Supply Solutions – Demand Solutions<br /><ul><li> Effective institutional frameworks have been set up
All the countries in the region have developed national water plans within Agenda 21.
We must protect and conserve the available water resources as much as possible</li></li></ul><li>Policy Proposals & Ways Forward<br /><ul><li> Must promote both the new and the traditional systems of water management.
Reliance on desalinated water alone could be a risky policy considering the volatile nature of oil prices and revenues.
The sustainable use of groundwater resources should be a consideration in the overall integrated water resource management policy of each country.</li></li></ul><li>Policy Proposals & Ways Forward<br /><ul><li> Agriculture: given the large amount of groundwater used for irrigation, the emphasis should be put on improving irrigation efficiency through: </li></ul>expanding the use of modern irrigation systems and automated irrigation scheduling systems to increase water productivity; <br />shifting from low value and high water consuming crops/ vegetables grown in open fields to high value vegetables grown in greenhouses; and<br />reducing the area of high water consuming crops such as fodder<br />
Environmental Management<br />There are a number of Environmental Management policy approaches to handle water issues:<br />Command-And-Control Instruments (CAC):<br />Market-based Economic Instruments (MBI):<br />Persuasive Measure: <br />
Conclusions<br />Finally, there is no one solution that fits all. Nevertheless, we can conclude the following on water costing: <br /><ul><li>Appropriate cost recovery in water sector promotes resource conservation by encouraging efficient use of water and facilitates cost recovery.
Water tariffs must conform to a set of conditions, most important of which is that they are affordable to all, and that they are administratively and institutionally feasible.
Every country may need to tailor own management system to fit its specific needs. Policy measures vary from state to state and from local to national and regional levels of governance.
Finally, different actors naturally perceive different problems and priorities.</li>