News Article taken from www.sciencedaily.comJan. 28, 2013
Introduction What are Rapeseeds? Rapeseed Oil Health benefits Rapeseed Oil Used as Animal Feed Rapeseed Oil for Cooking Complications & It’s Alternets Rapeseed protein hydrolysates Experiment Soyabean v/s Rapeseeds CONCLUSION What is My Personal Recommandation ??? Reference
Today, more than 500 million people are suffering from a lack of adequate protein in their diet. Each year, the number of human beings increases by 80 million, a figure which is equivalent to the present population of Germany. Thus, providing enough food, particularly sufficient protein for the increasing populace is a challenging task for societies all over the world.
On a prospective basis, a progressively smaller proportion of human protein requirement can be provided by animal proteins such as meat, eggs, and milk. Professor Dr Gerhard Jahreis, nutritionist at Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany), says that “by feeding valuable plant protein to animals, almost two third of it is wasted as it is transformed into animal protein."
Rapeseed is an annual flowering plant belonging to the mustard family. Rape, rapeseed, oilseed rape, rappi, rapa and canola happen to be the other names with which the rape plant is often associated with. Rapeseed oil had a distinctive taste and a greenish colour due to the presence of chlorophyll. It also contained a high concentration of erucic acid.
It is cultivated mainly for its extremely nutritious, oil-rich seed, the third largest source of vegetable oil in the world. Rapeseed is one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated in the world, ranking fourth with respect to oil production after soybean, palm, and cottonseed. The main producing countries are China, India and Canada, respectively.
Rapeseed is rich in protein (between 30 and 45%), and therefore defatted rapeseed meal may constitute a good source of protein for humans. The oil that is drawn out from the rapeseed plant seeds is called the rapeseed oil. It is the particular variety known as rapeseed canola oil that is primarily used for cooking.
Reduces the cholesterol level. Reduces platelet aggregation. Great source of ALA.
Low in saturated fat and containing both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a nutritionally preferred ratio of 2:1. InPlant Based Nutrition and Health Stephen Walsh lauds rapeseed oil as the most affordable source of a balance between omega 3 and 6.
Fig 1: EU compound feed production by main ingredient
Fig2: Use of protein material by the EU animal feed sector
The by product that is left behind after the extraction of oil from the rapeseed, serves as a nutritious animal feed. This animal feed that is full of proteins is great for cattle, poultry and hogs.
The presence of a high quantity of erucic acid in natural rapeseed oil makes it slightly toxic for consumption by humans. However over the years the plant’s hybrid was formulated by Canada. Word soon spread about this consumable rapeseed oil that contained little or no erucic acid. As such rapeseed oil is used as cooking oil throughout the world. Edible rapeseed oil was termed as canola oil by the Western Canadian Oilseed Crushers Association in the year 1979.
Rapeseed oil is one of the oldest vegetable oils, but historically was used in limited quantities due to high levels of erucic acid, which is damaging to cardiac muscle, and glucosinolates, which made it less nutritious in animal feed. Unmodified rapeseed oil can contain up to 45% erucic acid. Food-grade canola oil derived from rapeseed cultivars, also known as rapeseed oil i.e. low erucic acid rapeseed oil has been generally recognized as safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration.
Canola oil is limited by government regulation to a maximum of 2% erucic acid by weight in the USA and 5% in the EU, with special regulations for infant food. These low levels of erucic acid are not believed to cause harm in human neonates. A variety of rapeseed developed in 1998 is considered to be the most disease- and drought- resistant canola. This and other recent varieties have been produced by using genetic engineering. In 2009, 90% of the rapeseed crops planted in Canada were GM (genetically modified), herbicide-tolerant canola varieties.
Rapeseed protein hydrolysates have been obtained with different proteases, such as Alcalase, Pronase, or Neutrase in order to improve the functional properties of the original proteins. Extensive hydrolysates to be used as food supplements or in special medical diets have been obtained as well. In recent years, protein hydrolysates are also considered a source of bioactive peptides. These are short-chain peptides, produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, that can be absorbed by intestinal enterocytes and reach the blood stream leading to a biological activity that may be beneficial.
For the study, cold-pressed rapeseed oil was firstly produced under mild conditions. In cooperation with a Canadian Company, a protein isolate extracted from the residue was used in a study involving 28 volunteers. The study participants consumed either rapeseed protein isolate or soy protein isolate. After ingesting the protein meals, eight blood samples were drawn from each participant and the postprandial amino acid response in blood was analysed. Prof. Jahreis Concluded - the findings had shown that there is no difference in the bioavailability between these two protein sources. Thus, soy, mostly cultivated in South and North America, and diversely used in the production of foods, can be fully replaced by rapeseed protein harvested in Europe.
Like soybean, canola contains both high oil content as well as high protein content. It contains about 40% oil and 23% protein compared to 20 and 40%, respectively, for soybean. Like soybean, when the oil is crushed out, it leaves a high quality, high protein (37%) feed concentrate which is highly palatable to livestock.
Currently, legislation in Europe prevents the use of rapeseed protein for human nutrition. It requires registration as a "novel food" by the European Union. Ireland has already agreed to its use. In Germany, producers capable of isolating rapeseed protein are already waiting in the wings. The findings of the present study from the research group at the University of Jena represent a big step towards authorising approval of rapeseed protein for use in human nutrition.
Canola protein isolate has been suggested as an alternative to other proteins for human food use due to a balanced amino acid profile and potential functional properties such as emulsifying, foaming, and gelling abilities. This is, therefore, a review of the studies on the utilization of canola protein in human food, comprising the extraction processes for protein isolates and fractions, the molecular character of the extracted proteins, as well as their food functional properties.
Siong H Tan, Rodney J Mailer, Christopher L Blanchard, and Samson O Agboola; Canola Proteins for Human Consumption: Extraction, Profile, and Functional Properties; J Food Sci. 2011 January; 76(1): R16–R28. Por Justo Pedroche, María M. Yust, Cristina Megías, Hassane Lqari, Manuel Alaiz, Julio Girón-Calle, Francisco Millán and Javier Vioque; Utilisation of rapeseed protein isolates for production of peptides with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity; Grasas y Aceites 354 Vol. 55. Fasc. 4 (2004), 354-358 http://www.uni-jena.de/forschung.html