And now I would like give a brief information about drought.
Now, I would like to give brief information on Turkey’s water and land resources. Turkey is located on the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Turkey’s population is over 70 million. Rural population is 35% while urban population is 65%. Gross National Product (GNP) per capita is about US$5,000.
Turkey is not water rich country; we would expect water shortage even when we develop all our water resources. The average annual surface run off in Turkey is about 186 km³ of which only 98 km³ could be technically developed for consumptive use. considering the 1 4 km³ of groundwater safe yield, the total amount of exploitable water has been assessed as 11 2 km³. however only 38 % (42 km³) of total water potential is consumed by existing developed projects
T urkey is subject to both a continental type of climate characterized by cold rainy winters and dry summers and subtropical climate distinguished by dry summers. the distribution of precipitation is quite uneven. the average annual precipitation ranges from less than 250 mm in the inland areas of central anatolia to over 2 500 mm in parts of eastern black sea cost. though generally turkey has adequate amaount of water, it is not in the right place in the right time to meet present and anticipated needs.
70 percent of precipitation occur from november to march. there is little effective rain during summer months. the rivers are generally irregular regimes and natural flows can not be taken directly as usable resources.
Aridty assesment of turkey has been made and regions susceptible to drought is determined and given in this map
W hen we look at water consumption figures, agriculture irrigation amount accounts for 70 %.of total water consumption. remaining 30 % is for domestic and industrial usage.
the distribution of precipitation is quite uneven. the average annual precipitation ranges from less than 250 mm in the inland areas of central anatolia to over 2 500 mm in parts of eastern black sea cost. though generally turkey has adequate amaount of water, it is not in the right place in the right time to meet present and anticipated needs.
As you see in the table while population of Turkey has increased %51, the storage capacity has inreased about %1000 (10 times) since 1971.
Before 2003, %6 of our network is pipeline system however now %60 of our network under construction is pipeline system.
Approximately %89 of irrigation area is irrigated by open channel and small channel system and %11 of irrigation area is irrigated by pipe system.
At surface irrigation system 10000 m3 water is used per hectar, at sprinkler system 6500 m3 water is used per hectar and at dripler irrigation system 4000 m3 water is used per hectar.
Drought and Water Management in Turkey Seden YALINKILINÇ General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works,Turkey 22-24 February 2011 AMMAN/ Jordan
It is possible that, especially marshy areas will be dry and a decrease will be occur in the plant species affected by drought.
Turkey is located on the crossroads of Asia and Europe
WATER RESOURCES POTENTIAL LEAKAGE TO AQUIFERS 69 billion m 3 GROUNDWATER RECHARGE FEEDING RIVERS 28 billion m 3 NEIGHBOR COUNTR I ES 7 billion m 3 NET:112 billion m 3 SURFACE FLOW 158 billion m 3 P R ECIPITATION 501 billion m 3 Evaporation 274 billion m 3 AQUIFERS GW PUMPING 14 billion m 3
Turkey is located in a semi-arid region; Precipitation has uneven distribution Annual precipitation 250 mm 2500 mm
PRECIPITATION TRENDS 5-YEAR MOVING AVERAGE 1961-1990 mean: 643 mm 643 mm
ARIDITY IN TURKEY Humidity Co efficiency SEMIARID SUB-HUMID HUMID VERY HUMID
Melen Project is an another example of transferring water between basins for providing big cities with water for fresh and usable water.
Aim of the project; By Melen System, developed to meet İstanbul’s long term fresh water and potable water need, firstly 268 million m 3 (8,5 m 3 /s) water and then 1,180 billion m 3 water will be provided and water need of İstanbul will have been met till 2040. Melen project is an integrated project. It was finished in 2010. MELEN SYSTEM
c) Pipe System(% 11) 1 817 734 ha b) Small Channel (% 46) 207 150 ha
IRRIGATON EFFICIENCY If dripler irrigation system is used there is increase up to %48 in efficiency relative to surface irrigation If sprinkler system is used there is increase up to %38 in efficiency relative to surface irrigation
AVERAGE CONSUMPTION OF WATER Dripler irrigation system 4 000 m 3 /ha Surface irrigation 10 000 m 3 /ha Sprinkler system 6 500 m 3 /ha
Especially in several cities fresh water losses reaches up to %60. It means 60 m 3 of every 100 m 3 is lost at underground. To decrease this loss of water to the least the networks of cities must be renewed immediately.
Renewing the irrigation network;
Some irrigation systems are old and primitive, delivery loss is a lot therefore it is neccesary to renew the networks.
2 – Measures about decreasing the loss in the city and irrigation network.