INTELLIGENT ENERGY SAVERPREPAIRED BY:-VYOMESHUPADHYAYVIRESH SHUKLAKRITESH SINGHJITENDRA KU.VAISHYUNDER THE GUIDENCEOF:-AMIT SHRIVASTVA(H.O.D)
Intelligent EnergySaving Systemcan be used inplaces like wherelighting is veryimportant.The libraries willbe wellilluminated withmany lamps.When people arenot present at areading place thelighting can bemade OFF andwhen they arepresent, thelighting madeON.All these can bedone through byLDR circuit andPIR sensor.ABSTRACT
INDEXPrinciple of OperationElectronic devicesPIR SensorMicrocontroller ATMega8LLDROther ELEMENTSHOW ITS WORKCIRCUIT diagramBLOCK DiagramPROGRAMME
PINCIPLE OF OPERATIONThis system mainly depends on PIR sensor, ATMega8lmicrocontroller & LDR(light depended resistor).When the human are enter in room then PIR sensorsense the radiation emitted by body then sensor will be“ON” And gives the output 1 to the microcontrollerLDR is used to check the light intensity then if intensity isenough then it gives output 1 to microcontrollerMicrocontroller is used to take logical decision aftergiving output by the PIR & LDR
DEVICES USEDPIR SensorATMega 8ALDR7805,LM324,ULN-2003 IcsRelaysLEDs and ResistorsPot
PIR(pyro electric infrared sensor)• PIR sensors allow you to sense motion, almost always used todetect whether a human has moved in or out of the sensorsrange• PIRs are basically made of a pyro electric sensor which candetect levels of infrared radiation. The sensor in a motiondetector is actually split in two halves. The reason for that is thatwe are looking to detect motion (change) not average IR levels• When an intruder walks into the detector’s field of vision, thedetector “sees” a sharp increase in infrared energy.
ATMega 8AIT IS 28 PIN IC WHICH IS USED TO TAKE A LOGICALDECISION
LDR LDR’s or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especiallyin light/dark sensor circuits. These help in automatically switching ON /OFF the streetlights and etc., normally the resistance of an LDR is very high,sometimes as very high as 1000000 ohms, but when they areilluminated with light, resistance drop dramatically. Electronic opto sensors are the devices that alter theirelectrical characteristics, in the presence of visible or invisiblelight. The best-known devices of these types are the lightdependent resistor (LDR), the photo diode and thephototransistors.
OTHER ELEMENT• IC 7805 : IC 7805 is a 5v voltage regulator that restricts thevoltage output to 5v. It is a member of 78xx series of fixedlinear voltage regulator ICsFUNCTION NAMEPINNO123INPUT VOLTAGE(5V-18V)GROUND(0V)RAGULATED OUTPUTVOLTAGE;5V(4.8V-5.2)INPUTGNDOUTPUT
LM324:- LM324 is a 14pin IC consisting of four independentoperational amplifiers (op-amps). These op-amps are operated by asingle power supply LM324 and need for a dual supply is eliminated.They can be used as amplifiers, comparators, oscillators, rectifiers
ULN2003:-It is 16 pin IC. ULN2003 are high-voltage high-current Darlington transistor arrays. Each consists of seven npnDarlington pairs that feature high-voltage outputs. The outputvoltage is 50v and current 600mA.
RELAYA relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use anelectromagnet to operate switching operation mechanically.It is 5 terminal device consisting of 1 coil.When coil is enerzised then a slit is moves from one point toanother point so circuit is completed and load starts works.
HOW ITS WORKFirstly we give the supply at the terminal then it goes to 7805 IC whichconverted into 5v.When any human body moves across the pir sensor then it senses itsradiation and gives the output 1 to the microcontroller.At the same time LDR senses intensity of light(it can adjust by using ofpotentiometer). If intensity is low then it give output 0 to microcontr-oller. According to input microcontroller gives logical output 1 to theULN2003.ULN2003 gives the output 0 to the relays, which energized the relaysthen loads workIf LDR senses enough intensity then it gives 1 to the microcontrollerso it give another output causes on fan will be ON and bulb will beOFF.