Regional water info systems Jauad El Kharraz
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  • EMWIS was initiated by the Marseilles Euro-Mediterranean Conference on Local Water Management (November 1996), one year after the Barcelona declaration creating the Euromed Partnership. Today, it is the only operational tool for co-operation between the 37 Euro-Mediterranean countries in the water sector. It aims to: Facilitate access to the information existing on know-how in the water sector, while prioritising the five following topics: the institutions involved in the water sector and their representatives; the documentation on water; the training opportunities; the research and development programmes; the data administration. It has been operational for more than 9 years, with a decentralised approached based on National Focal Point who are responsible for collecting and giving access to information. Today 20 countries have nominated a focal point: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, France , Greece , Italy , Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal , Spain - Algeria , Egypt , Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco , Palestine , Syria, Tunisia , Turkey. The first phase was dedicated build the cooperation network and develop trust between the water authorities. It resulted in national portals dedicated to the water sector and a regional portal (semide.net) today well known in the Med area. From 2005, countries felt the necessity to go a step beyond and to work on data management but without any commitment to share data. Since 2008, the ministerial conference on water of the Union for the Mediterranean (Dead Sea, dec’2008) gave a new impetus with the preparation of a long term strategy and a clear willingness to produce comparable data across the region
  • Need to distinguish ‘meteorological drought’ – specific region where precipitation departs from the norm and ‘hydrological drought’ – deficiencies in surface and subsurface water supplies
  • To analyze in depth the drought and water scarcity occurrence and its extended impacts, one needs to look at the Drivers, Pressures, State, Impacts, and Response –DPSIR- associated with these phenomena.

Regional water info systems Jauad El Kharraz Regional water info systems Jauad El Kharraz Presentation Transcript

  • WANA water information systems to cope with water scarcity & drought Dr. Jauad El Kharraz Euro-Mediterranean Information System on know-how in the Water sector
  • Context of EMWIS activities 1995 Euromed Partnership 1996 Euromed Ministers Initiate EMWIS 1999 EMWIS operational launch 2005 EMWIS first activities on data management 2008 UfM Water Ministerial conference Long Term Water Strategy initiated
      • Focus on know-how sharing
      • 10 years of operation
      • 20 countries
      • About 80 000 visitors per month
    • Confidence between water authorities
    • Feasibility studies of National Water Information Systems ( Algeria, Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia, Turkey)
    • Preliminary analysis for a Mediterranean Water Observation Mechanism - 2006-2007
      • (7 national diagnostic studies, 25 international initiatives consulted)
    Mediterranean Water Strategy 2011
  • Water information value
  • Value of Water Information
    • Policy planning and assessment
      • Knowledge of the resource, its status and evolution
      • Aggregated indicators with socio-economic data
    • Integrated water resources management and risk prevention with all stakeholders
      • Operational monitoring at local level
    • Accountability, public information, awareness raising and participatory approaches
      • (local) status, simulation
    • Research and development
      • Data series
    • Projects and programmes monitoring
      • Simultaneous combination of geographical levels
  • Water data
      • Data availability and reliability are of essential for the national water master plans.
      • Absence of an accessible information system means that even some of the data that were collected in the past are not available to the planners.
      • Good planning depends on the availability of reasonable amount of correct data.
      • Every planning must give considerable thought to what type of data are necessary, how they will be used and for what purposes.
  • Current situation Millennium Objectives (JMP) OECD Others Internat orga Projects … Eurostat./ Medstat ACSAD AFED Med Euwi ENPI Horizon 2020 … FAO EMWIS, ESCWA, ICARDA International level UNEP/ MAP Blue Plan, Medpol CEDARE / AMCOW Public information O1 O2 O3 On Orga. country 1 O1 O2 O3 On Orga. country 2 O1 O2 O3 On Orga. country 3 O1 O2 O3 On Orga country n
  • Opportunities
    • Strong demand of international stakeholders
    • Commitment to NWIS, but not yet developed (information necessary for daily management)
    • Common basic data used for the calculations of indicators
    • Organisational problems rather than lack of data
    • WANA Forum?
    • Lack of legal framework for reporting water data
    • Many international initiatives and political processes
    • Monitoring seen as intrusive for national water management
    Threats &
  • Overall WANA vision Public information Millennium Objectives CSD/ Johannesburg Plan UNEP-MAP (Blue Plan) Others … OECD/Medstat EMWIS Med Euwi ENP ESCWA CEDARE AFED ICARDA ACSAD … WWAP UN agencies Worldbank International organizations Country 1 Country 2 Country 3 Country n Common rules Common definition Common basic indicators WANA Water strategy? Regional reference framework AMCOW O 2 O n O 3 O 1 O 2 O n O 3 O 1 O 2 O n O 3 O 1 O 2 O n O 3 O 1
  • WANA countries are progressing
    • Algeria has finished the implementation of its NWIS (intranet funded by the EU)
    • Tunisia will start the implementation thanks to funding from AWF
    • Morocco has a WIS -> NWIS
    • Jordan will start implementation of its NWIS (a possible funding under the twining framework: EU-Jordan)
    • Palestine and Lebanon are in fund raising phase
    • Egypt: Still difficulties in getting agreement between the national actors (but there is a will)
  • REGIONAL DIMENSION
    • Civil Society:
      • “ underline the need for reliable data and to enable the free flow of information and sharing of data”
    • Ministerial declaration:
      • “ reaffirm the importance of data, information and statistics on water, based on internationally agreed definitions and methods, structured within information system “
      • “ call for strengthening the coordination of existing Euro-Mediterranean initiatives and networks on information and expertise, policy planning and monitoring “
      • “ underline the importance of exchange of good practices, including through EU, Mediterranean, and other relevant programme “
    The regional dimension (1/3)
  • The regional dimension (2/3)
    • UfM Mediterranean Water Strategy
      • Strengthening the provision of data, information and statistics on water
    • Arab Countries water strategy
      • Database on shared water resources
    • EU - Horizon 2020 – Depolution of Mediterranean sea
      • Monitoring: Urban waste water, Industrial emission and Urban solid waste
      • Extension of Shared Environmental Information System
    • UNEP - Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development
      • Resources and Demand indicators
    • UN – Water => World Water Assessment Programme
      • Total freshwater renewable resources
      • MDG goals
      • Water abstraction per sector
    The regional dimension (3/3)
  • Water scarcity & drought in WANA countries
  • Example: Impacts of the 1999 drought in Jordan and the Palestinian territories
    • Winter 1998/1999- rainfall only 30% of annual average
    • Impacts:
    • Economic: Severe agricultural water use restrictions, collapse of rain-fed farming in the West Bank, purchase of water on the black market
    • Social: water rationing in Jordan and the Palestinian Territories, with resulting health implications
    • Environmental: Degradation of stream water quality, sharp water depletion and increased salinity of groundwater systems, increased salinity of soils
    • Other: political ramifications
  • Example: Tunisia
    • 40% of years experienced drought in the last 12, with 2 acute droughts in 87/89 and 93/95
    • Impacts:
    • Economic: Restrictions of water use in agriculture, and fall in agricultural production (olives and cereals)
    • Social: Decrease in farmers’ revenue
    • Environmental: Sharp increase in salinity of surface water and soils, drying up of lakes
  • Example: Syria Population affected by drought in Syria
    • Term “affected population” needs discussion – could be population whose normal water supply is affected, or all the population experiencing small effects, but where water supply restrictions and special measures are adopted
  • Scope of impact: Water Exploitation Index WEI in a country is the mean annual total demand for freshwater divided by the long-term average freshwater resources . WEI > 20 %, water stress WEI > 40 % severe water stress (Raskin et al., 1997)
  • DPSIR framework for Water Scarcity and Drought
  • What indicators?
  • Improve knowledge and data collection Develop a water scarcity and drought Information System across WANA  information on extent, impacts of water scarcity and drought issues – description on the basis of common indicators Disseminate the results of research on water scarcity and drought issues Enhance and encourage research on technological activities.
  • Requested data Water Availability Water Abstraction per source (SW, GW) per provider Water Use per sector per provider large items Recycled water Hydrological balance Additional Water Resources Point data: Streamflow Reservoir in/outflow Groundwater levels
    • Need to ground the selection of specific indicators in the problem at hand.
    • Shared interpretations/definitions are necessary
    • Avoid long lists of indicators, which may have been “correct” but not necessarily relevant.
    • This complexity requires a step-by-step approach in developing indicators: allow questions of relevance and completeness to be answered throughout.
    • Suggestion: main water uses are identified and are used as a check list to develop a comprehensive (but relevant) Water Scarcity indicator system
    Water Scarcity & Drought Indicators System
  • A basis for indicator development: The DPSIR Framework
    • The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response: a thinking framework for the development and categorisation of indicators
    • Implies a certain causality
    • Allows for feedback loops
  • WSD i S - Process and current state ( √ ) Agriculture Domestic Water Supply Industry Energy First comprehensive set of indicators for each use Screened set of indicators for each use (narrowed down) Based on specific criteria (e.g. suitability, data availability , reproducibility, capacity if integration, clarity, diagnostic ability etc . PILOT BASINS testing Final set of indicators Assessments √ √ √ Data availability Survey √ √ √ √ Tourism √ √ √ √ Data Request √ RESPONSES Economic Technical Legislative Educational STATE Water quantity Status of water bodies Land cover Infrastructure Economic PRESSURES Anomalies in physical parameters Water demand (water use, water abstraction) Pressure on water supply infrastructure Pollution Land cover change DRIVERS Climatic changes Economic IMPACTS Water resources Environmental Socio-economic Drivers result in pressures Responses can change a driver Responses can be a driver for change Impacts call for responses Responses can mitigate impacts Pressures have impacts Which (adversely) change the state Which we understand by monitoring the state Changes of state have impacts RESPONSES Economic Technical Legislative Educational STATE Water quantity Status of water bodies Land cover Infrastructure Economic Education Population PRESSURES Anomalies in physical parameters Population Water demand (water use, water abstraction) Water supply infrastructure Pollution Land cover change DRIVERS Climatic changes Population Growth Tourism Infrastructure Economic IMPACTS Water resources Environmental Socio-economic Drivers result in pressures Responses can change a driver Responses can be a driver for change Impacts call for responses Responses can mitigate impacts Pressures have impacts Which (adversely) change the state Which we understand by monitoring the state Changes of state have impacts
  • WSD i S - Pilot Basins participation
    • The Pilot Basins are requested to provide as many indicators as possible
      • To test the applicability and usefulness of the indicators
      • To create pilot Water Scarcity and Drought assessments
      • To select the final screened set of indicators
  • RESPONSES Volume of recycled water / returned flows by source / reused water used / treated return water / additional water resources (water imports, desalinated water) used for all sectors New metering systems installation # of programmes raising awareness and training initiatives Water restrictions frequency (# of days) # (or %) of properties (houses, facilities etc) affected from water restrictions Water restrictions level (moderate, enhanced) # (or %) of properties (houses, facilities etc) with water saving technologies # of beds in tourism facilities where water wise practices are implemented (savings, reuse etc) (T) # of industrial facilities where water wise practices are implemented (savings, reuse etc) (I) Existence of Drought Management Plans (yes/no) Area under good farming practices (GFP) (A) Total public expenditures to develop and promote water saving programmes and measures Environmental charges as % of Water Tariff Domestic Water charges as % of household income (D) Industrial Water charges as % of industrial income (I) STATE Water balance / Reservoir and Ground water Storage / Streamflow / Wells External resources used (over total resources used) Population connected to public water supply % of area covered by water metering systems Coverage (ha) of each type of irrigation system Land use Income generated per sector Educational level of general population and farmers Irrigated and irrigable area (ha) (A) Nitrates and Pesticides in surface (rivers, lakes) and groundwater % wetland areas Water Tariff per sector Public spending in water sector (net number in € or % of the Total public spending) Investments in water supply infrastructures: Reservoirs, Desalination plants PRESSURES Water abstraction per source for public water systems and for self supply Water use per sector and per large item Export of water # new wells for sectoral water self supply. (ADIT) # new licenses for surface water abstraction (ADIT) # new public water supply connections for water uses (ADIT) Change in landuse within the region Urban and Rural Population density (D) DRIVERS Changes in P, ET Change in population (increase/decrease) within the RBD (DE) Change of rural population. (D) Net migration Distribution of rooms per person (D) Nights spent at hotels and similar establishments (T) Tourist arrivals (T) Seasonal workers in the tourism sector (which are not permanent residents) (T) Change of income generated per sector (+/-) (AIET) Yield (tones) per irrigated area (A) Yield (tones) per irrigated area (A) Yield (tones) per crop type (A) % crop type per irrigated area (A) KWh produced per energy production plant: coal, nuclear, geothermal, waste incineration, hydroelectric, solar, wind, bioenergy (E) IMPACTS Reduction of stream flow Reduction in water availability (m3) from surface and groundwater sources Areal extent Saltwater intrusion (as %) Concentration of N, P in rivers, lakes and GW (EEA CSI020) % of area under desertification Soil erosion (tonnes/ha) Frequency of Water service interruption (days per year) Total economic loss due to drought hazards Total public expenditures for drought and water scarcity mitigation Frequency of low pressure incidents (# of days) # (or %) of properties (houses, facilities etc) subject to low pressure Note: The brackets show the initials of the sectors that the indicator can be used for. (Agriculture, Domestic, Industry, Energy, Tourism) The indicators that are not followed from brackets with initials can be used for all the sectors The indicators in Bold are to be reported through the WQ Tool, and the remaining through the xls provided file WSD i S - Pilot Basins - data request
  • Mitigation drought measures TYPES OF MITIGATION MEASURES Indicator 1-0.5 0.5-0.4 0.4-0.3 0.3-0.2 0.2-0.15 0.15-0.1 0.1-0 Status Normal Pre-alert Alert Emergency Objective Planning Information-control Conservation Restrictions Type of measure Strategic Tactics Emergency
  • What policies?
  • What policy options have been identified?  Putting the right price tag on water  Allocating water and water-related funding more efficiently  Improving drought risk management  Considering additional water supply infrastructures  Fostering water efficient technologies and practices  Fostering the emergence of a water-saving culture in WANA  Improve knowledge and data collection
  • Main measures to apply during drought situation
    • New storage facilities
    • Use of marginal resources (groundwater)
    • Aquifer recharge
    • Improved efficiency of water distribution networks
    • Relaxing environmental constraints
    Preparation to WS&D situations: supply side management measures Demand side management measures
    • Water metering
    • Mandatory rationing
    • Restriction on municipal use
    • Water markets (tariffs) and full cost recovery
    • Water saving campaigns for voluntary actions
    • Awareness campaign to adapt to minimize drought
    • Increase in the regulation capacity for urban supply
    • Water transfers
    • Desalination & waste water reuse
    • Reduction of irrigation consumption
    • Remote control
    • Water recycling in the industry
    • Contingency plan
    • Insurance and economic
    • Public and tax relief
    • Rehabilitation programmes
    Minimizing Water Scarcity and Drought Impacts
    • Quality based reallocation of resources
    • Others.
  • Water harvesting
  • Conclusions & recommendations
      • There is a gap of knowledge and tools at WANA region level on the demand side of the Water Scarcity and a lack of reliable information
      • Data collection, analysis and dissemination are necessary for water master planning, identification of programme of measures and their monitoring.
      • Permanent Conservation measures are necessary
      • WS&D require: participation, transparency, tools and knowledge available to the stakeholders, ...
      • Drought management plans (DMP): are powerful tools to alleviate socio-economic and environmental drought impacts.
    Conclusions
    • Setting-up a range of indicators (including vulnerability indicators) related to the extent and impacts of water scarcity and drought, agreed by the WANA countries,
    • Encouraging WANA countries to organise the collection of information, according to the set indicators,
    • Testing these indicators at local and pilot basin levels, and demonstrating the usefulness in decision making process, mitigation and preparation plans and participatory approaches,
    • Enhancing the knowledge-base regarding climate change impacts and the vulnerability to them so that appropriate policy responses can be developed based on reliable data and information on the likely effects of the phenomenon and the costs and benefits of different adaptation options,
    What recommendations? (1/2)
    • Facilitating the creation of an experience-sharing regional platform/network and s tart working towards the establishment of an effective WANA drought information system by discussing the steps and resources needed, to offer a framework for integration of vulnerability and hazard information for planners and decision makers,
    • Identifying and monitoring impacts of water demand management measures in terms of environmental, social and economic consequences, and
    • Increasing regional and transboundary cooperation and assistance to cope with emergency situations arising from those phenomena.
    What recommendations? (2/2)
  • Thank you for your attention Dr. Jauad El Kharraz [email_address] Euro-Mediterranean Information System on know-how in the Water sector www.emwis.net