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Beginnings of Greek Civilization

Beginnings of Greek Civilization

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  • 1. 2 The Greek Beginnings of Western Civilization
  • 2. Overview
    • The origin of the Greeks
      • City-state
      • Influence of religion
      • Warfare
        • Fighting among city states
    • The European Barbarians
      • By 4000 B.C. farming and village life had spread throughout the continent
      • By 3500 B.C. people of western Europe were constructing ceremonial monuments and using the plow
        • Stonehenge – constructed over several hundred years to 1550 B.C.
      • Migratory herders inhabiting the steppes
      • The horse
        • 3500 B.C. Steppe people harnessed horse to wheeled vehicles
        • 1200 B.C. Steppe people learned to ride and concentrated more and more on herding
        • Nomads: moved west across the grasslands for animal-grazing and water
  • 3. Indo-European people
    • Originated in the Russian steppes and migrated south and west between 4000 B.C. to 1000 B.C.
    • By 1000 B.C. occupied most of Europe
    • From 2500 B.C. onward the settled people began to form themselves into new ethnic groups and lived in villages
    • Elites of warriors (often charioteers and horsemen)
    • Dominance of mother-goddess deities
    • Warrior turned to gods of fatherhood and thunder
    • Burial and afterlife
    • Role of women
    • Farming
      • Villages widely scattered
    • Barbarians
  • 4. The Greek Homeland
  • 5. The Aegean Background
    • Greek landscape and climate
      • Rocky soil, hot dry summers, cold wet winters
      • Islands
    • Minoan Civilization
      • Crete
    • Indo-European people
    • Mycenaean Civilization
      • Warlike
    • Dark Ages
    • Greek emigration, 800-600 B.C.
    • Greeks and Phoenicians trading and colonizing
    • Greek borrowing from civilizations of Asia and Africa
  • 6. Greek and Phoenician Overseas Migration
  • 7. The City-State: Citizenship within a community
    • Sets Greek city-states apart from those of other peoples
    • Physical structure
      • Protecting hills
      • Acropolis
    • Sovereignty
    • Military
      • Hoplites
      • Phalanx
    • Tradition and myth
    • Religion
    • Social affairs
    • Government
      • Monarchy
      • Oligarchy
      • Tyranny
      • Democracy
  • 8. Sparta: the Military Ideal
    • Laconia
    • Helots
      • Use of terror
    • Government (oligarchy)
      • Dual kings
      • Council of elders
      • Ephors: five official “overseers”
      • Assembly
    • Military service
    • Family life
      • Boys
      • Girls
      • Women liberated
    • Other oligarchies
  • 9. Athens: The Glory of Greece
    • Contrasts between Athens and Sparta
    • Political growth
      • Reforms of Solon (600 B.C.)
      • Cleistehenes (500 B.C.)
    • The Persian Wars
      • Darius I
        • Marathon, 490 B.C.
      • Salamis, 480 B.C.
      • Thermopylae, 480 B.C.
  • 10. The Golden Age
    • Pericles (460 – 429 B.C.)
    • Democracy
      • The Assembly
      • Direct democracy
      • The Generals (Strategoi)
      • Law
        • Courts
      • Citizenship
  • 11. Slavery in Democracy
    • Slaves in all city states
      • Chiefly non-Greeks
      • Justified by Greeks being superior to non-Greeks
      • Household slaves in Athens
        • some worked the fields
        • some were craftsmen
        • in the mines
      • Legally property of their owners
  • 12. Daily Life in Athens
    • Economy, diversified and balanced
      • Wine and olive oil
      • Manufacturing
      • Small shops
    • Daily life
    • Women
      • Marriage
      • Male sexual liberty
      • Hetaerae (female companions)
    • Homosexuality
    • Children
    • The City-State Way of Life
      • Barbarians (did not speak Greek)
      • View of the Individual
      • Personal Liberty
      • The “good life”
      • Optimism
  • 13. Greek Religion
    • No dogma
    • No special class of priests
    • Gods and Goddesses
      • Polytheistic and anthropomorphic religion
      • Mount Olympus
      • Moira (Fate)
      • Zeus (Jupiter)
      • Poseidon (Neptune)
      • Hades or Pluto (Dis)
        • The underworld
      • Hera (Juno)
      • Athena (Minerva)
      • Leto
        • Apollo and Artemis (Diana)
      • Aphrodite (Venus)
      • Ares (Mars)
      • Hermes (Mercury)
      • Dionysos (Bacchus)
  • 14. Priests, Oracles, and Mystery Cults
    • Temples
    • Ceremonies
    • Omens
    • Oracles
      • Delphi
    • No consolation or promise of life after death
    • Mystery cults
    • Dionysos
    • Ritualistic experiences
    • Ever-lasting life
    • Mortality
  • 15. Pioneers of Rational Thought
    • What are the elements from which all material things are made?
    • Thales of Miletus
      • Water the basic element
    • Democritus of Abdera
      • Atoms
    • Hippocrates of Cos
      • Environment and health
    • Parmenides of Elea
      • Permanence versus eternal and unchangeable
    • Heraclitus of Ephesus
      • Universe in continuous motion
  • 16. The Sophists
    • Professional teachers
    • Problems of human life
    • Protagoras
      • Skeptical of general truths
      • Pointless to look for absolute truth about
        • either nature or morals
      • Truth is relative, important to only know
        • what one finds agreeable and useful
    • Aristippus of Cyrene
      • Success is equated with pleasure
    • Fear of the Sophists
  • 17. Socrates and Plato
    • Socrates
      • Often mistaken for a Sophist because he was skeptical and interested in human affairs
      • Questioning, “Socratic method”
      • Phaedo by Plato
        • Charges of corrupting the youth and doubting the gods
    • Plato
      • A student of Socrates
      • The Academy
      • Attacks Sophist theory of relative truth
      • The imperfect surface of things conceal perfect, absolute, and eternal order
      • Doctrine of Ideas
        • It is in the Ideas that we will discover absolute truths and standards
  • 18. Plato’s Republic
    • Views on education, literature, arts, social and political thought
    • Human institutions should aim, not at complete individual freedom and equality, but at social justice and order
      • The state must be structured according to natural capacities
    • Workers and Guardians (Philosopher-kings)
  • 19. Aristotle
    • Student of Plato
    • Accepted Plato’s notion of the existence of ideas but held that physical matter also is a part of reality
    • By logical thinking, people can gain knowledge of the purposes of things and their interrelations
    • Politics
      • Analysis of major types of political organizations
        • Monarchy
        • Oligarchy
        • Democracy
      • The Golden Mean
  • 20. Greek Literature
    • Epic and Lyric Poetry
      • The Greek epic
      • Homer
        • Iliad
        • Trojan wars
        • Odyssey
      • Solon
        • Individual happiness, won and lost
      • Sappho of Lesbos
        • Romantic love
    • Drama: Tragedy and Comedy
      • Dionysiac tradition
      • Aristophanes: Comedies ridiculing politicians, poets, and philosophers
        • The Clouds
        • Lysistrata
    • Dionysiac festivals
    • Playwrights
      • Aeschylus
      • Suffering and death turned into inspiration and the will to live
  • 21. Creates trilogy
    • Aeschylus
      • Transforms suffering and death into inspiration and the will to live
    • Sophocles
      • Consequences of exaggerated pride
      • Oedipus the king
    • Euripides
      • Insight into human character
      • Challenged the traditional religious and moral values of his time
  • 22. History
    • Herodotus
      • Persian Wars
      • Historia
    • Thucydides
      • “ Scientific history”
      • Peloponnesian Wars
      • Human nature can be understood through careful
        • study of the past – this knowledge can guide the future
        • be useful as a guide to understanding the future
      • Presented facts from both sides
  • 23. Architecture and Sculpture
    • Greatest architectural achievement: the temple which represented the bond between religious and patriotic feelings.
    • Public buildings
    • Private buildings
    • Construction
      • Limestone and marble
      • Post-and-lintel method
  • 24. Temple Building: The Parthenon
    • Parthenon of Athens
      • Shrine for Athens designed in 450 B.C. by architect Ictinus
      • Exterior columns set in Doric order: meets demands of both engineering and aesthetics
  • 25.  
  • 26. Images of Gods and Humans
    • Statues
    • Egyptian influence
        • Naturalism
    • Phidias, the sculptor
        • Parthenon sculptures
        • Athena in the Parthenon
    • Myron, The Discus Thrower
    • Praxiteles, Hermes with Infant Dionysus
    • Aphrodite from Melos (Venus de Milo)
    • Portraiture, emotional expression, and representation of ordinary people
  • 27. Decline of the Greek City-States
    • The Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 B.C.)
      • Delian League
      • Peloponnesian League
      • Plague, 430 B.C.
      • Syracuse
      • Aid of Persia, defeat of Athens
      • Disillusionment
        • Democracy
        • Decline of traditional values
    • Rise of Macedonia
      • King Philip II
        • Use of the phalanx, improved weapons, built up cavalry
      • Demosthenes’ warning to Athenians
      • Battle of Chaeronea (338 B.C.)
      • Assassination of Philip, 336 B.C.
  • 28. The Peloponnesian War
  • 29. Alexander the Great and the Wider Spread of Greek Culture
    • Succeeded his father in 336 B.C.
      • Crossed into Asia Minor in 334 B.C.
      • Army of 35,000 Macedonians and Greeks
      • Defeated the Persian king and conquered Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Persia and reached the frontiers of India
    • Alexander’s Dream of “One World”
      • Fusion of East and West
      • Established cities and colonized them
      • Military garrisons would maintain order
      • Encouraged intermarriage
      • Breakup of the empire
  • 30. The Hellenistic States
    • Fusion of Greek Culture and that of Mesopotamia and Egypt
    • An imperfect mixture
      • Greek the language of business and government
      • Ways of the East persisted
      • With immense resources available Greek rulers were able to support researchers in many fields and build libraries
      • Absolute rule replaces democracy and oligarchy
      • Religion
      • Economy encourages large scale production
        • Far-flung commerce
        • Metropolis
  • 31. The Greeks in the Middle East
  • 32. Discussion Questions
    • What are the characteristics of the Greek city-state? How do these help the city-state grow and develop? What are the differences between the city-state of Athens and Sparta? What can explain these differences?
    • In the development of Greek philosophy, what were the main areas of concern and investigation? Why would the Greek philosophers focus on these areas? What are the philosophical differences between the Sophists, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle?
    • Who were the greatest writers in Greek literature? What were the main themes of each? How do these themes reflect on the life of the Greeks?
    • What was the Hellenistic period and how did it contribute to the development of civilization?