The uprooted Khadija Darmame

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  • yes peopl always moved in the human history but we can not tolerate in the 21 centry It’s sad to know that this kurdish population suffers from segregation (250 000 kurdish suffered from brutal laws! It’s not only an issue of food insecurity but also an issue of social justice and dignity in one of the most rich area in Syria..oil These pictures were widely circulated on Syrian websites, blogs and Facebook groups.   The photos show large areas covered by tents. Some depict women washing clothes and cooking outdoors, children playing in dirty and worn clothes, and people crowded in small tents. One photo shows dozens of men waiting to start work at a construction site.
  • And we know
  • Deciding to leave: the uprooted experiences requires deep understanding and analysis We need to understand the alternative strategies developed by people and to their trajectory or move. We address this directly, asking how people make life-changing decisions when they are under great pressure from war, civil conflict, repression, and economic or social crisis. We need to bridge the gap between population and public institutions and theirs policies through an integrated approach.  
  • IWRM is a coordinated process that brings together stakeholders. it focuses on both economic and social welfare and equity as well as protecting ecosystems. It emphasizes proper governance involving democratic participation We have to implement a multistakholder platform Advocating a holistic approach that emphasizes the three goals of economic development, social welfare, and environmental
  • We can go beyond the image of victims often use to treat the affected population, they are the corn stone of change and improvement Prompting our knowledge Capacity building of communities Changing our beliefs
  • The uprooted Khadija Darmame

    1. 1. Environmental Change and Forced Migration Linking water scarcity and uprooted people Khadija Darmame Institut Français du Proche-Orient (IFPO) Amman, Beirut and Damascus
    2. 2. <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the empirical links between water scarcity impacts and uprooted populations in different geographical, political and economical contexts </li></ul><ul><li>To analyse the public policies done by the governments </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate the uprooted experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions and recommendations </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>There are several practical questions that have to be resolved to deliver the adequate strategies which covers institutional; legal, technical, economic, social, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>What does mean uprooted? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a distinction between uprooted, refugee, migrant, displaced ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why it’s important to tackle the issue of the uprooted within water scarcity? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>The term uprooted likens humans to plant populations and implies an attachment to land and place where nourishment including water is essential to their thriving. </li></ul><ul><li>People need their settlements for food and water security and loss of place would mean a plethora of losses including basic needs but also emotional attachments to place and identity. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>International law does not recognise the term uprooted, it is merely employed as jargon. Legal implications are attached to migrants, refugees and internally displaced people (IDPs) but nothing employs the term uprooted in a legal context. </li></ul><ul><li>The terminology used by the UN and most experts/researchers is “environmental refugees defined as people: </li></ul><ul><li>“ who have been forced to leave their traditional habitat, temporarily or permanently, because of a marked environmental disruption (natural and/or triggered by people) that jeopardized their existence and/or seriously affected the quality of their life”. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>The complexity of causal factors of displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Is water scarcity a direct causality for population displacement? </li></ul><ul><li>Water scarcity and drought are driving forces contributing to human displacement but In most cases, they are often filtered through social, political and economic contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Water scarcity can be triggered by political interests and conflict: </li></ul><ul><li>Example the threat by Turkey to restrict the flow of the Euphrates to Syria and Iraq in order to pressure Syria to discontinue its support of Kurdish separatists in Turkey, and the destruction of irrigation systems during conflicts in Somalia, Yemen and Afghanistan. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Why it’s important to tackle the issue of uprooted within the water scarcity? </li></ul><ul><li>It is not new that people move in search for resources, it is a natural phenomenon that governs people and animals in a similar way. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the dominant rhetoric of globalisation is salient, the reality is that people of WANA face the most, constrictions to their mobility (more borders, checkpoints, visa constraints, in brief lack of hospitality) </li></ul><ul><li>People of the WANA region are increasingly encountering wars, conflict, disasters, poverty, economic crises, political unrest, corruption, inequity, deficiency in resources, institutional failure, luck of accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>The media attention on displaced population due to water scarcity and drought is not sufficient, unlike the natural disaster like floods and earthquake. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>In Iraq: </li></ul><ul><li>The collapse of ancient underground aqueducts, triggering severe water shortages, has driven over 100,000 people in northern Iraq from their homes (Dohuk, Ninewah, Erbil, Kirkuk, and Sulaymaniyah) </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Iraq’s cultural heritage, Karez were designed specifically for arid climates to remain productive during dry spells. </li></ul><ul><li>A single karez could potentially provide enough water for almost 9,000 people and irrigate more than 200 hectares of farmland &quot; in northern Iraq were </li></ul><ul><li>Only 116 of 683 karez were in operation at the end of 2010. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Diagram of a karez (qanat) in cross section and aerial view.
    10. 10. <ul><li>About 300,000 families were driven to Damascus, Aleppo and other cities in one of the “largest internal displacements in the Middle East in recent years. </li></ul>In Syria: Water shortage has caused more than 800,000 people to lose “almost all of their livelihoods and face extreme hardship in Qamishli and Hasakeh.
    11. 11. The daily life of refugees The pictures were first posted on a Facebook group called “ No to the injustice and the neglect of the Syrian Jazeera area”.
    12. 12. <ul><li>Occupied Palestinian Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Services structures- mainly water cisterns- in the West Bank were demolished by Israeli authorities in 2010 affecting over 12,500 Palestinians, according to UN.OCHA. </li></ul><ul><li>This infrastructure is mostly funded by international donors. </li></ul><ul><li>The particularly constrictive mobility situation facing Palestinians, who if from Jerusalem for example cannot move to the West Bank and vice versa and we all know Gaza’s prison-like situation. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>A very challenging for the host communities and to the capacities of local and national governments, making more difficult to achieve the Millennium Development Goals of 2015. </li></ul><ul><li>In many places, the existed infrastructures are deteriorated, failing to provide acceptable level of services such as access to a potable water, adequate sanitation, health facilities and food. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>How migration is managed today? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the policies implemented to tackle this issue? </li></ul><ul><li>What is regulatory framework targeting the condition of the uprooted applied locally, nationally and regionally? </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>States adopt reactive rather than preventive or planned strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>The sectoral approaches within the national framework have largely failed in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of statistics and figures reflecting the actual </li></ul><ul><li>The existence of over-exaggerated discourses not necessarily reflective of </li></ul><ul><li>the actual situation and rather alarmist and fatalistic in some cases </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Deciding to leave: the uprooted experiences requires deep understanding and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>How do they cope with the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their alternative strategies? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of social networks do they build? </li></ul><ul><li>Are those affected by water scarcity involved in the decision making? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the level of coordination for prevention and awareness-raising of the government ? </li></ul><ul><li>Has people’s local knowledge been taken into account? </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>What should be done? </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic planning, integrated development plans, social studies, participatory approach, social justice, equity, and .... </li></ul><ul><li>It’s making IWRM into practice: </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: one of the key concept integration: </li></ul><ul><li>Advocating a holistic approach that emphasizes the three goals of economic development, social welfare, and environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal integration between different economic and social sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical integration to coordinate efforts between local, regional, national, and international water user groups and institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements of rigorous data collection and distribution for multiple physical and socio-economic measures. </li></ul><ul><li> IMRM is an illusion without an e ffective Governance and Institutions </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Some recommendations: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the basic factors and indicator to predict the displacement of the population and “repulsive zones” that would instigate migration </li></ul><ul><li>Implement measures to reduce environmental degradation and social vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Indentify the short term emergency steps that governments need to take to prevent migration </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing a returnee reintegration programme for the temporary displaced and programme of integration in the cities </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Take into consideration the diversity of the community contexts and the causes of displacement in the elaboration of strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Developing project portfolio to improve livelihoods of farmers through integrated and participatory approach </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening natural resource management following local models and indigenous knowledge (ex. Hima and aflaj) by mapping and strengthening what exists. </li></ul><ul><li>The current sedentarization projects are not necessarily productive, because movement has a reason, again the concept as relationship between humans and resources are not different from that of animals and resources </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Change in legislation (articles of law), </li></ul><ul><li>Including social aspects for the poor in the structure of management, </li></ul><ul><li>Policies, </li></ul><ul><li>Community involvement in vision and decision making, and participation in project development and community action. </li></ul><ul><li>Science and technology (research-data-mapping, website, renovation,, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Public awareness through social medias ex. Face book! </li></ul>
    21. 21. We never know the worth of water till the well is dry Thanks for your attention
    22. 22.
    23. 23. Model of house built by the government for Al-Rachaida tribe. Their economic system is based on small-scale agriculture and goat-herding Al-Azazmeh tribe, originarly from Bir Saba’a in southern of Palestine. The members of the tribe live under tents, very poor, adopt a nomadic life and practice the goat-herding Labour force principally from Syria and Egypt
    24. 24. Wadi Faynan village Moving out of poverty through a participatory management In arid areas
    25. 25. More information on Karez: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001850/185057e.pdf http://www.jstor.org/pss/211700

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