.
  • 16. Julius Caesar
    • Caesar from an old patrician family
    • First elected consul in 59 B.C.
    • Activities in Gaul
    • When recalled from Gaul, brought his Army
      • Civil war, Pompey versus Caesar
    • Subdued opponents and returned to Rome in 46 B.C.
    • Gathered offices
      • Consul and then dictator
      • Senators believed he destroyed the republic
    • Assassinated March 15, 44 B.C.
    • Marc Antony joins Octavian to defeat Cassius and Brutus
      • Antony and Octavian divide the Roman World
      • Antony ruled the east
      • Octavian rules the West
    • Octavian defeats Antony at Actium in 31 B.C.
  • 17. The Imperial Foundations
    • Title of augustus (“revered”)
    • The Augustan Political Settlement
      • Princeps (First Citizen)
      • Imperator (Commander-in-Chief)
    • Reform, Reconstruction, and the End of Expansion
      • Governors of ability and loyalty
      • Census
      • Augustus as a deity
      • Restoration of virtue
      • Reform of the army
      • Cut size
      • Conditions of Service
      • Praetorian guard kept in Rome
      • Armies kept on the frontier
  • 18. The Approach to One World: The Pax Romana
    • Lack of an arrangement for orderly succession
      • Theoretically, with the death of Augustus, power should go back to the senate
      • Augustus selected stepson Tiberius as his successor
      • Tiberius proclaimed princeps by the senate upon Augustus’ death in 14 A.D.
      • Family intrigue
      • Flavian dynasty
    • The Empire: Extent and Composition
      • Addition of Britain and Dacia
      • Parthia
      • China
      • Three cultural groups
        • Eastern – Egyptians, Jews, and Syrians
        • Hellenic – Aegean Sea and southern Italy
        • Western – Romanized section of the empire
  • 19. Roman Empire at Its Height
  • 20. Cities of the Empire
    • 40 provinces comprised the empire
      • Basic unit: civitas (the city)
      • League of cities
    • Bound together by network of sea lanes and highways
      • Rome at its center
      • Impression of wealth and grandeur
    • Each city managed by senate
    • Cities of the West strove to copy Rome
  • 21.  
  • 22. The Meaning of the Roman Peace: Prosperity, Technology, Citizenship
    • Trajan to Marcus Aurelius
    • Peace
    • Technological innovation
    • Roman citizenship
    • Little interest in people beyond the frontiers
  • 23. Roman Character and Thought
    • Religion, Family Life, and Morality
      • Numina (spirits, each with special function)
      • Paterfamilias
      • Women
      • Changes in religious ideals
      • Values and morality
  • 24. Roman Literature
    • Literature as Moralistic Expression
      • Poets
      • Livius Andronicus: translated Homer’s Odyssey
      • Prose
      • Cicero
      • History
      • Livy: History of Rome
    • Literature in the reign of Augustus (27 B.C.-A.D. 14)
      • Virgil: the Aeneid
      • Ovid: erotic poems
      • Plutarch: Parallel Lives – 50 short biographies
      • Juevenal: satiric poet
  • 25. Roman Epicureanism and Stoicism
    • Epicurus
      • Individual happiness: happiness equals pleasure minus pain
      • Shun pursuit of wealth or public office
      • Scientific and materialist view of the universe
    • Stoicism
      • Zeno: founder of Stoicism
      • Ideal Stoic: self-sufficient, dutiful, compassionate, and calm
      • Universe is not chaos but rather functions according to a plan of goodness
      • Harmony and happiness achieved by striving for virtue rather than pleasure
      • Universal appeal
      • Marcus Aurelius
      • Jus Naturale (Natural Law)
  • 26. Science and Medicine
    • Center was Alexandria, Egypt
    • Claudius Ptolemy, Almagest
    • Galen of Pergamum in medicine
  • 27. Roman Law
    • Evolution of Roman Law
      • Justicia
      • Praetor
      • Jus civile
      • Jus gentium
    • The Idea of “Natural Law”
      • Influence of Stoic philosophy
        • One law in nature, the law of reason
    • Codification of the Laws
      • Justinian’s Corpus Juruis Civilis (Body of Civil Laws)
      • Novels
      • Institutes
  • 28. Architecture and Engineering
    • Architectural Forms and Aim
      • Arch
      • Vault
      • Cross-vault
      • Dome
      • Aqueducts
      • Drainage works
      • Roads
    • Civic Architecture and Monuments
      • Forum of Trajan
      • Basilica
      • Nave
      • Apse
      • Pantheon
        • Rotunda
      • Thermae (Bathhouse)
        • Baths of Diocletian
      • Arena
        • Colosseum
      • Arches and columns
  • 29. The End of Rome and the Beginning of Europe
    • The problems of the Empire
      • Economic weakness
        • Once able to live off the profits of conquest
        • Increased taxes, decreasing population
      • Leadership
        • No clear means of succession
        • Barbarians
      • Germanic tribes
  • 30. Reconstruction of the Empire by Diocletian and Constantine
    • The End of the Augustan Settlement
      • Overhauls civil administration
        • New capital of Nicomedia
        • Maximian appointed in 286 to govern the western portion of the empire from Milan
        • The two augusti (Diocletian and Maximian) each assisted by a junior colleague (a caesar), who ruled over a prefecture
        • One hundred twenty provinces grouped into twelve units, dioceses, that were grouped into four prefectures
    • Army
      • Legions broken into smaller units
        • Mobile armies in each diocese
        • The large numbers necessary meant recruitment from the barbarians
    • Economics
      • Problems in unemployment, investment, rising prices
      • Edict of maximum prices
      • Critical occupations made hereditary
  • 31. Sacred Monarchy and the Worship of the Gods: Diocletian
    • Borrows idea from Egypt of the ruler as both god and man
    • No longer a “barracks emperor” – chosen by his army
    • Re-establishes imperial authority
      • Failed to find successor
  • 32. Constantine and Christianity
    • Disposed of all rivals by 324
      • Followed most of Diocletian’s reforms
    • Stops persecution of the Christians
      • Edict of Milan, 313
    • Believed Christian God had helped him in battle
    • Continues Diocletian’s tradition of the sacred monarchy
      • Chosen by one Christian god
  • 33. The Burden of Empire
    • High taxes and rising prices
    • Barbarian invasions
    • Country people come under the domination of a tiny elite of landowners
        • Peasants become bound to the land
        • Emergence of an elite of landowners and bishops in the western empire Count
    • Bishops and landowners
    • Barbarian generals
  • 34. Germanic Invasions of the West
    • Warfare under Diocletian and Constantine against their barbarian neighbors
    • Romans take up barbarian ways
    • The Huns
    • The Visigoths
      • Adrianople
      • Alaric
    • Romulus Augustulus, last emperor of the West, 475
  • 35. Invasions of the Western Empire
  • 36.
    • Battle of Châlons, 451
    • Western empire carved up by the early sixth century
      • Africa belonged to the Vandals
      • Ostrogoths held Italy
      • Visigoth occupied Spain
      • Franks controlled Gaul
      • Angles and Saxons conquered Britain
      • Continuation of Roman government and institutions
    • Growth of Christianity
  • 37. Discussion Questions
    • How did the early government of Rome develop? Why did it emerge in this manner? Who benefited from the governmental structure and how?
    • Identify the consequences of Roman growth and expansion during the Republic.
    • What was the impact of Augustus on Rome? In what manner did his rule change the course of Roman history and how did it affect the future of Rome?
    • Describe intellectual developments in the period of the Roman Empire. What was the impact of these?
    • How did the Roman Empire develop during and after the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine?