Lessons Learned from National Experiences: Allocating Environmental Water requirements of Lake Urmia, Iran: an Ecohydrological Approach Mukhtar Hashemi ❶ Associate Researcher, The Centre for Land Use and Water Resources Research (CLUWRR), Newcastle University, UK; ❷ Scientific Advisor, The Office of Applied Researches, IWRMC, Ministry of Energy, Iran ❸ National IWRM Consultant, UNDP/GEF Conservation of Iranian Wetlands Project, Department of Environment, Iran 22-24 Feb 2011 Amman- Jordan Kempinski Hotel WANA Forum Consultation Workshop
1) Surface inflow diversions which will affect both the physical (volume, water level) and chemical (salinity) characteristics of the salt lakes - permanent salt lakes are more inclined to be affected by surface inflow diversions as well as catchment activities;
Variables Examples D, the Drivers: root causes on a macro level described through scenarios representing alternative futures - Climate change: Climatic driver controls availability of water resources in time and space - Socio-economic drivers include local and global economic development, lifestyles etc - Social: Population growth - Economic: affordability and incentive measures - Institutional: compliance, privatization, legislations/regulation and administrative issues P, The Pressures (threats) variables: immediate causes - Demand for water from various sectors - Pollution which impacts on water quality and constrains resource availability e.g. the amount of pollution by wastewater S, The States: describing physical and measurable characteristics and social livelihood systems -Income levels, poverty levels - Natural resources/environmental: availability of water/energy/land, water consumption indices, Chemical composition of water, ecosystem state/biodiversity -Economic: level and security of investments, Condition of assets/infrastructure - Social: access to water/link with poverty, ability to pay, social capacity, employment in the water industry - Institutional: institutional arrangements, governance frameworks, capacity and functioning I, The Impacts: monitor the long term impacts of change defined as changes in states resulting from pressures - urbanisation -diseases caused by polluted water -changes in consumption behaviour, -environmental degradation R, The Responses: are problem-solving policies, actions or investments; an appropriate mix of Structural Options e.g. new reservoirs/pipelines etc and Non-Structural Options e.g. legislation, institutional reform, demand management etc. assemble portfolio of Options into robust Management Strategy -Social: capacity building and awareness raising campaigns. - Environmental: source protection, -Economic: the use of water saving infrastructure, incentives. - Institutional: efficiency measures, accountability, transparency, integration approach
Rules outcome: Sectoral provincial water allocation and consupmtion ACTION ARENA Actors and Action situation Individuals’ actions that directly affect state variables in the world OPERATIONAL LEVEL COLLECTIVE-CHOICE LEVEL Government policies External factors decison making prespective: Ethical/ cultural: Actors’ Perception of water rights/ ethics in rules Figure 2: Analysis approach: (Ostrom, 1999, 2005) Attributes of the community Biophysical conditions Bulk provincial Water Allocation CONSTITUTIONAL LEVEL council of Ministers / National Commitee/ Supreme Water Council /Parliament /Council of Expediency
Outcome: provincial/sectoral water allocation Provincial Water Companies PROVENCIAL LEVEL (Constitutional, collective choice and operational) NATIONAL LEVEL (constitutional, collective choice and operational) Parliament Supreme Water Council Council of Ministers MoE: Water Allocation Commission IWRMC: WR Planning Directorate Figure 3 Actors Water , Agriculture & Natural Resources Commission MoE: Parliamentarian Undersecretary Governors office: Water and Agriculture Commision
water resources development policies /water pricing. Bulk water allocation, 1982 Fair water Distribution Act Water Pricing Bill/ water prices Development Bill/ statuary allocation priorities 2003 Water Allocation By-Law PROVENCIAL LEVEL (Constitutional, collective choice and operational) NATIONAL LEVEL (constitutional, collective choice and operational) Constitution, Water Vision, Council of Expediency and Supreme Leader’s Water Directive , other relevant Acts e.g. 1905 Civil Code revised 1989; 1974 Environmental Act Provincial water allocation priorities outcome: Provincial sectoral water allocations Figure 4 Rules
decision-making perspective framework acts as a conceptual model filtering human perspectives and measuring cultural and ethical influences on the policy- making decisions.
the human elements of ethics or human perspectives (Spranger, 1928)
cultural context of ethics which relates to the environment in which decision making takes place.
legal context of belief (religion) (This is optional)
Example: to assess the extent of central government’s recognition of local level basin governance
IAD framework is used, i.e. the extent of bottom up and decentralization processes, which is the cornerstone of IWRM. One would start with some policy options from the IAD analysis, then feed these through to DPSIR to provide some of the Drivers, and then iterate back to the IAD so that the various management options/strategies/plans can be fed into the policy making framework to reshape policy etc
Water allocation decisions are influenced by cultural and ethical aspects which represent a dimension of the community attributes; and should not be ignored in the institutional analysis.
Human (capacity) development-maqaadid Model
Islamic Legal theory
IDA Framework Rules in Use Community Attributes Biophysical Conditions Ethical and Cultural Perspective enrichment of faith enrichment of intellect/ reason safeguarding posterity enrichment of wealth invigorating the Human self human development Maqasid Model Revelation/ religion Experiences culture Intellect /reason Islamic Legal Theory sustainability science IWRM Framework environmental sustainability equity/ justice economic efficiency IWRM plan good governance DPSIR Analytical Framework Pressures Drivers State/impact Responses
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