Transcript of "A community of water and energy Munther Haddadin"
A Community of Water and Energy<br />For the Human Environment<br />
Drivers of Change<br />Water and Energy have become key drivers of change.<br />Economic and social development heavily depends on these natural resources.<br />There is a natural synergy between water and energy.<br />Availability of one without the other slows down the development process.<br />
Natural Synergy of Water & Energy<br />Solar energy causes evaporation from water bodies and oceans.<br />Clouds form and wind energy drives them to the land.<br />Precipitation on the oceans and on land becomes possible because of gravity (form of energy).<br />Water flow in streams and rivers and into subsurface reservoirs is due to energy.<br />
Status of WANA Countries<br />Energy is converted from its potential energy form into kinetic energy and electrical energy with water as a medium.<br />Energy is distributed through heating and cooling systems with water as a medium.<br />Water and energy team to enable the production of food which, in turn, provides man, animal and birds with energy. <br />
Natural Synergy - Cont<br />Solar energy and water team up to make forests grow. These provide man with materials for combustion (wood and coal).<br />Water cannot flow for service without energy in either of its several forms. Gravity enables the gravity flow in canals, electrical through pumped flow in pipes, etc..<br />
Conversely, industrial processes invariably need water for cooling or for steam generation to produce electricity; also for the clean environment.<br />Natural and human environments are enhanced with water availability. Human environment cannot exist without water. <br />Natural Synergy - Cont<br />
Status of WANA Countries<br />World countries are economically divided into four categories: High income, Upper Middle, Lower Middle, and Low income.<br />Water needs for municipal, industrial, and agricultural purposes are respectively 1300, 1500, 1700 and 1900 cubic meters per capita per year.<br />Energy consumption ranges between 295 and 10538.7 kgoe/capita/ year in Yemen and the UAE respectively. <br />
Status of WANA Countries<br />Most Countries of North Africa and those of Western and central Asia display a deficit in the population- water resources equation.<br />Some of these countries maintain a surplus in energy resources.<br />Almost without exception, there is a need to have neighboring countries regulate the management of their shared surface and sub-surface water resources, and at times their fossil fuel resources.<br />
Status of WANA Countries<br />Examples of water resources exist in the Tigris and Euphrates basins where each of Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria have to work out sharing formulas and management regimes.<br />More examples exist in the Jordan, the Nile, the Juba and the Senegal, although the last is the more advanced in this regard.<br />As to the subsurface, there are extensive renewable and non-renewable reservoirs to be regulated.<br />
Shared Energy Resources<br />There are shared fossil fuel resources that need to be regulated and managed.<br />Known examples exist between Kuwait and Iraq, and between Israel and each of Lebanon and Gaza.<br />Lack of agreements over shared resources triggers misunderstanding and conflicts.<br />Conversely, agreement triggers cooperation and added value to co-riparians.<br />
A Community of Water & Energy<br />Lack of agreements over water and energy resources in the region is discouraging.<br />Countries of WANA share cultural heritage, history and values. These can be agents for cooperation.<br />Cases of water conflicts in WANA are multiple:<br />Tigris-Euphrates-Qaroon, Orontes, The Jordan, The Nile, The Senegal.<br />
A Community of Water & Energy<br />Cases of conflict over groundwater aquifers are multiple, also on fossil oil and gas fields.<br />The creation of a Community of Water and Energy in WANA can arrest potential conflicts and pave the way to cooperation.<br />It can create a platform for conflict prevention and resolution.<br />Is a reminder of the Community of Coal and Steel in post war Europe.<br />
European Coal & Steel Community<br />In the early 1950s Europe embarked on the creation of the Community of Coal and Steel.<br />Coal and steel were natural resources that caused wars in Europe. Robert Schuman, advanced the notion that If one nation relied on supplies from another’s resources, then war would become ‘materially impossible’.<br />Founding members were six: France, Germany, the Netherland, Belgium, Luxemburg and Italy.<br />
European Coal & Steel Community<br />Community developed and expanded to form the European Common Market, succeeded by the European Community and finally the European Union.<br />Can WANA dream of a CWE that can follow in the footsteps of the Coal and Steel Community?<br />
Attempts to Create a CWE<br />HRH Prince El Hassan, presented his idea at the Club of Rome and in the Club of Rome, in the Forum 2000, and in other international forums.<br />The idea was well received and several other world personalities subscribed to it.<br />London School of Economics started a project to pursue such a goal.<br />
Attempts – cont.<br />Attempts were made with the Toledo Center for Peace and the Institute for the Mediterranean to initiate steps toward a CWE in the MENA region.<br />The idea was presented to the meeting of the Council of Ministers of the Mediterranean and was supported.<br />Spain expressed preparedness to shadow the attempts and support them with funds. <br />
Financial hardships facing Spain put the project on HOLD.<br />Another forum that took up the idea is the “Strategic Foresight Group” of India.<br />It is hoped that a coordination of the efforts can take place to yield fruition.<br />Attempts – cont.<br />
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