New approaches to scaling up WASH technologies


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A presentation introducing the technology applicability framework (TAF) by Sean Furey from Skat during a side meeting at the water & health conference, at the University of North Carolina (UNC), USA16 October 2013.

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  • Hygiene, sanitation and clean water are such basic necessities that we barely give them a thought. This morning, the first thing I did when I got out of bed was go the toilet, flush it, turn on the tap and wash my hands.  You probably did the same. Like me you probably do that routine everyday.
  • But what if you woke up and you had no toilet. Where would you go? Perhaps in the container near the bed, but then where do you empty that? In the street? In a field? Out of the window onto a passer-by?  Would you wash your hands if the nearest water was over a kilometre away? This is a situation faced by at least 2.5 billion people who don't have access to improved sanitation and 780 million people who don't have access to an improved water source. To take those big numbers and put it another way - in a group of 20 people living in rural areas, 9of those have no access to a toilet, and 4 of them don't have access to safe water - and those figures are probably on
  • Misha lives in a village. Every morning she gets up before dawn to go and collect water from the river. It is more than 3km and she goes before dawn so that she can shit in a field without being seen. She hates doing it and lives in fear that one morning she might get attacked. 
  • Meet Sara, she is an engineer. Sara hears about Uma’s plight and wants to help her, and her community, by bringing safe water and sanitation to Uma’s village, and she has some great ideas and tools to do that. However she doesn't just want a better life for Uma’s village, she wants the whole region, the whole country to have at least a basic level of service.
  • Meet Godfrey. He works for the government. He wants to help Uma and her community but his resources are stretched and he doesn't have enough skilled staff. Godfrey likes Petra’s ideas and products, but he is worried:  his country is littered with junk from well-meaning folk who came to pilot their WASH technologies. Although most of the the pilots were judged to besuccessful, almost none made it to scale. Now all remains are rusting remains and villagers who are cynical of outsiders, or who are just waiting for the next free gift.
  • So how can Uma, Sara and Godfrey work together?  They meet, along with other users, regulators, producers, funders and retailers and they test the technology in Uma’s village.
  • Together they will be using the Technology Applicability Framework, or TAF. A tool developed by the three year WASHTech project
  • So first
  • The second stage of the TAF uses structured
  • Uma lives in a village. Every morning she gets up goes to her latrine and then gets water from her protected well. It’s not perfect, but they are easy and cheap to maintain and the quality of life and health for herself and her family is improved massively.
  • 4 groups of 8Within each group you need representatives fromLocal NGO – these people will facilitate the discussionCommunity membersLocal governmentSuppliers of technologyYou can decide how many people you have in each roleTechnology fact sheet that everyone can look atYou have XX minutes to have your meeting and then 1 or 2 people from each group need to feed back. Up to you if you want to use flip chart or just present without.
  • even under two hours' of constant "play" every day, a play pump could theoretically provide the bare minimum drinking water requirements for about 200 people a day which is considerably less than its claimed potential. It is also necessary to build sufficient water storage capacity to cover the times when children are not playing or when pump/roundabout maintenance is required Not suitable for adult use – but often collecting water falls to womenFor the same costs, at least four conventional wells with hand pumps and associated safe sanitation and hygiene education could be implemented There is also some concern about the possible social consequences of using a system that encourages children to associate pumping water with "play". This association might undermine efforts to encourage water conservation or teach children to be mindful of the environment (Peterson, 2008). Using children to pump water could also be considered to be child labour.
  • New approaches to scaling up WASH technologies

    1. 1. NEW APPROACHES TO SCALING UP WASH Technologies ‘Water & Health 2013’ UNC October 2013 1
    2. 2. agenda - Thurs pm [1] Welcome & Presentations [2] Speed dating [3] TAF Exercise (intro) TEA BREAK [3] TAF Exercise [4] Conclusions & Close CLOSE 2
    3. 3. agenda [1] Presentations - 60min – Welcome and introductions - 10min – Introducing the TAF & TIP (Sean, Skat) 20min – ‚Title‛ (Water Missions) – 15mins 3
    4. 4. [2] Speed-Dating - 20min – your name, – your organisation, – what technology or service are trying – or have tried – to introduce to a new context? 4
    5. 5. [3] TAF Exercise – Introduction: what and why and quick Q&A – 10min TEA BREAK – Introduction: how the exercise will work – Exercise – 50min 5
    6. 6. [4] Conclusions & Close – Synthesis of group conclusions 6
    8. 8. the daily routine 8
    9. 9. this is poo 9
    10. 10. meet Uma the User 10
    11. 11. meet Petra the Producer 11
    12. 12. meet Godfrey from the Government 12
    13. 13. Let’s get them together 13
    14. 14. TAF – technology applicability framework 14
    15. 15. WASH technology to Does it meet be assessed my needs Will it physically work here? Are the cultural habits and traditions that may forbid the use of this technology? 15
    16. 16.  Assessment of the potential of a WASH technology in a specific context Does it fit with standards and regulations? Can I afford it? Can everyone in my community get access? Are there skilled people to keep it working? What service support is needed, and from who? Is there a viable business model? 16
    18. 18. • Recorded on indicator sheets 18
    19. 19. 19
    20. 20. 20
    21. 21. Who is the TAF for? • Those who want to assess whether a new technology should be supported or included on a short list • Inventors/Promoters of new WASH solutions looking to introduce and scale up in a new region or country • Anyone wanting to evaluate the success or failure of an existing technology 21
    22. 22. About WASHTech • 2011-2013, funded by the EU • Piloted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Uganda • Project Partners: 22
    23. 23. Piloting Rope Pump Rope Pump Rope Pump VIP Latrine Pour Flush Toilet Tippy Tap Urine Dry Diverting Toilet (UDDT) Enviroloo Urine Dry Diverting Toilet (UDDT) India Mark II Ghana Modified India Mark II U2 (India Mark II) Handpump Rainwater Harvesting Tank Biofil Toilet Solar Water Pump Sand Dam Slow Sand Filter Ferro Cement Tank 23
    24. 24. not perfect, but better… 24
    25. 25. GROUP EXERCISE: PUMPS 25
    26. 26. SCENARIO A new pump technology is being proposed for a rural village. A meeting has been called by the local NGO implementing the project to decide whether or not this technology is sustainable and appropriate for context. 26
    27. 27. ROLES • Split into four groups – each group splits into four roles user/ community member Producer/ supplier Government representativ e NGO Facilitator 27
    28. 28. WHAT TO DO • Each role has a background sheet with some scenario information • The NGO facilitator has to example TAF questions to guide the discussions 28
    29. 29. SCORING • Summary of technology • Key points of discussion • Any decisions about implementation 29
    30. 30. GROUPS A C (household water filter) Credit: Guguplextech B Urine diverting dry toilet D Credit: Water for People 30
    31. 31. Questions? 31
    32. 32. Results – Solar pump Credit: Guguplextech Solar technologies often exempt from taxes Communities aspire to have the technology Very robust and needs almost no maintenance and repair costs Can put structures in place to manage loans Good supply chain of parts as they are non specific to technology People not willing to contribute regularly as they don’t see where the money is going Expensive Social marketing required for acceptance Users need educating about how the technology works High number of counterfeit products Needs specialist skills to repair 32
    33. 33. Results – Play pump Credit: Water for People Sturdy technology Could work well in a school situation To meet stated targets children would have to play for 27 hours a day! Not suitable for adult use or young children Not possible to see how full the tank is Water not available at the required times of the day Patent holder has the sole rights to the manufacture of the pump and spares Expensive Require heavy specialised equipment to install and maintain Key parts of pump difficult to access and concrete slab must be broken Not totally safe to use. Cannot be in shade. Some governments have banned them Companies don’t want to pay for advertising in rural areas Villagers would prefer an Afridev 33