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Quality ed (1)

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    • 1. EducationQualityThe State of Education SeriesMarch 2013A Global Report
    • 2. SummaryThis presentation includes analysis of: Pupil-Teacher Ratios (PTRs) Repetition rates Primary Completion Rates (PCR) Learning Outcomes Youth Literacy Rates Adult Literacy Rates Gender/Income/Location disparities
    • 3. Acronym GuideAcronym NameEAP East Asia and PacificECA Europe and Central AsiaLAC Latin American and the CaribbeanMNA Middle East and North AfricaSAS South AsiaSSA Sub-Saharan AfricaWLD World (Global Aggregate)PCR Primary Completion RatePTR Pupil-Teacher RatioGPI Gender Parity Index (female value/male value)PISA Programme for International Student AssessmentTIMSS Trends in International Mathematics and Science StudySACMEQ Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational QualityPASEC Programme dAnalyse des Systèmes Educatifs de la CONFEMENLLECE Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality of Education
    • 4. Summary of Analysis Primary Pupil-Teacher Ratios (PTRs) have declined from26 pupils per teacher in 1999 to 24 in 2011. SSA and SAShave the highest PTRs (>40). Repetition rates in primary schools have decreased from5.3% in 1999 to 4.8% in 2011. LAC and SSA have higherrepetition rates than other regions, and males have higherrepetition rates than females. Primary Completion Rates (PCRs) are highest in EAP,LAC and ECA, which all have PCRs above 95%. Theglobal PCR lags behind at 90.3%. Low income is thegreatest barrier to primary and secondary completion. Adult and youth literacy rates have been improving overtime, but around 10% of youth and 16% of adults are notliterate. SAS and MNA have both improved literacy levelsgreatly over time.
    • 5. Pupil-TeacherRatios
    • 6. Which regions have higher pre-primary pupil-teacher ratios? Globally, pre-primarypupil-teacher ratios(PTRs) have remainedsteady since 1999 ataround 20 pupils perteacher. ECA has the feweststudents per teacher:PTRs ranged from 8 to10 students over time. South Asia had thehighest PTRs as of2007 at 40 students perteacher. The nextclosest region was SSAat around 27 studentsper teacher in 2011.South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have higherpre-primary pupil-teacher ratios.5101520253035401999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Pupil-teacherratio.Pre-PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    • 7. Which countries have the highestpre-primary pupil-teacher ratios? These countrieshave between 35and 57 pre-primarystudents perteacher. Eight of the 10countries are inSSA. Less than 11% ofchildren are enrolledin pre-primaryeducation in 5 ofthese countries. There are 22countries with pre-primary PTRs lessthan 10. Most are inECA or are highincome countries.10 Countries with the HighestPre-Primary Pupil-Teacher Ratios(2006-2012)Pupil-TeacherRatio. Pre-PrimaryNet Enrolment Rate.Pre-Primary1 Tanzania 56.6 33.22 Central African Rep. 44.3 5.63 Mali 44.0 3.44 India 40.35 Bolivia 38.8 32.16 Rwanda 38.0 10.57 Eritrea 37.9 9.18 Angola 37.1 65.99 Ghana 36.4 47.510 Burundi 35.4 6.9Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data is for the most recent available year; Black data are for 2011; Blue = 2010;Purple = 2012; Data were not available for 58 of 214 countries.
    • 8. Pupil-Teacher Ratio. Pre-Primary(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 9. Which regions have higherprimary pupil-teacher ratios? Globally, primary pupil-teacher ratios (PTRs)have declined from 26pupils per teacher in1999 to 24 in 2011. SSA has the highestPTR in 2011 at 43pupils per teacher. SASalso has a high PTR in2009 at 40. All other regions havePTRs less than 23 withdeclining PTRs overtime. EAP has the feweststudents per teacher in2011 (18) followed byECA at 19.Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have thehighest primary pupil-teacher ratios.161820222426283032343638404244461999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Pupil-teacherratio.PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    • 10. Which countries have the highestprimary pupil-teacher ratios? These countrieshave between 51and 81 primarystudents perteacher. 26 countries havemore than 40primary pupils perteacher. All of thesecountries are in SSAexcept Cambodia. There are 10countries withprimary PTRs lessthan 10 and 46countries with PTRsless than 15. Mostare high incomecountries.10 Countries with the HighestPrimary Pupil-Teacher Ratios(2006-2012)Pupil-TeacherRatio. PrimaryAdjusted Net EnrolmentRate. Primary1 Central African Rep. 81.3 68.92 Malawi 76.1 97.53 Chad 62.6 -4 Rwanda 58.1 98.75 Zambia 58.0 92.76 Mozambique 55.4 89.87 Ethiopia 55.1 82.28 Burkina Faso 52.7 63.29 Guinea-Bissau 51.9 75.010 Tanzania 50.8 -Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data is for the most recent available year; Black data are for 2011; Blue = 2010;Data were not available for 35 of 214 countries.
    • 11. Which countries have decreasedprimary pupil-teacher ratios the most? These countrieshave decreased theirprimary pupil-teacher ratios by 12to 18 pupils perteacher over time. The most currentPTR for all of thesecountries exceptCameroon andEthiopia is less than35 students perteacher. Despite greatimprovement,Ethiopia still hasaround 55 pupils perteacher.10 Countries with theMost Improvement in PrimaryPupil-Teacher RatiosPercentagePointsImproved1999-2002PTRMostcurrentPTR%Improved1 Gabon 18.1 42.6 24.5 42.52 Timor-Leste 17.0 47.2 30.2 36.03 Senegal 16.0 48.9 32.9 32.64 Equatorial Guinea 15.4 43.4 27.9 35.65 Cameroon 15.4 60.8 45.4 25.36 Lesotho 13.2 47.0 33.8 28.17 Jamaica 13.2 33.8 20.6 39.08 Macao SAR, China 12.6 27.5 14.8 45.99 Bhutan 12.5 37.9 25.4 33.010Ethiopia 12.3 67.3 55.1 18.2Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013;Notes: Black data in “Most Current” column is 2011 data; Blue is 2010 data;Data were not available for 50 of 214 countries.
    • 12. Pupil-Teacher Ratio. Primary(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 13. Which regions have highersecondary pupil-teacher ratios? Globally, secondarypupil-teacher ratios(PTRs) have decreasedslightly from 18 pupilsper teacher in 1999 to17 in 2011. SAS has the highestPTR in 2011 at 26.4pupils per teacher. Thisis a sharp decreasefrom 34 in 1999. SSA’s PTR is alsoconsistently higher thanmost regions over time. ECA has the feweststudents per teacher in2011 (11.7) followed byEAP at 16 and LAC at17.Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have thehighest secondary pupil-teacher ratios.101214161820222426283032341999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Pupil-TeacherRatio.SecondarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    • 14. Which countries have the highestsecondary pupil-teacher ratios? These countrieshave between 35and 67 secondarypupils per teacher. Eight of the 10countries are inSSA. Despite larger classsizes, less than 15%of children areenrolled insecondary educationin CAR, Angola, andNiger. There are 34countries with PTRsless than 10. Mostare high incomecountries.10 Countries with the HighestSecondary Pupil-Teacher Ratios(2006-2012)Pupil-TeacherRatio. SecondaryNet Enrolment Rate.Secondary1 Central African Rep. 66.8 14.12 Malawi 42.1 27.53 Nepal 40.9 -4 Ethiopia 40.3 -5 Eritrea 39.5 28.66 Angola 38.7 11.57 Guinea-Bissau 37.3 -8 Tanzania 35.2 -9 Philippines 34.8 61.610 Niger 34.7 10.2Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data is for the most recent available year; Black data are for 2011; Blue = 2010;Green = 2009; Maroon = 2008; Data were not available for 58 countries.
    • 15. Which countries have decreasedsecondary pupil-teacher ratios themost? These countries havedecreased theirsecondary pupil-teacher ratios by 7 to18 students/teacherover time. After the largedecreases, thesecountries have currentPTRs between 14 and25 pupils per teacherexcept Malawi (42)and Eritrea (40). 5 countries increasedPTRs by more than 10pupils per teacherover time: Nepal,Tanzania, SolomonIslands, Angola, andGuinea-Bissau.10 Countries with theMost Improvement inSecondary Pupil-Teacher RatiosPercentagePointsImproved1999-2002PTRMostcurrentPTR%Improved1 Malawi 17.7 59.8 42.1 29.62 Bhutan 11.9 32.4 20.5 36.63 Chile 10.7 32.6 21.9 32.84 Eritrea 9.8 49.3 39.5 19.95 Macao SAR, China 9.2 24.0 14.8 38.46 Vietnam 7.7 26.3 18.6 29.47 Belize 7.5 23.8 16.3 31.58 Mongolia 7.4 21.9 14.5 33.79 Cape Verde 7.3 24.5 17.2 29.710India 7.0 32.3 25.3 21.6Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: Data were not available for 83 of 214 countries.
    • 16. Pupil-Teacher Ratio. Secondary(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 17. RepetitionRates
    • 18. Which regions have the highestprimary repetition rates? Globally, the percent ofrepeaters in primaryschools has decreasedfrom 5.3% in 1999 to4.8% in 2011. Repetition rates haveconsistently been lowestin ECA and EAP (lessthan 2.3% over time). SSA and LAC have hadthe highest levels ofrepetition over time, butboth regions improvedfrom around 12% toaround 8% over time. SAS is the only regionwith a higher currentrepetition rate (4.9% in2009) than in 1999(4.7%).Levels of primary repetition are higher in LACand SSA and lower in ECA and EAP.0123456789101112131999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Percentageofrepeatersinprimary.Allgrades.TotalSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    • 19. Which countries have the highestrepetition rates in primary? One third of studentsrepeat in Burundi andalmost ¼ repeat inComoros. All countries on the listare in SSA. 17 out of thetop 20 are also in SSA.Timor-Leste, Iraq, andSuriname are theexceptions. Six countries in the listhave decreased repetitionover time:Madagascar, Congo, Lesotho, Togo, Chad, andComoros. Burundi’s repetition ratehas increased by almost10 percentage points overtime from 26.3% in 2002to 36.2% in 2011.10 Countries with the HighestPrimary Repetition Rates(2006-2012)1 Burundi 36.22 Comoros 24.43 Central African Republic 22.64 Chad 21.65 Togo 21.56 Lesotho 20.07 Malawi 19.68 Madagascar 19.49 Equatorial Guinea 19.310 Congo, Rep. 18.4Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data were for the most recent available year; Black data is from 2011;Blue = 2010; Data were not available for 56 of 214 countries.
    • 20. Which countries have decreasedprimary repetition rates the most? These countrieshave decreased theirprimary repetitionrates by 8 to 22percentage pointsover time. 9 of 10 countries arein SSA. 6 countries havemore than halvedtheir repetition rates. Despite greatimprovement, 7 ofthe countries havecurrent repetitionrates higher than10%.10 Countries with the Largest Decreasesin Primary Repetition RatesPercentagePointsDecreased1999-2002RepetitionRateMostcurrentRepetitionRate%Decreased1 Rwanda 22.3 36.1 13.8 61.82 Mozambique 15.4 23.0 7.7 66.73Sao Tome andPrincipe14.4 25.8 11.4 55.94 Cameroon 12.7 25.2 12.5 50.35 Madagascar 11.0 30.5 19.4 36.26 Benin 10.8 21.6 10.8 49.87 Senegal 10.7 13.6 3.0 78.18 Mauritania 10.6 14.1 3.5 75.59 Nepal 9.6 21.6 12.0 44.610Guinea 8.2 20.8 12.7 39.2Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: Data were not available for 82 of 214 countries.
    • 21. Primary Repetition Rate (%)(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 22. Do females repeat more thanmales in primary schools? Globally, there is lessthan half a percentagepoint differencebetween male/femalerepetition rates. Malesrepeat slightly morethan females. Males also repeatmore than females inall regions except forECA. The greatest genderdisparity is in MNA at2.5 percentage points. In SSA, there is almostno difference inrepetition ratesbetween males andfemales.Males repeat more than females in all regionsexcept ECA.012345678910EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDPercentageofrepeatersinprimary.AllgradesMale FemaleSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: SAS data is 2009; All other data is for 2011.
    • 23. Which countries have the highestrepetition rates in secondary? 20 to 26% of allsecondary students arerepeaters in thesecountries. 9 of 10 countries are inSSA. Togo’s repetition rateshas increased by 6percentage points overtime. Benin, Chad, andBurkina Faso also hadworsening repetitionrates. Burundi improved itsrepetition rate by over12 percentage points.2310 Countries with the HighestSecondary Repetition Rates(2006-2012)1 Togo 26.12 Burkina Faso 25.83 Burundi 24.24 Congo, Rep. 23.65 Benin 23.46 Sao Tome and Principe 21.37 Iraq 21.38 Mali 19.99 Chad 19.810 Cape Verde 19.7Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013; Notes: Datadisplayed is for the most recent available year. Blue data is for 2007; Black =2011; Green = 2009. Data were not available for 58 of 214 countries.
    • 24. Which countries have decreasedsecondary repetition rates the most? These countrieshave decreased theirsecondary repetitionrates by 7 to 12percentage pointsover time. 4 countries havemore than halvedtheir repetition rates. Despite greatimprovement, 6 ofthe 10 countrieshave currentrepetition rateshigher than 10%.10 Countries with the LargestDecreases in Secondary RepetitionRatesPercentagePointsDecreased1999-2002RepetitionRateMostcurrentRepetitionRate%Decreased1 Burundi 12.4 36.6 24.2 33.92 Eritrea 10.3 20.3 10.1 50.53 Guinea 9.2 23.7 14.6 38.64 Sri Lanka 8.5 9.2 0.7 92.85 Rwanda 8.2 11.8 3.6 69.86 Mozambique 7.7 21.5 13.7 36.07 Ethiopia 7.7 17.1 9.4 45.08 Guinea-Bissau 7.7 20.8 13.1 36.89 Bhutan 7.4 10.7 3.4 68.610Congo, Rep. 7.2 30.8 23.6 23.4Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data were not available for 93 of 214 countries.
    • 25. Secondary Repetition Rate (%)(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 26. Completion
    • 27. Which regions have higherprimary completion rates? 90.3% of primary schoolage students completedprimary school in 2011.This is a 9.3 percentagepoint increase since1999. All regions haveimproved their primarycompletion rates (PCR)over time. SAS had the largestincrease at 23.3percentage points, butstill lags behind otherregions with 88% ofstudents completingprimary in 2011.(continued on next slide)Primary Completion Rates have been increasingin all regions since 1999.505560657075808590951001051999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Primarycompletionrate.TotalSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    • 28. Which regions have higherprimary completion rates? (continued) SSA also improvedgreatly over time (17.8percentage points) butlagged far behind otherregions in 2011 with a70% PCR. In 2011, LAC had thehighest share of primaryschool age studentscompleting primaryschool at 101.6%. PCRsover 100% are typicallydue to over/under agestudents entering the lastgrade of primary orrepetition.Primary Completion Rates have been increasingin all regions since 1999.505560657075808590951001051999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Primarycompletionrate.TotalSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    • 29. Which countries have the lowestprimary completion rates? Less than half ofprimary school agechildren completeprimary school in thetop 7 countries. 9 of 10 countries are inSSA. All the countries on thelist have increased theirPCRs over time exceptUganda and EquatorialGuinea. Niger and Mali haveincreased their PCRsthe most over time – 25and 21 percentagepoints respectively.2910 Countries with the LowestPrimary Completion Rates(2006-2012)1 Eritrea 38.02 Chad 38.23 Central African Republic 43.04 Burkina Faso 45.15 Djibouti 45.86 Niger 46.27 Angola 46.68 Equatorial Guinea 51.79 Uganda 54.910 Mali 55.4Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: Data are for the most recent available data year; Black data are for2011; Blue are for 2010; Data were not available for 45 countries.
    • 30. Which countries have increasedprimary completion rates the most? These countrieshave increased theirprimary completionrates by 31 to 43percentage pointsover time. 5 countries havemore than doubledtheir primarycompletion rates. Despite greatimprovement, 7 ofthe 10 countrieshave current primarycompletion ratesless than 75%.10 Countries with theMost Improvement inPrimary Completion RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2002PCRMostcurrentPCR%Improved1 Bhutan 42.9 52.2 95.1 82.12 Zambia 40.8 62.5 103.3 65.33 Rwanda 40.0 29.6 69.6 135.04 Guinea-Bissau 37.9 29.7 67.6 127.45 Sao Tome andPrincipe37.6 61.6 99.1 61.06 Madagascar 36.1 36.8 72.9 98.47 Burundi 34.9 27.3 62.1 127.88 Mozambique 33.9 22.3 56.2 151.79 Ethiopia 32.4 31.7 64.0 102.310Mauritania 31.3 43.5 74.8 71.8Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data were not available for 68 of 214 countries.
    • 31. Primary Completion Rate (2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 32. Are more boys completing primaryschool than girls? Globally, more malesare completing primaryschool than females.The difference betweenmale/female PCRs hasshrunk from 6percentage points in1999 to 1.8 in 2011. In most regions, moremales complete primarythan females, but inLAC and EAP, thereverse is true. EAPs female PCR was2.4 percentage pointshigher than the malePCR. LAC’s was 0.7percentage pointshigher for females.(continued on next slide)Globally and in most regions, more malescomplete primary school than females.6065707580859095100105EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDPrimarycompletionrate.FemaleorMaleMale FemaleSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: All data are for 2011 except EAP and SAS (2010).
    • 33. Are more boys completing primaryschool than girls? (continued) SSA has the largestgender disparity inPCRs with 74% of boyscompleting vs. 67% ofgirls in 2011. MNA also has a largegender disparity at 6percentage pointsdifference between thegenders. SAS had a large genderdisparity in 1999 (15percentage points) butdecreased thedifference to 2.7percentage points in2010.Globally and in most regions, more malescomplete primary school than females.6065707580859095100105EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDPrimarycompletionrate.FemaleorMaleMale FemaleSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: All data are for 2011 except EAP and SAS (2010).
    • 34. Primary Completion Rate. Female(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 35. Gender Parity Index for PrimaryCompletion Rate(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.GenderParityFemaleBiasMaleBias
    • 36. Are there gender, income or locationdisparities in primary completion rates? Gender disparities existin all regions inPCRs, but they aresurpassed by incomedisparities in all regionsexcept for ECA. The greatest disparitiesexist in SSA, wherethere is a 55 percentagepoint difference betweenthe PCRs of top andbottom quintile students.This compares to a 33point difference betweenurban and rural, and 9point between genders. In EAP and ECA, morerural students completeprimary school thanurban students.2Low income is the greatest source of disparity inprimary completion rates in all regions except ECA.-5051015202530354045505560EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinPrimaryCompletionRate(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
    • 37. Are there gender, income or locationdisparities in secondary completion rates? Low income is thegreatest source ofdisparity in secondarycompletion rates in allregions. The disparity isgreatest in SAS (60percentage points), LAC(44), and SSA (40). Rural residence is asource of disparity inSAS (29 percentagepoint disparity), LAC(25), and SSA (22). A slightly higherpercentage of femalescomplete secondary inECA and LAC, but theopposite is true in otherregions.2Income is the greatest source of disparity insecondary completion rates in all regions.-10-5051015202530354045505560EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinSecondaryCompletionRate(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
    • 38. Lower Secondary Graduation Rate(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 39. LearningOutcomes
    • 40. Where are the greatest incomedisparities in PISA math scores?-30-101030507090110IcelandNorwayAzerbaijanQatarMontenegroMacao-ChinaSloveniaFinlandAustraliaCanadaChineseTaipeiSwedenJapanSwitzerlandDenmarkEstoniaRussiaIrelandUnitedKingdomNetherlandsGreeceHongKong-ChinaSpainItalyAustriaKyrgyzstanSerbiaLiechtensteinSlovakRepublicLuxembourgLatviaPolandGermanyCzechRepublicKoreaNewZealandHungaryFranceLithuaniaJordanRomaniaBelgiumIndonesiaBulgariaUnitedStatesTunisiaThailandMexicoPortugalTurkeyColombiaUruguayChileArgentinaBrazilPointsDifferencebetweenQuintile5and1onPISAMathScaleSource: Porta and Mcdonald based on Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009) data, 2010Richer students have higher scores in all but 3 countries – Iceland, Norway, andAzerbaijan. The greatest income disparities are in 5 Latin American countries –Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Colombia.
    • 41.  5th graders inGabon (61.4) andCameroon (53.4)scored the higheston the Frenchlanguageassessment. Gabon’s meanscore almostdoubled Benin andChad’s scores (31.6and 31.7respectively). Only three countriesscored higher than40 on a 100 pointscale.Mean Reading Scores vary greatly acrossFrancophone African countries.How do reading levels vary betweenAfrican countries?Source: Programme dAnalyse des Systèmes Educatifs de la CONFEMEN inEdStats, August 2011.3035404550556065MeanperformanceontheFrenchlanguagescale(100possiblepoints)for5thgradestudents(2004-2009)
    • 42.  Tanzania, Seychelles, and Mauritius had thehighest reading scores in2007. Mauritius and Tanzaniaboth improved theirscores, but Seychelles’score was lower than in2000. Some countries havelarge disparities betweengenders, but in thesecases, females havehigher scores thanmales(Seychelles, Mauritiusand Botswana). Malawi and Zambia havehad the lowest scoresover time.Mean reading scores of 6th grade students varygreatly between Anglophone African countries.How do reading levels vary betweenAfrican countries?420440460480500520540560580600620Meanperformanceonthereadingscale(2000&2007)2000 Total Male 2007 Female 2007 Total 2007Source: Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality(SACMEQ) in EdStats, August 2011; Note: Zimbabwe 2000 is 1995 figure.
    • 43. How do reading scores vary betweenincome groups in African countries? In all SACMEQcountries, studentsfrom the lowest incomequintile have lowerreading scores thanstudents in the highestincome quintile, but thescale of incomedisparity varies greatly. South Africa has thelargest disparitybetween richest andpoorest followed byNamibia. Lesotho, Mozambique,and Malawi seem tohave the less of adisparity betweenincome groups inreading scores.400425450475500525550575600625MeanScoreonReadingAssessmentSource: Filmer using Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium forMonitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) 2000 databaseRichest quintile of students Poorest quintile of studentsAverage scorePoorer students have lower mean reading scores inall Anglophone African countries.
    • 44.  ElSalvador, Nicaragua, CostaRica, Peru, Guatemala,and Colombia arewithin 5 percentagepoints of gender parity.Female scores arehigher than male scoresin these countries. Uruguay has the largestdifference betweenmale/female readingscores with a 19.6percentage point malebias. Panama (15.9), Brazil(15.7), Cuba (15.2), andthe Dominican Rep.(15.1) also have large Source: Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality ofEducation (LLECE SERCE) in StatPlanet, August 2011Have LAC countries reached genderparity in reading levels?Difference between Male/Female Mean Scores onthe 6th Grade Reading Assessment (2006)
    • 45.  In all countries, meanscores for rural studentsare lower than for urbanstudents. The greatest locationdisparity is in Peru (79)followed by Mexico (58). Cuba has the smallestdisparity betweenrural/urban areas (13)followed by Nicaragua(21). The scale of disparitybetween urban/ruralscores is much higherthan the disparitybetween male/femalescores.Source: Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality ofEducation (LLECE SERCE) in StatPlanet, August 2011Does rural/urban residence impact6th grade reading levels in LAC?Difference between Urban/Rural Mean Scores onthe 6th Grade Reading Assessment (2006)
    • 46. YouthLiteracy
    • 47. Have youth literacy rates improvedover time? Global youth literacyrates have improvedfrom 83.3% (1985-2004)to 89.6% (2005-2010) or6.3 percentage points. Still, around 10% ofyouth emerge fromeducation systemsaround the world withoutbasic literacy skills. All regions showedimprovement in youthliteracy rates over time. SAS showed the mostdramatic improvementfrom 58% to 79.5% -- a21 percentage pointimprovement.(continued on next slide)Youth literacy rates have been increasing inall regions over time.50556065707580859095100EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDYouthliteracyrate(%).Total1985-19941995-20042005-2010Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
    • 48.  ECA has consistentlyhad the highest youthliteracy rate rangingfrom 98-99%. Over time, EAP hasalmost caught up toECA’s high youthliteracy levels and LACtrails closely behind.More than 97% ofyouth are literate inthese regions. More 25% of youth areilliterate in SSA, butthis is a 6 percentagepoint improvementover 1985-1995.Have youth literacy rates improvedover time? (continued)Youth literacy rates have been increasing inall regions over time.50556065707580859095100EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDYouthliteracyrate(%).Total1985-19941995-20042005-2010Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
    • 49. Which countries have the lowestyouth literacy rates? Less than half of youthare literate in BurkinaFaso, Mali and Chad. All of the countries withthe lowest literacy ratesare in SSA. Of the 142 countries withdata, 22 countries haveyouth literacy rates lessthan 75%. All are in SSAexcept forPakistan, Haiti, andPapua New Guinea. 89 countries have youthliteracy rates higher than95%.10 Countries with the LowestYouth Literacy Rates(2006-2010)1 Burkina Faso 39.32 Mali 44.33 Chad 47.04 Benin 55.05 Ethiopia 55.06 Sierra Leone 59.47 Guinea 63.48 Madagascar 64.99 Congo, Dem. Rep. 65.010 Senegal 65.0Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data were not available for 72 countries. Most recent data year isdisplayed; Black = 2010; Green = 2009; Blue = 2007.
    • 50. Which countries have increased youthliteracy rates the most over time? These countries haveincreased their youthliteracy rates by 10 to16 percentage pointsover time. 8 of 10 countries arein SSA. Despite greatimprovement, only 4of 10 countries haveyouth literacy rateshigher than 75%. Four countries’ ratesworsened by morethan 2% over thesame period: Iraq,Madagascar, Haiti,and Congo, Dem.Rep.10 Countries with theMost Improvement inYouth Literacy RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2004Rate2006-2010Rate%Improved1 Guinea 16.3 47.1 63.4 34.62 Senegal 15.9 49.1 65.0 32.43 Gambia, The 14.1 52.6 66.7 26.84 Bangladesh 13.4 63.6 77.0 21.15 Nepal 13.0 70.1 83.1 18.56 Guinea-Bissau 12.6 59.5 72.1 21.27 Sierra Leone 11.5 47.9 59.4 24.08 Eritrea 11.4 77.9 89.3 14.69 Ghana 10.1 70.7 80.8 14.310Mozambique 9.9 61.9 71.8 16.0Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: Data are most current available year within the time period;Data were not available for 93 of 214 countries.
    • 51. Youth Literacy Rate. Total(2006-2010)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 52. Is there disparity betweengenders in youth literacy rates? Globally, there is still agender gap in youthliteracy rates, though thegap has been shrinkingover time. There was a 8.6%difference between maleand female youth literacyrates during 1985-1994. The gender gap shrunkby 41.5% to 5.0% during2005-2010. 92% ofmales were literatecompared to 87% offemales.Fewer females emerge from educationsystems with basic literacy skills than males.87.690.492.279.083.987.17075808590951985-1994 1995-2004 2005-2010YouthLiteracyRate(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Male Female
    • 53. Are gender disparities in youthliteracy rates decreasing? Gender disparitiesbetween male andfemale youth literacyrates have decreased inall regions. EAP, ECA, and LAChave achieved almostperfect gender parity(1.0), whileMNA, SAS, and SSAlag behind. SAS and MNA haveimproved greatly overtime: They moved 0.17and 0.14 closer togender parity. Progress in SSA hasbeen slower with only0.09 improvement.Gender disparities in youth literacy rates havedecreased over time in all regions.0.900.930.950.650.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051985-1994 1995-2004 2005-2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forYouthLiteracyRateSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    • 54. Gender Parity Index for YouthLiteracy Rate(2006-2010)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.GenderParityMaleBiasMaleBiasMaleBias
    • 55. Which countries have thelowest female literacy rates? The 20 lowest femaleyouth literacy rateswere all found in Sub-Saharan Africancountries except forPakistan. Only 1/3 of femaleyouth are literate inBurkina Faso and Mali. Less than half offemale youth areliterate in the top 5countries.10 Countries with the LowestFemale Youth Literacy Rates(2006-2010)1 Burkina Faso 33.12 Mali 33.93 Chad 40.64 Benin 44.65 Ethiopia 47.06 Sierra Leone 50.17 Senegal 56.28 Guinea 57.09 Central African Republic 58.210 Pakistan 61.5Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013; Note:Data points are the most recent year available: Green = 2009; Blue =2007; Black = 2010; Data were not available for 71 countries.
    • 56. Which countries have increased femaleyouth literacy rates the most over time? These countries haveincreased their femaleyouth literacy rates by14 to 23 percentagepoints over time. 8 of 10 countries arein SSA and 2 are inSAS. Despite greatimprovement, only 4of 10 countries havefemale youth literacyrates higher than75%. Haiti’s female youthliteracy rate worsenedover the period by 10percentage points.10 Countries with theMost Improvement inFemale Youth Literacy RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2004Rate2006-2010Rate%Improved1 Guinea 22.9 34.1 57.0 67.22 Gambia, The 20.3 41.4 61.7 49.13 Guinea-Bissau 19.4 45.9 65.3 42.34 Nepal 18.2 60.1 78.4 30.35 Bangladesh 18.2 60.3 78.5 30.36 Chad 17.3 23.2 40.6 74.67 Eritrea 17.2 69.5 86.7 24.78 Senegal 15.2 41.0 56.2 37.29 Mozambique 15.0 50.0 65.1 30.010Ghana 14.4 65.5 79.9 22.0Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: Data are most current available year within the time period;Data were not available for 92 of 213 countries.
    • 57. Youth Literacy Rate. Female(2006-2010)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 58. AdultLiteracy
    • 59. Have adult literacy rates improvedover time? Global adult literacyrates improved from75.7% to 84.1% -- an 8percentage pointincrease over time. Still, 16% of adults haveemerged fromeducation systemswithout basic literacyskills. All regions showedimprovement in adultliteracy rates, but MNAimproved the most from56% to 76% -- a 20percentage pointincrease over time.(continued on next slide)Adult literacy rates have been increasing overthe years in all regions.404550556065707580859095100EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDAdultliteracyrate(%).Total1985-19941995-20042005-2010Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
    • 60. Have adult literacy rates improvedover time? (continued) ECA has consistentlyhad the highest adultliteracy rates (95%+). More than 1/3 of adultsare illiterate in SASand SSA, but SASimproved from 46% to62% – a 16 percentagepoint increase. SSA has improvedmore slowly than SASat 8.4 percentagepoints of improvementover time.Adult literacy rates have been increasing over theyears in all regions.404550556065707580859095100EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDAdultliteracyrate(%).Total1985-19941995-20042005-2010Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
    • 61. Which countries have the lowestadult literacy rates? 9 of the 10 countrieswith the lowest adultliteracy rates are inSSA. Haiti is theexception. Less than one third ofadults are literate in Maliand Burkina Faso. Of the 149 countrieswith data, 20 countrieshave adult literacy ratesless than 60% and 43countries have adultliteracy rates less than75%. 75 countries have adultliteracy rates higher than90%.10 Countries with the Lowest AdultLiteracy Rates(2006-2010)1 Burkina Faso 28.72 Mali 31.13 Chad 34.54 Ethiopia 39.05 Guinea 41.06 Sierra Leone 42.17 Benin 42.48 Haiti 48.79 Senegal 49.710 Gambia, The 50.0Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data were not available for 71 countries. Data are for the most recentavailable year. Purple = 2006; Blue = 2007; Green = 2009; Black = 2010.
    • 62. Which countries have increased adultliteracy rates the most over time? These countries haveincreased their adultliteracy rates by 9 to21 percentage pointsover time. 7 of 10 countries arein SSA. Despite greatimprovement, at least30% of adults wereilliterate in all thesecountries exceptSudan. Haiti’s adult literacyrate worsened by 10percentage points,and Madagascar’s by6 percentage points.10 Countries with theMost Improvement inAdult Literacy RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2004Rate2006-2010Rate%Improved1 Timor-Leste 20.7 37.6 58.3 55.12 Eritrea 15.3 52.5 67.8 29.13 Gambia, The 13.1 36.8 50.0 35.74 Guinea-Bissau 12.8 41.4 54.2 31.05 Nepal 11.7 48.6 60.3 24.16 Guinea 11.3 29.7 41.0 38.27 Senegal 10.4 39.3 49.7 26.58 Sudan 9.7 61.3 71.1 15.89 Ghana 9.4 57.9 67.3 16.210Bangladesh 9.3 47.5 56.8 19.6Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013;Notes: Data are most current available year within the time period;Data were not available for 87 of 214 countries.
    • 63. Adult Literacy Rate. Total(2006-2010)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 64. Is there disparity betweengenders in adult literacy rates? Globally, there is still agender gap in adultliteracy rates, though thegap has been shrinkingover time. There was a 12.6%difference between male(82%) and female(69.4%) adult literacyrates during 1985-1994. The gender gap shrunkby 29% to 8.9% during2005-2010. 88.6% ofmales were literatecompared to 79.7% offemales.Fewer adult females have basic literacy skills,but the gender gap has decreased over time.82.086.988.669.476.979.701020304050607080901001985-1994 1995-2004 2005-2010AdultLiteracyRate(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Mar. 2013Male Female
    • 65. Have gender disparities in adultliteracy rates decreased over time? Gender disparities inadult literacy rates havedecreased over time inall regions. ECA and LAC haveachieved gender paritywith GPIs at 0.98. MNA, SAS, and EAPhave made the mostprogress by moving0.16, 0.13, and 0.13closer to 1.0 (genderparity) respectively. Progress in SSA hasbeen slower with only0.09 improvement. SAS, SSA, and MNA arefurthest from genderparity in adult literacy.All regions are moving closer to gender parityin adult literacy rates.0.85 0.88 0.900.500.550.600.650.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051985-1994 1995-2004 2005-2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forAdultLiteracyRateSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    • 66. Which countries have thelowest female literacy rates? Less than one quarterof females are literatein the top 3 countries –Mali, BurkinaFaso, and Chad. Lessthan one third offemales are literate inthe top 7 countries. All the countries on thelist are in SSA exceptPakistan. Of the 144 countrieswith data, 19 countrieshave female adultliteracy rates less than50% and 70 countrieshave rates higher than90%.10 Countries with the LowestFemale Adult Literacy Rates(2006-2010)1 Mali 20.32 Burkina Faso 21.63 Chad 24.24 Ethiopia 28.95 Guinea 30.06 Benin 30.37 Sierra Leone 31.48 Senegal 38.79 Pakistan 40.310 Gambia, The 40.4Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data were not available for 71 countries. Data are for the most recentavailable year. Blue = 2007; Green = 2009; Black = 2010.
    • 67. Which countries have increased femaleadult literacy rates the most over time? These countries haveincreased their femaleadult literacy rates by11 to 23 percentagepoints over time. Six of the countries arein SSA; 2 are in SAS. Despite greatimprovement, morethan 1/3 of women areilliterate in all of thesecountries except SaudiArabia. Haiti’s rate worsenedby 10.3 percentagepoints over time.10 Countries with theMost Improvement inFemale Adult Literacy RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2004Rate2006-2010Rate%Improved1 Timor-Leste 23.0 30.0 53.0 76.52 Eritrea 17.3 40.2 57.5 43.13 Gambia, The 15.4 25.1 40.4 61.44 Nepal 13.5 34.9 48.3 38.65 Guinea-Bissau 13.1 27.5 40.6 47.76 Saudi Arabia 12.1 69.3 81.3 17.47 Guinea 11.8 18.2 30.0 64.78 Ghana 11.4 49.8 61.2 22.99 Bangladesh 11.4 40.8 52.2 27.910Chad 11.4 12.8 24.2 89.0Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: Data are most current available year within the time period;Data were not available for 90 of 213 countries.
    • 68. Adult Literacy Rate. Female(2006-2010)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 69. This presentation utilizes the following data sources:1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics data in the EdStats Query The presentation was created with the most recent UIS data release that included2011 data for most indicators/countries and 2012 data for 3 countries:Kazakhstan, Sao Tome and Principe, and Ghana. Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitions available in the EdStatsQuery.2) Income/Gender/Location Disparity slides were based on data extractedfrom: Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and LivingStandards Measurement Studies for 1985-2007; Reports were generated throughADePT Edu by Emilio Porta (2011). Porta, Emilio, Gustavo Arcia, Kevin Macdonald, Sergiy Radyakin, and MishaLokshin. 2011. Assessing Sector Performance and Inequality in Education.Washington, DC: World Bank.3) Learning Outcome Data from the EdStats Query: Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality(SACMEQ) Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality of Education (LLECESERCE) Programme dAnalyse des Systèmes Educatifs de la CONFEMEN (PASEC)Data Sources
    • 70. The State of Education SeriesThe following State of Education presentationsare available on the EdStats website:Educational Levels: Pre-Primary Education Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary EducationTopics: Access Quality Expenditures Gender Literacy

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