GEORGE ZIMMERMAN (Insurance Underwriter) - Shooter In Trayvon Martin Matter


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GEORGE ZIMMERMAN (Insurance Underwriter) - Shooter In Trayvon Martin Matter

  1. 1. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 1 of 37 Coordinates: 28.79295°N 81.32965°WShooting of Trayvon MartinFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThe fatal shooting of TrayvonMartin by George Zimmerman took Shooting of Trayvon Martinplace on February 26, 2012, inp y Date February 26, 2012Sanford, Florida, United States.Trayvon Martin was a 17-year-old y y Time 7:09 pm EST (start)African American male who was not Location The Retreat at Twin Lakescarrying a weapon.[2] George y g p [2] g in Sanford, Florida, U.S.Zimmerman was a 28-year-old multi- y (See aerial viewsracial Hispanic American,[3][Note 1] p [3][Notewho was the community watch y ( for the g gated community -events-leading-to-the-shooting-of-trayvon-where the shooting took place. martin.html) of points of interest.)[5][6][7][8][9] Coordinates 28.79295°N 81.32965°WWhile on a private errand, Participants George Zimmerman (shooter)Zimmerman saw Martin walkinginside the gated community where Death(s) Trayvon MartinMartin was visiting his father and his Charges Second-degree murder[1]fathers fiancée. Zimmerman calledthe Sanford Police Department toreport Martins behavior as suspicious.[10] Shortly afterwards, there was an altercation, which ended withZimmerman fatally shooting Martin once in the chest at close range.[11][12][13][14][15]When police arrived on the scene, Zimmerman told them that Martin had attacked him, and that he hadshot Martin in self-defense.[2][16] Zimmerman was bleeding from the nose and mouth; and had two self-ddefense.[2][16]vertical lacerations on the back of his head.[17][18] EMTs treated Zimmerman at the scene, after which hewas taken to the Sanford Police Department. Zimmerman was detained and questioned forapproximately two hours,[18] during which time he taped a video statement, and then he was releasedwithout being charged.[17] Police said that they had not found evidence to contradict his assertion of self-defense.[19][20][21][22]The circumstances of Martins death, the initial decision not to charge Zimmerman, and questions aboutFloridas Stand Your Ground law received national and international attention. Allegations of racistmotivation for the shooting and police conduct contributed to public demands for Zimmermans arrest.[23][24][25] A Special Prosecutor was appointed to take over the investigation and on April 11, 2012, she gchose to file charges of murder in the second degree against Zimmerman.[26][27] Zimmerman then turnedhimself in and was placed in custody.[28][29] On April 20, the judge approved Zimmermans bail on a$150,000 bond.[30] He was released from jail on April 23 and is required to wear an electronic [30]monitoring device until trial. Contents Ŷ 1 People involved in the case 5/17/2012
  2. 2. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 37 Ŷ 1.1 Trayvon Martin Ŷ 1.2 George Zimmerman Ŷ 1.3 Zimmermans role in the neighborhood watch Ŷ 1.4 Police Ŷ 1.5 State Attorneys Ŷ 1.6 George Zimmermans attorneys Ŷ 1.7 Martin family attorney Ŷ 2 Shooting Ŷ 2.1 Zimmermans February 2012 cell phone calls to police Ŷ 2.2 Martin cell phone call from girlfriend Ŷ 3 Sanford Police arrival and initial investigation Ŷ 3.1 Witness accounts Ŷ 3.2 Sanford police station Ŷ 3.3 George Zimmermans account of events Ŷ 3.4 Phone recordings Ŷ 4 Ongoing investigation Ŷ 4.1 Medical records and autopsy Ŷ 4.2 Federal investigation Ŷ 5 Court proceedings Ŷ 5.1 Charges Ŷ 5.2 Pre-trial Ŷ 5.3 Prosecutions account of events Ŷ 6 Public response Ŷ 7 Alleged race issues Ŷ 7.1 Allegations against Zimmerman Ŷ 7.1.1 Defense of Zimmermans character Ŷ 7.2 Allegations against the Sanford police Ŷ 8 "Stand your ground" laws Ŷ 9 Media coverage Ŷ 9.1 Aspects of coverage Ŷ 9.1.1 Deceptive photos of Martin and Zimmerman Ŷ 9.1.2 Reporting on Zimmerman call to dispatcher Ŷ 9.1.3 Surveillance video Ŷ 9.1.4 Allegations against NBC Ŷ Misleading edit Ŷ 10 Timeline of events Ŷ 11 Notes Ŷ 12 References Ŷ 13 External linksPeople involved in the caseTrayvon MartinTrayvon ( WUHǰɇYǚɏQ WUD9$:1) Benjamin Martin (February 5, 1995 – February 26, 2012) was theson of Sybrina Fulton and Tracy Martin, who were divorced in 1999.[31] According to the Sanford policeincident report of Trayvon Martins death, he was 60 tall and weighed 160 pounds; however, his familysaid he was actually 6-foot-3 and weighed at most 150 pounds.[32] He was a high school junior in the 5/17/2012
  3. 3. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 37Miami, Florida, area and had recently turned 17.[33][34] Martin lived withhis mother and older brother in Miami Gardens, Florida. On the day hewas shot, he was visiting his father and his fathers fiancée at hertownhome in The Retreat at Twin Lakes in Sanford, Florida.[35]George ZimmermanGeorge Michael Zimmerman[36] was born on October 5, 1983, inManassas, Virginia,[37] and is the son of Robert Zimmerman, Sr., aretired Virginia magistrate,[38] and Peruvian-born Gladys (née Mesa)Zimmerman.[5][8] He grew up in what his father has described as amultiracial family (one of his maternal great-grandfathers was of Afro- Trayvon MartinPeruvian background),[39] and was raised in his mothers Catholicreligion (his father was Baptist).[4] Zimmermans height is shown as 58and his weight as 185 pounds on his Seminole County Sheriffs OfficeInmate Booking Information dated 4/11/2012.[40][41] Zimmermans voterregistration record lists him as Hispanic.[42][43] In 2009, he moved with phis wife to The Retreat at Twin Lakes in Sanford, Florida, a multi-ethnic[44] gated community, where the shooting occurred.[45][46] He was [45][46]employed as an insurance underwriter p p y prior to the shooting[47] and was in g[47]his final semester at Seminole State College for an Associates degree inCriminal Justice. [48] His goal was to become a police officer.[49]Zimmermans role in the neighborhood watchAs the only person to volunteer when the homeowners association person George Zimmermanwanted to organize a community watch,[50] Zimmerman was appointed g y [50]coordinator by his neighbors, according to Wendy Dorival,Neighborhood Watch organizer for the Sanford Police Department.[51] The homeowners association told [5residents who saw suspicious activity to call Zimmerman if they could not contact the police.[52] He[Zimmerman] once caught a thief and an arrest was made, said Cynthia Wibker, secretary of thehomeowners association.[50]Police had been called to The Retreat at Twin Lakes 402 timesfrom January 1, 2011, to February 26, 2012.[50] Zimmerman wasthe caller on 12 of those calls in that time frame. Crimescommitted at The Retreat in the year prior to Martins deathincluded eight burglaries, nine thefts, dozens of break-ins (atleast one with a woman and infant upstairs) and one shooting. InSeptember, Zimmerman was asked to head up a neighborhoodwatch. [50] The City of Sanford posted a George Zimmerman y p g911 Call History listing 46 calls by him between 2004 and the2012 shooting.[53][54][55][Note 2] [ The Retreat at Twin Lakes, northZimmerman had been licensed to carry a firearm since entranceNovember 2009, when he was urged by an officer with theSeminole County Animal Services not to rely on pepper spray to 5/17/2012
  4. 4. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 37fend off a loose p bull that had repeatedly terrorized family members. [59] Sanford p pit p y y ] police chief Bill Leestated that neighborhood watch volunteers are not encouraged to carry a gun but have a Constitutionalright to do so.[50] Lee further stated, Mr. Zimmerman was not acting outside the legal boundaries of [Florida Statute by carrying his weapon when this incident occurred.[60]Sanford Police volunteer program coordinator Wendy Dorival, told the Miami Herald that she metZimmerman in September, 2011 at a community neighborhood watch p p y g presentation. Dorival stated thatshe gave a warning to participants at the presentation: “I said, ‘If it’s someone you don’t recognize, callus. We’ll figure it out,’ ” Dorival said. “‘Observe from a safe location.’ [50]PoliceAccording to ABC News and other media organizations, multiple sources had indicated to them that g g pChris Serino, the lead investigator for the Sanford Police on the night of the shooting, stated in a d gFebruary 26, 2012 affidavit that he was unconvinced by Zimmermans version of events.[61] Based on y d y [61]Serinos February 26 affidavit, police sought an arrest warrant for Zimmerman, however that request was r was [61][62][63][20][21][22][64]denied by the Office of the State Attorney for insufficient evidence.On March 16, 2012, Serino told the Orlando Sentinel that his investigation had turned up no reliableevidence that cast doubt on Zimmermans account, that he had acted in self-defense. The best evidencewe have is the testimony of George Zimmerman, and he says the decedent was the primary aggressor inthe whole event, everything I have is adding up to what he says.[63]When special prosecutor Angela Corey was asked by the Miami Herald to confirm that the SanfordPolice had initially recommended a manslaughter charge, she stated, I dont know about that, but as faras the process, I can tell you that the police went to the state attorney with a capias request, meaning; y p q gWere through with our investigation and here it is for y g g you. A capias is a request for charges to be filed. p q gA source in the Seminole County State Attorneys office told the Miami Herald, We get capias warrants y y f g pall the time. That doesnt mean we file charges right away. We investigate to see if its appropriate.Thats the responsible thing to do.[65] [Bill Lee, Chief of Police at the time of the shooting, received criticism for his role in the case. TheSanford city commission, including the Mayor, passed a motion of no confidence in regards to ChiefLee, and his handling of the case.[66] On March 22, 2012, Lee announced that he had temporarilystepped down from his position as chief of police, stating my involvement in this matter isovershadowing the process.[67] On April 23, 2012, the city of Sanford announced that Police Chief BillLee would resign but city commissioners voted to reject the resignation. Some commissioners hadconcerns about the fairness of Lee losing his job and the mayor stated he preferred to wait for the resultsof an investigation into Lee and his department. Lee was to remain on paid leave.[68]State AttorneysNorm Wolfinger was the State Attorney initially responsible for the case.[69] He is responsible for [6prosecutions in Brevard and Seminole counties, where the shooting occurred.[70] 5/17/2012
  5. 5. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 37On March 22, 2012, Florida Governor Rick Scott announced that he wasappointing Angela Corey to be Special Prosecutor and that she would be pinvestigating the case instead of Wolfinger.[71] She is the State attorney for [71]Duval, Clay and Nassau counties.[72] After several weeks of investigation, y [72] gCorey announced on April 11, 2012, that Zimmerman had been charged with psecond-degree murder.[26][73] [26][7 [George Zimmermans attorneysCraig Sonner and Hal Uhrig were the first lawyers to represent George State Attorney AngelaZimmerman.[74][75] On April 10, 2012, they announced at a news conference p y Coreythat they were withdrawing from the case as Zimmerman was no longerreturning their calls and had been acting against their advice.[76] According to g gHarvard Law Professor Alan Dershowitz, Sonner and Uhrig should not have disclosed those details and gother information about Zimmerman after they had stopped representing him, because of considerationsof lawyer client privileged information.[77]On April 11, 2012, it was announced that Zimmerman was represented by a new attorney, Mark M.OMara,[28] who is board certified as a criminal trial specialist.[78] OMara pointed out that a smallnumber of murder cases actually go to trial, with many cases resulting in a plea bargain. Were nottaking any possibilities off the table how this case gets resolved. I havent seen the first sheet of evidenceyet so its very premature, he said. OMara described the intensely debated encounter between Martinand Zimmerman as resulting in a deceased child and also said, Obviously it was a horribleinterception of two young mens lives and it ended in tragedy.[79] George Zimmermans defense teamhas set up a Twitter account, a Facebook page and a Website with a defense fund registered with theFlorida Division of Consumer Services. OMara stated on the website that Using social media in a high-profile lawsuit is new, and relatively unprecedented, but that is only because social media itself isrelatively new. We feel it would be irresponsible to ignore the robust online conversation, and we feelequally as strong about establishing a professional, responsible, and ethical approach to newmedia. [80][81][82]Martin family attorneyBenjamin Crump, the lawyer representing the interests of the Martin family, operates a law firm inTallahassee, Florida, with his partner Daryl Parks. The firm has eight lawyers who focus on wrongfuldeath, malpractice, personal injury and civil rights.[83][84] In 2006, Crump sued to have the video releasedin the Martin Anderson case.[83][85][86]ShootingMartin was staying with his father at the home of his fathers fiancée.[35] On his return from aconvenience store,[87][88] he was observed by Zimmerman,[89] who was driving in his vehicle on apersonal errand.[90] At the end of their interaction, Martin was shot 70 yards (64 meters) from the reardoor of the fiancées townhouse.[91][Note 3]Zimmermans February 2012 cell phone calls to police 5/17/2012
  6. 6. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 37On February 2, 2012, Zimmerman placed a cell phone call to the Sanford Police Department to report ayoung man peering into the windows of a Twin Lakes home. Zimmerman held back, waiting for thepolice to arrive, however by the time they showed up the young man had escaped. On February 6, 2012,workers witnessed two young black men lingering in the yard of Twin Lakes resident Tatiana Demeacisaround the same time her home was burglarized. The next day police discovered Demeacis stolen laptopin the backpack of a young black man, Emmanuel Burgess, which led to his arrest. Zimmermanidentified Burgess as the same young man he had spotted peering into windows on February 2.[93]At approximately 7:09 pm, February 26, 2012, Zimmerman again used his cell phone to call the non-emergency number of the Sanford Police Department[94] to report what he considered suspiciousbehavior by Martin. Weve had some break-ins in my neighborhood, and theres a real suspiciousguy.[95] He described Martin as just walking around looking about in the rain.[96] The policedispatcher tape recorded him saying, This guy looks like he is up to no good or he is on drugs orsomething. He further stated that the person he was observing had his hand in his waistband, washolding something in his other hand, and was walking around slowly in the rain looking at all thehouses.[97] On the recording of the call, Zimmerman is heard commenting these assholes, they alwaysget away.[98][99][100]At 2:07 minutes into the police call Zimmerman says hes running.. At 2:37 into the call Zimmermantells the dispatcher, he ran. When Zimmerman reported that Martin had started running the dispatcherasked him if he was following and he affirmed that he was. The dispatcher said, We dont need you todo that.[101] Zimmerman said OK. Zimmerman said he couldnt tell the dispatcher the address of hiscurrent location, but tells him the numbers of his street address and then at 3:35 adds Oh crap, I dontwant to give it all out. I dont know where this kid is. Asked if he wanted to meet with the officerZimmerman at first agreed to the dispatchers suggestion that he meet the police by the mailboxes,[Note 3,4th picture] then asked, Actually, could you have him call me, and Ill tell him where Im at?, to which thedispatcher replied, no problem.[102] Zimmerman appears to hang up at the 4:05 mark. The recordingends at 4:11.Martin cell phone call from girlfriendAround the time of the incident, Martin was talking on his cellphone to his girlfriend, according toAttorney Benjamin Crump and confirmed by phone company records.[104] She called at 7:12 pm[105] Shewas interviewed by Crump who made a statement for her, as her parents requested her anonymity.According to Crumps statement, Martins girlfriend said that he expressed concern about a strange man g p g d p gfollowing him, and she advised him to run. She says she heard Martin say What are y following me g y y you gfor? followed by a mans voice responding What are you doing here? She said that she heard the y p g y gsound of pushing and that Martins headset suddenly went silent, leading her to believe that he had beenpushed. She attempted to call him back immediately, but was unable to reach him.[106]Sanford Police arrival and initial investigationTimothy Smith, the first officer to arrive at the scene, reported finding Zimmerman standing nearMartin, who was lying face down in the grass and unresponsive.[14][107] At that time, Zimmerman stated y g g p ]to Smith that he had shot Martin and was still armed. Smith handcuffed Zimmerman and removed hisweapon from him. Smith observed that Zimmermans back was wet and covered with grass and he wasbleeding from the nose and the back of his head.[14][108] 5/17/2012
  7. 7. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 7 of 37Ricardo Ayala, the second officer to arrive that night, noticed Officer Smith had Zimmerman in custody, y gthen observed Martin lying face down in the g y g grass and attempted to g a response from him. At this p get ptime, Sgt. Anthony Raimondo arrived and together with Ayala began CPR. Paramedics from SanfordFire and Rescue arrived and continued CPR, finally declaring him dead at 7:30 pm[14][Other officers who had arrived by this time secured the crime scene and made contact with neighbors in y d gthe area and obtained statements from witnesses at the scene. Zimmerman was treated and released byparamedics while still at the scene of the incident.[14][108] After pp [1 placing Zimmerman in his police vehicle, g pOfficer Smith heard Zimmerman say, I was yelling for someone to help me, but no one would help fme.[14][109] Zimmerman was then transported to the Sanford Police Department where he was [14][109]questioned by investigators.[14] [1Martins body was taken to the morgue where he was tagged as a John Doe as he was not carrying anyidentification.[22] Martins father, Tracy Martin, called to file a Missing Persons report early on February27 and police officers arrived at his fiancées condo with photographs of his dead son before 8 am.[22]Witness accountsA witness to the confrontation just prior to the shooting stated that Martin was on top of Zimmermanand punching him, while Zimmerman was yelling for help. This witness, who identified himself asJohn, stated that the guy on the bottom, who had a red sweater on, was yelling to me, Help! Help!and I told him to stop, and I was calling 911.[110] He went on to say that when he got upstairs andlooked down, the guy who was on the top beating up the other guy, was the one laying in the grass, andI believe he was dead at that point..[110][111]A 13-year-old boy walking his dog saw a man on the ground shortly before the shooting and identifiedhim as wearing red.[112][113][114] His mother later disputed the testimony and claimed that the police g ] p y ppressured him into choosing what color the man was wearing, and that her son could not see any detailsp g g yin the dark. She also stated that the police waited five days before requesting to even question her son d son [115][64]and said the lead homicide investigator told her he did not believe the shooting was self defense.Mary Cutcher and her roommate, Selma Mora Lamilla, appeared on AC 360 and Cutcher stated that she y ppbelieves there was no punching, no hitting going on at the time, no wrestling just prior to the shooting,but admitted that she neither saw the shooting nor the preceding altercation.[116][117][118] Cutcher and her g p g altercationroommate heard the pair in their backyard and a very young voice whining, with no sounds of a fight. p y yy g gThey heard a gunshot; the crying stopped immediately, and they saw Zimmerman on his knees y gstraddling Martin on the ground.[116][118] Mary Cutcher phoned police after the fatal shooting and said [1the black man was standing over another man, although Trayvon Martin was already dead.[119]According to the Orlando Sentinel article, Police spokesman Sgt. Dave Morgenstern [on March 15]issued a statement disputing Cutchers version of events, calling her statements to WFTV inconsistentwith her sworn testimony to police.[120] However, Cutcher and her roommate maintain that their y paccount of the incident to the police did not agree with Zimmermans, and they demanded the policeretract that incorrect statement.[117] [On March 29, 2012, an eyewitness referred to as a male said that he saw two men on the g , groundscuffling, then heard the shooting, and saw Zimmerman walk away with no blood on him.[121][122] Thewitness later appeared on CNN AC360 referred to as a female, giving more details on her account. She 5/17/2012
  8. 8. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 8 of 37ppointed out that she heard an argument between a y g younger and an older voice. The whole time she gwitnessed the incident the scuffling happened on the grass. She said that the larger man, who walked gaway after the gunshot, was on top, and that it was too dark to see blood on his face.[123]A witness who arrived shortly after the shooting revealed p y g photos he took that night that showed blood g dtrickling down the back of Zimmermans head from two cuts. It also shows a possible contusion forming g pon the crown of his head. In revealing the p g photo to ABC News in mid-April, he noted he heard but pdidnt see the scuffle, but was one of the first to arrive, and was the first to talk to Zimmerman after theshooting.[18] [1Martins mother says the shouting for help heard on some of the 9-1-1 calls is her sons voice.[124]Zimmermans father, along with other relatives, have reviewed the 9-1-1 calls and identified the personscreaming for help as Zimmerman.[125] Martins mothers perspective is relied upon in Coreys Affidavitof Probable Cause for second degree murder. The Zimmerman family perspective is not mentioned.[126]Sanford police stationAfter arriving at the police station, Zimmerman was placed in an interview room where he wasinterviewed by Investigator D. Singleton.[14][127] The gun, a black Kel-Tec PF-9 9mm semi-automaticpistol that was confiscated from Zimmerman at the scene, was placed into evidence.[15][128] Zimmermanwas not administered a drug or alcohol test.[17] Peter Bella, a retired Chicago Police forensic [investigator, stated in an article for the Washington Times, Except for DUIs, police cannot test suspectsfor drugs or alcohol, unless the accused demands or consents to it, or they get a warrant.[129][130][131]The lead homicide investigator on the case, Chris Serino, filed an affidavit the night of the incident g gsaying he was unconvinced by Zimmermans account and recommending charging Zimmerman with y g y g g gmanslaughter, but was informed by State Attorney Wolfingers office that there was not enoughevidence to obtain a conviction.[20] Zimmerman was eventually released without charges.[17] [ y reported that Wolfinger met with police leaders on the night of the shooting whileZimmerman was still in police custody,[132] but Wolfinger denies this.[69] Instead, his spokesman said, [132] [69]police consulted that night with the prosecutor on call, Kelly Jo Hines.[133]George Zimmermans account of eventsOn the night of the shooting, and afterwards, Zimmerman described in detail, for the police and others,what took place. [125][134][135][136]Zimmerman said he was driving to the g g grocery store when he spotted Trayvon Martin walking through y p ythe neighborhood. Zimmermans father said that, while his son was not on duty that night as g y gNeighborhood Watch captain, there had been many break-ins and he thought it suspicious that someone g p y g phe didnt recognize was walking behind the town homes instead of on the street or the sidewalk.Zimmerman therefore called a non-emergency police line to report Martins behavior and summonpolice.[137][138] Zimmerman told the dispatcher that Martin was coming to check me out, then hecommented that Martin ran. [10] While still on the phone with the dispatcher, Zimmerman parked hisvehicle and followed Martin on foot.[134] Confirming that Zimmerman was following Martin, thedispatcher said, OK, we dont need you to do that. Zimmerman replied with OK and stated thatMartin got away. [10] The call ended, and Zimmerman told investigators he was returning to his vehicle, gwhen Martin approached him from his left rear and confronted him.[134][135] According to Zimmermans 5/17/2012
  9. 9. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 9 of 37father, Martin asked Zimmerman, Do you have a fucking problem? Zimmerman replied No, I donthave a problem, and while Zimmerman reached for his cell phone Martin said, Well, you do now orsomething similar,[125][135] then punched him in the face, knocking him down, and began beating hishead against the sidewalk.[134][135] Zimmerman said he called out for help while being beaten, and at onepoint Martin covered his mouth to muffle the screams.[134][135] According to Zimmermans father, duringp gthe struggle while Martin was on top of Zimmerman, Martin saw the gun his son was carrying and said gg p g y gsomething to the effect of “You’re gonna die now” or “You’re gonna die tonight” and continued to beat gZimmerman.[125] Zimmerman and Martin struggled over the gun, and Zimmerman shot Martin once in [125]the chest at close range, in self-defense.[134][135][136][Note 4] defense.[ self-dPhone recordingsRecordings of eight calls to the police made on the night of the shooting were released by the Sanfordpolice on March 17, 2012.[97][139] Early press reports incorrectly indicated that the recordings includedthe sound of a single shot followed by a voice pleading or begging for help, and then a second shot, afterwhich the voice immediately stopped. Later reports indicate that gun was fired only once.[140]Zimmerman told police at the scene that he had cried out for help.[135] The statement was corroboratedby an eyewitness who said that Martin was on top of Zimmerman, beating him, as Zimmerman calledfor help.[110] One witness, who had only heard but not seen the events, believed Martin was the one p ycalling for help, and said that the police tried to get her to change her testimony to their assertion that itwas Zimmerman calling for help.[141]The FBI was not able to determine whether it was Zimmerman or Martin who could be heard crying outfor help in 911 calls. [142]Ongoing investigationZimmerman was originally not charged with any crime. He asserted the right of self-defense andinvestigators said they could find no evidence disproving that assertion.[16][143] The State Attorneysoffice and Police Chief Lee said they did not have enough evidence to arrest Zimmerman. In this caseMr. Zimmerman has made the statement of self-defense, Lee said. Until we can establish probable pcause to dispute that, we dont have the grounds to arrest him. In response to criticisms of theinvestigation, Lee responded that We are taking a beating over this and defended the investigation.[144] g p g g g [144]This is all very unsettling. Im sure if George Zimmerman had the opportunity to relive Sunday, yFebruary 26, hed probably do things differently. Im sure Trayvon would, too.[50]On March 20, 2012, State attorney Norm Wolfinger announced that a Seminole County grand jurywould be convened on April 10, to investigate the death of Martin.[145][146][147] However, State attorney p g yAngela Corey, who was assigned to the case by Governor Rick Scott, stated that her office, not a grand g y g y r gj yjury, will decide whether to press charges in the shooting death of Martin. Angela Corey stated that, I p g g g yalways lean towards moving forward without needing the grand jury in a case like this, I foresee us g gbeing able to make a decision, and move on it on our own.[72] Florida Attorney General Pam Bondi said g [72] ythat the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) is involved and no stone will be left unturned pin this investigation.[146] [ 5/17/2012
  10. 10. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 10 of 37Medical records and autopsyOn May 15, 2012 ABC News reported that medical records showed that, following the allegedaltercation with Martin, Zimmerman was diagnosed with a closed fracture of his nose, two black eyes,lacerations to the back of his head, a minor back injury, and bruising in his upper lip and cheek.[148] On j y g pp pthat same day, WFTV reported that autopsy results on Martin showed a fatal gunshot wound and broken y pskin on his knuckles.[149] NBC News reported that the autopsy showed Martins injuries as a gunshot [ ] p py j gwound fired from intermediate range and a small abrasion, no more than a quarter-inch in size – on hisleft ring finger below the knuckle.[150]Federal investigationOn March 20, 2012, the Justice Department announced that it was opening investigations into the d [151] [151]incident. The state g governor, Rick Scott, has asked the Florida Department of Law Enforcement toinvestigate the shooting.[152][153]President Barack Obama, speaking to reporters on March 23 after federal investigators were deployed to p g p g p ySanford, said, When I think about this boy, I think about my own kids, and I think every parent in y y ypAmerica should be able to understand why it is absolutely imperative that we investigate every aspect ofthis, and, If I had a son, he would look like Trayvon.[154] [1The FBI opened a parallel investigation into whether Martins civil rights were violated, and interviewedwitnesses and looked into Zimmermans background.[155]On May 14, 2012, WFTV News reported that the FBI may consider charging Zimmerman with a federal y p y g ghate crime because of the allegation that he may have profiled and stalked Martin due to his race. The g y psecond degree murder charge Zimmerman is facing could result in a life sentence; if Zimmerman werefound guilty of a federal hate crime involving murder, he could get the death penalty. [156]Court proceedingsZimmerman was taken into custody on April 11, 2012, after being charged with second-degree murderin the Florida courts.[1]ChargesOn April 11, Florida State Attorney Angela Corey, the special prosecutor, announced that GeorgeZimmerman had been charged with second-degree murder.[157] In Florida, that charge carries amaximum sentence of life imprisonment and a minimum sentence of 25 years. She reported thatZimmerman had turned himself in to law enforcement and was arrested and placed in custody.[1] 5/17/2012
  11. 11. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 11 of 37Pre-trialDuring an April 12 hearing, prosecutors presented an affidavit of probable cause alleging thatZimmerman had followed and confronted Martin.[158] Judge Mark E. Herr ruled that there was probablecause for the case to continue. Zimmermans lawyer Mark OMara requested that the court documentsincluding witness statements and other information be sealed. The court granted the request.[159]Zimmermans arraignment was scheduled for May 29.[160]Mark OMara, George Zimmermans attorney asked for a new judge on April 16, 2012, saying judgeJessica Recksiedler had a potential conflict of interest.[161][162] On April 18, 2012, Judge Recksiedleragreed to disqualify herself from the case. She said that while the findings on each basis were legallyinsufficient, the cumulative effect of the events and the totality of the circumstances provides a legallysufficient basis for this court to grant the motion to disqualify. Judge Kenneth Lester, Jr., was appointedby the chief judge to take over the Zimmerman case.[163]A motion was filed April 16, 2012, in Seminole County Circuit Court that asks for records inZimmermans file to be unsealed. A group of news organizations in Florida, including the AssociatedPress and The Miami Herald, challenged efforts to seal records in the criminal case of Zimmerman.Records such as full police reports, autopsy reports and transcripts of witness interviews are normallypublic under Florida law. The closure order and the manner in which it was entered are contrary tolaw, the news organizations said in the motion.[164][165]A bail hearing was held on April 20 and the Judge ruled that Zimmerman could be released on a$150,000 bond.[30]At the hearing, Zimmerman got on the witness stand and apologized to the parents ofMartin for shooting their son.[166][167] An investigator for the prosecution, also admitted at the hearing,that he did not know whether Martin or Zimmerman threw the first punch.[167] He said there was noevidence to disprove Zimmermans assertion that he was walking back to his vehicle when confrontedby Martin.[167] The investigator also stated that Zimmermans claim of Martin slamming his head againstthe sidewalk, was not consistent with the evidence they found.[167]Zimmerman was released on bail from jail at 12:05 a.m. April 23, 2012. He was fitted with an electronicmonitoring device which can reveal his whereabouts in real time.[168]Zimmermans attorney, Mark OMara waived Zimmermans right to appear at an arraignment on April23, 2012, and entered a not guilty plea on his behalf. [168]Prosecutions account of eventsAccording to the information alleged in the affidavit of probable cause, provided by investigatorsworking for the State Attorneys office, and a source to the Orland Sentinel, the prosecution describedwhat they say took place:[169] [170] [171] [172] [173][174][175]Martin was walking back from a nearby 7-11 store and was on his way to the townhouse where he wastemporarily living when he was profiled by Zimmerman.[171][172][174] Zimmerman was driving in hisvehicle when he observed Martin and assumed he was a criminal.[171][174] Feeling that Martin did notbelong in the gated-community where Zimmerman lived, he called the police to report Martins behavioras suspicious.[171][175] While on the phone with the police dispatcher, describing Martins behavior, p p p p gZimmerman had told investigators that Martin was circling his vehicle, and he rolled up his window to 5/17/2012
  12. 12. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 12 of 37avoid a confrontation.[175] The dispatcher told Zimmerman an officer was on the way and to wait for [1him.[171][169] In his call to the police, Zimmerman made reference to p p he felt had g p people gotten away with ybreak-ins in the neighborhood, and while talking about Martin, stated these assholes, they always getaway and also said these fucking punks [171][173][174] punks.During this time, Martin was on the phone with a friend and described to her what was happening.[171][172][173] She said that Martin was scared because he was being followed by an unknown male anddidnt know why.[171][173] Martin attempted to run home, while Zimmerman exited his vehicle and startedto follow Martin.[173][170] When the dispatcher realized Zimmerman was p ] p pursuing Martin, he instructed gZimmerman not to do that and told him an officer would meet him. Zimmerman disregarded thedispatchers instruction and continued to follow Martin.[171][172] Investigators stated that Zimmerman [171][172]then confronted Martin and a struggle ensued.[171][172][170]Witnesses heard people arguing and what sounded like a struggle and heard calls for help which were police.[171][174] Martins mother reviewed the 9-1-1 calls and identified therecorded in the 9-1-1 calls to pvoice crying for help as her sons.[171][174][124] When police arrived at the scene, Zimmerman admitted to [171][174][124] [171] [171]shooting Martin in the chest. An assistant medical examiner conducted an autopsy and determinedthat Martin had died from the gunshot.[171][174][Note 5]Public responseOver 2.2 million signatures were collected on a Change.orgpetition, created by Martins mother, calling for Zimmermansarrest.[177] It was the websites largest petition ever.[178]Since Martin was killed while wearing a hoodie, donning ahoodie was seen as a sign of protest, and many cities across theU.S. staged Million Hoodie Marches or hundred hoodiemarches. Additionally, some professional athletes, includingCarmelo Anthony and the entire Miami Heat roster, tweetedphotos of themselves wearing hoodies. Fox News Channel hostGeraldo Rivera claimed that Martins gangsta style clothingwas as much responsible for Trayvon Martin’s death as GeorgeZimmerman was. Faced with outrage over his statement, Riveralater apologized, saying that he had obscured the main point thatsomeone shot and killed an unarmed teenager.[179]Additionally, bags of Skittles candy and cans of Arizona IcedTea were used as protest symbols. Martin was returning from a 7 An undated family photo[citation needed]-Eleven convenience store with these items when he was shot. of Trayvon Martin wearing a hoodie[87][88][180] was displayed by protesters and sold by merchants on hoodies, T-shirts andWalkouts were staged by students at over a dozen Florida high keychains, prompting the family toschools.[181] trademark slogans using his name. [176] 5/17/2012
  13. 13. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 13 of 37Thousands of people attended rallies around the country todemand Zimmermans arrest,[23] including a gathering on March22 in Union Square of civil rights leaders including Al Sharpton,Martin Luther King III, Dick Gregory, and others.[24] Membersof the Occupy movement marched in solidarity during theMillion Hoodie March.[182][183]Speaking on the day of the Zimmerman arrest, Al Sharpton said:45 days ago, Travon Martin was murdered. No arrest was made.The Chief of Police in Sanford announced after his review of the Supporters of Trayvon Martin rally inevidence there would be no arrest. An outcry from all over this Union Square during a Millioncountry came.[184] Hoodie March in Manhattan on March 21.A number of high-profile citizens have made public comments orreleased statements calling for a full investigation, includingPresident Barack Obama,[154] Reverend Al Sharpton,[154][185] and Reverend Jesse Jackson.[186]According to Zimmermans father, George Zimmerman received death threats and was forced to moveout of his home in the wake of the controversy.[6] The New Black Panther Party offered a $10,000reward for the capture of George Zimmerman;[187][188] this was condemned by the city of Sanford.[187]In parts of the US, various acts of vandalism, assaults, and crimes have been connected in part to allegedrevenge for the shooting of Trayvon Martin.[189][190][191][192][193]Film director Spike Lee retweeted to his 200,000 Twitter followers an erroneous Sanford, Floridaaddress, purported to be Zimmermans, which forced a family out of their home to avoid harassmentafter they received hate mail and unwanted visits from reporters.[194][195][196] Lee was criticized for hisretweet[197] and he later issued an apology.[198]Referring to Trayvon Martins death, Senior Fellow Shelby Steele at the Hoover Institution stated: It has given us a generation of ambulance-chasing leaders, and the illusion that our greatest power lies in the manipulation of white guilt. The tragedy surrounding Trayvons death is not in the possibility that it might have something to do with white racism; the tragedy is in the lustfulness with which so many black leaders, in conjunction with the media, have leapt to exploit his demise for their own power.[199]Alan Dershowitz criticized the probable cause affidavit against Zimmerman as so thin that it wontmake it past the judge calling it irresponsible and unethical and opined that the charges weremotivated by prosecutor Coreys desire to be re-elected.[200][201] 5/17/2012
  14. 14. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 14 of 37Alleged race issuesAllegations against ZimmermanThe shooting prompted allegations that Zimmerman was motivated by racism.[2][106] Critics disparagedwhat they perceived to be Zimmerman racially profiling Martin,[2][6][16][202] and a selectively editedphone call that aired on NBCs Today show incorrectly implied that Zimmerman had volunteered therace of Martin to police officers without being specifically asked.[203]Defense of Zimmermans characterIn an open letter, Zimmermans father, Robert Zimmerman, defended his son against allegations that hisactions were racially motivated, stating that Zimmerman was Hispanic, was raised in a multiracialfamily, and would be the last to discriminate for any reason whatsoever, saying that the portrayal ofhis son as a racist could not be further from the truth. According to his family, some of Zimmermansrelatives are black.[5] Zimmermans former lawyer Craig Sonner stated that Zimmerman is not a racist,and that he had mentored black youths in the past.[204] Joe Oliver, a former television news reporter whois acquainted with Zimmerman,[205] noted Im a black male and all that I know is that George has nevergiven me any reason whatsoever to believe he has anything against people of color.[206]An anonymous letter to the NAACP, signed A Concerned Zimmerman Family Member, said thatZimmerman was one of the few that stepped up to take any action to protest the 2010 beating of a blackhomeless man by the son of a Sanford police officer. Zimmerman reportedly distributed flyers in theblack community trying to get others to step up too, and helped organize a city hall meeting to protestthe incident.[207] Zimmermans reported efforts on behalf of the black homeless man were confirmed byZimmermans father.[208]Allegations against the Sanford policeFor not arresting Zimmerman, the Sanford police have faced heavy criticism, protests, and allegations ofracial bias.[2] The NAACP wrote U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder expressing no confidence that,absent federal oversight, the Sanford Police Department will devote the necessary degree of care to itsinvestigation and requesting that personnel be detailed to Sanford to review the case withoutbias.[16][106] Lee repeatedly defended the investigation, stating that the Sanford police did not feel theyhad conducted a racially biased investigation and welcomed a review of their efforts.[141][202]Allegations were also made that the Sanford police were protecting Zimmerman.[135] Lee told reportersthat they could not arrest Zimmerman because no evidence contradicted his story, and that to do sowould leave the police open to litigation.[202] He also said that although 9-1-1 did instruct Zimmermannot to pursue Martin, those instructions are only recommendations that do not carry the force of law.[16]On March 21, 2012, three out of the five members of the Sanford city commission, including the Mayor,passed a motion of no confidence in regards to the police chief Bill Lee, and his handling of the case;however, the vote is advisory only.[66] The following day, Lee announced that he had temporarilystepped down from his position as chief of police, stating my involvement in this matter isovershadowing the process. Lee further stated, I do this in the hopes of restoring some semblance ofcalm to a city which has been in turmoil for several weeks.[67] 5/17/2012
  15. 15. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 15 of 37Stand your ground lawsSelf-defense laws in the United States, particularly regarding justifiable homicide, vary by state. Floridalaw, as of 2005, includes a stand your ground provision, under which a person, under mostcircumstances, does not have to retreat before using deadly force if he reasonably believes it is necessaryto do so to prevent death or great bodily harm.[209] In almost all states, such laws protect people in theirown homes; Floridas version extends the no-retreat doctrine to vehicles and public places. In at least 17states, including Florida, there is no duty to retreat before using force.[210][211] After the shooting, mediareports had indicated that Zimmerman would most likely use the Stand Your Ground provision inFloridas self-defense law. According to Durell Peaden, one of the sponsors of the Florida law, the lawdoes not say that a person has a right to confront another. When [Zimmerman] said Im following him,he lost his defense.[212] However, the same article goes on to state, Peaden and Baxley said they didntknow all the facts of the case, so their interpretations of what happened could change if new informationarises during the investigation.[212]According to analysis by David Kopel, Floridas Stand Your Ground Law is legally irrelevant to [the]case, and the case turns on whether Martin initially attacked Zimmerman, or whether the initial attackwas by Zimmerman attacking Martin. [213]The Florida Statute excepts unlawful activity from protection by the Stand Your Ground provision: (3)A person who is not engaged in an unlawful activity and who is attacked in any other place where he orshe has a right to be has no duty to retreat and has the right to stand his or her ground and meet forcewith force, including deadly force if he or she reasonably believes it is necessary to do so to preventdeath or great bodily harm to himself or herself or another or to prevent the commission of a forciblefelony. [214]On March 19, 2012, Florida authorities announced they had picked 17 people to head up a task force toreview the Florida statute that deals with justifiable use of force, including the stand your groundprovision. It was decided that the group would hear arguments and testimony from residents at publicmeetings across the state and pass along recommendations to the governor and the legislature.[215]Media coverage For the first 10 days after Martins death, the story was covered by only the Florida media.[216] On March 8, 2012, CBS News, acting on a tip it received from the networks local bureau in Atlanta, Georgia, obtained an exclusive interview with Tracy Martin and Sybrina Fulton that was broadcast on CBS This Morning.[216][217] Benjamin Crump, the familys attorney, who had been retained to pursue legal action and to persuade the news media to cover the case, arranged for the interview to take place. [216] Also on March 8, The Huffington Post, The Young Turks, and, which is affiliated with NBC News, started to cover the case.[216][218][219][220] On March 9, 2012, ABC World News featured the story on their nightly broadcast.[221] CNN first reported on the case on March 12, 2012, and by the end of that 5/17/2012
  16. 16. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 16 of 37 Trayvons father Tracy Martin, family week, radio hosts and bloggers were also reporting on the story. [216][222] attorney Benjamin Crump and mother National coverage started to increase the week of March Sybrina Fulton, at the Million 12 and intensified after March 16, when tapes of 9-1-1 calls were Hoodies protest in Union Square, released to the public.[216][223] Having the 9-1-1 calls, which the New York police had previously declined to release, gave radio and TV reporters more material to report on.[216][223] An editorial by the president of IFC described how Martin became a missing whitegirl (a cause célèbre for modern media), saying that minorities were under-reported in American news,and if not for several black journalists, including Trymaine Lee of The Huffington Post, Ta-NehisiCoates of The Atlantic, Charles M. Blow of The New York Times, and Al Sharpton of MSNBC, it isdoubtful anyone would know who Trayvon Martin is and was.[224]The Project for Excellence in Journalism has reported that media coverage of the Trayvon Martin casebecame the first story in 2012 to be featured more than the presidential race. According to the Project,the varying types of media have focused on the case in different ways. An article in the Tampa BayTimes wrote that, on Twitter, people are outraged at Zimmerman and want justice, while on cable newsand talk radio people are discussing the states laws for self-defense and gun control and on blogs thefocus has been on race.[225]Aspects of coverageDeceptive photos of Martin and ZimmermanThe Associated Press noted that initially the most widely used media photo of Martin was several yearsold and showed him as a baby-faced boy, rather than as a young man in his late teens. To representZimmerman, the media chose a shot of a beefy 21 year-old Zimmerman taken seven years prior to theshooting, whereas recent photos show him as slim-faced and more mature. The two outdated photoschosen by the media may have helped shape the initial public perception of the shooting. The AP quotedacademic Kenny Irby on the expected effect, When you have such a lopsided visual comparison, it juststands to reason that people would rush to judgment, and another academic, Betsi Grabe, as saying thatjournalists will present stories as a struggle between good and evil [i]f the ingredients are there.[226]Reporting on Zimmerman call to dispatcherEconomist and commentator Thomas Sowell criticized the national media for implying that Zimmermanhad continued to follow Martin after the police dispatcher said We dont need you to do that. He saidthat they mostly left out Zimmermans answer, O.K. because too many people in the media see theirrole as filtering and slanting the news.[227]After the audio of the call was released, CNN[228] and other reports alleged Zimmerman had exclaimedfucking coons, two minutes and twenty-one seconds (2:21) into the call. Two weeks later on April 4,2012, CNN claimed that enhanced audio revealed the word to be cold.[229] The following day, April 5,2012, CNNs Martin Savidge reported that forensic audio expert Tom Owen claimed it was punks.[230]It is said to be punks in the affidavit of probable cause, dated April 11, 2012.[158] Other reviewers ofthe call have offered alternate interpretations of what was said, including unintelligible. According tothe Associated Press, the alleged racial slur fed growing outrage over the police departments initialdecision not to arrest Zimmerman.[231][232][103][233] 5/17/2012
  17. 17. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 17 of 37Surveillance videoABC News obtained a surveillance video of Zimmermanwalking unassisted into the Sanford police station after theshooting. An officer is seen pausing to look at the back ofZimmermans head, but ABC originally said that no abrasions orblood can be seen in the video.[234] The Daily Caller disputed thisclaim, and posted a still from the ABC video which it said shows Image enhancement of a single frame [235] of the police surveillance video (left)what may be an injury on the back of Zimmermans head.MSNBC reported, We were able to zoom into the back of his by the Daily Caller (middle) and by [236]head and there is some sort of abrasion... Zimmermans Forensic Protection, Inc. workingbrother, Robert Zimmerman Jr., told CNN that medical records with ABC News (right) has made twowill prove that his brother was attacked and that his nose was welts or abrasions visible. ABC [237]broken by Martin. Jorge Rodríguez, Zimmermans next-door originally said the video showed noneighbor, told Reuters that when he saw Zimmerman the day blood or bruises.[234]after the incident, he had two big, butterfly bandages on theback of his head, and another big bandage ... on the bridge of hisnose. Rodríguezs wife Audria also said she saw the bandages and a third neighbor, who spoke only oncondition of anonymity, agreed with the Rodríguez couples account. I saw two bandages on the backof his head, and his nose was all swollen up, said the witness, who had watched from a nearby second-floor window.[238] ABC later reported that it had re-digitized the video, and that this version showedwhat appear to be a pair of gashes or welts on George Zimmermans head.[239][240] At Zimmermansbail hearing his attorney, OMara, said that he would give the prosecution medical records demonstratingthat his client had sustained a fractured or broken nose.[241]Allegations against NBCFox News newsmagazine host Geraldo Rivera, a former NBC employee, asserted that NBC made anideological decision that... they would argue strenuously for the prosecution of George Zimmerman andthe ultimate conviction of George Zimmerman... [T]hey are cheerleading for the conviction of GeorgeZimmerman.[242]Misleading editBoth NBCs Today show and NBCs network-owned Miami affiliate WTVJ NBC6 ran segments whichmisleadingly merged parts of Zimmermans call. On the recording played by NBC, Zimmerman washeard saying, This guy looks like hes up to no good. He looks black. In the original 9-1-1 recording,Zimmerman said: This guy looks like hes up to no good. Or hes on drugs or something. Its raining andhes just walking around, looking about. The 9-1-1 operator then asked: OK, and this guy, is he black,white or Hispanic?, and Zimmerman answered, He looks black.[203]The Washington Post wrote that NBCs alterations would more readily paint Zimmerman as a racialprofiler. In reality... Zimmerman simply answered a question... Nothing prejudicial at all in respondingto such an inquiry... To portray that exchange in a way that wrongs Zimmerman is high editorialmalpractice...[203] 5/17/2012
  18. 18. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 18 of 37NBC apologized for an error made in the production process that we deeply regret.[243] The networksaid that the Today show and Miami edits took place in two separate incidents involving differentpeople. Jeff Burnside, a producer involved in editing the NBC6 audio was fired, and two otheremployees were disciplined.[244][245]Timeline of events Ŷ February 26, 2012 Ŷ 7:09 pm – Zimmermans call to Sanford police begins[94] Ŷ 7:12 pm – Trayvons girlfriend calls him[246] Ŷ 7:13 pm – Zimmermans call to Sanford police ends[246] Ŷ 7:16 pm – Trayvon call to girlfriend goes dead;[246] 9-1-1 calls from the neighors begin Ŷ 7:17 pm – First officer arrives on scene[14] Ŷ 7:30 pm – Martin pronounced dead at the scene by paramedic[14] Ŷ 7:52 pm – Zimmermans arrival at police station recorded on video Ŷ Roughly 10:00 pm – Zimmerman released (duration described as about two hours) Ŷ February 27 Ŷ 3:07 am – Timestamp on Sanford Police Department (SPD) Initial Report Ŷ Martin reported missing by father Ŷ SPD informs father of Trayvons death before 8 am Ŷ SPD publicly identifies Zimmerman and Martin Ŷ March 1 Ŷ Police Chief Bill Lee attends emergency Homeowners Association meeting to discuss shooting Ŷ March 8 Ŷ Trayvons father holds press conference criticizing SPD investigation Ŷ March 12 Ŷ Chief Lee comments: there is no evidence to dispute Zimmermans assertion that he shot Martin out of self-defense Ŷ March 13 Ŷ SPD announces case turned over to State Attorney Norm Wolfinger.[247] Ŷ NAACP letter to U.S. Department of Justice[248] Ŷ March 16 Ŷ The New York Times publishes opinion piece The Curious Case of Trayvon Martin[249] Ŷ Audio of eight calls to 9-1-1 released Ŷ March 20 Ŷ U.S. Department of Justice announces investigation Ŷ March 22 Ŷ Bill Lee temporarily steps aside as Chief of Police Ŷ State attorney Norman Wolfinger recuses himself from the case and Florida Gov. Rick Scott appoints Angela B. Corey, the state attorney for the Jacksonville area, to take over the case Ŷ March 23 Ŷ A lawyer for Zimmerman, Craig Sonner, announces that his client acted in self-defense Ŷ March 29 Ŷ Special prosecutor Angela B. Corey announces that she will not comment on the Trayvon Martin case until further notice Ŷ April 5 Ŷ Florida State Sen. Chris Smith convenes task force to examine possible changes to the states self-defense laws 5/17/2012
  19. 19. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 19 of 37 Ŷ April 9 Ŷ Special prosecutor Corey decides against a grand jury for the case, eliminating the possibility of a first-degree murder charge Ŷ April 10 Ŷ State Attorney Angela Corey says shell announce charges within 72 hours Ŷ April 11 Ŷ State Attorney Angela Corey announces that George Zimmerman is charged with 2nd degree murder Ŷ George Zimmerman turns himself in to the police and is taken into custody shortly after Coreys announcement[29] Ŷ April 23 Ŷ George Zimmerman is released on bail at 12:05 a.m.[168][250]Notes 1. ^ Zimmerman’s father is white and his mother is a Hispanic from Peru. George Zimmerman’s ancestry includes an Afro-Peruvian great-grandfather.[4] 2. ^ The 46 calls from Zimmerman were erroneously reported by numerous media sources, including the Orlando Sentinel[56] and The Miami Herald,[57] as occurring between January 2011 and February 2012. The media sources blamed a typo on the first page of the 48-page police report for their error.[50][58] 3. ^ See The Events Leading to the Shooting of Trayvon Martin ( martin.html) for seven aerial view depictions of various locations related to the case which include: The Retreat at Twin Lakes (1,3,4,5,6,7); home where Trayvon was staying (1,5,6); site of shooting where police found Trayvons body (1,7); Zimmermans home (1,3,5); 7-Eleven convenience store (1,2); main entrance, on the north side (3,4,5); pedestrian entrance (3); unfenced area used by residents as shortcut entrance (3); clubhouse (3,4,5); mailboxes (4); back entrance, on the east side (5); cut throughs (indicated by arrows) (6); shared backyard (6).[92] 4. ^ Some referenced information is from the embedded video of Robert Zimmermans interview,[125] 5. ^ Please see previous section, Pre-trial, for 20 April bond hearing testimony by an investigator for the prosecutionReferences 1. ^ a b c Zimmerman charged with second-degree murder ( to-announce-decision-on-zimmerman/) . CNN. April 11, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2012. 2. ^ a b c d e Prieto, Bianca (March 14, 2012). Trayvon Martin: We are gathered here today to demand justice in teens fatal shooting ( death-rally-20120314_1_demand-justice-fatal-shooting-bryant) . Orlando Sentinel. 20120314_1_demand-justice-fatal-shooting-bryant. Retrieved March 20, 2012. 3. ^ Hamacher, Brian. George Zimmerman Makes First Appearance Before Judge ( Thursday-147134515.html) . NBC Miami. First-Appearance-Before-Judge-Thursday-147134515.html. Retrieved 2012-04-21. 4. ^ a b George Zimmerman: Prelude to a shooting ( shooting-zimmerman-idUSBRE83O18H20120425) 5/17/2012
  20. 20. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 20 of 37 5. ^ a b c Manuel Roig-Franzia,; Tom Jackman and Darryl Fears (March 22, 2012). Who is George Zimmerman? ( zimmerman/2012/03/22/gIQAkXdbUS_story.html) . The Washington Post. zimmerman/2012/03/22/gIQAkXdbUS_story.html. Retrieved March 24, 2012. 6. ^ a b c Stutzman, Rene (March 15, 2012). George Zimmermans father: My son is not racist, did not confront Trayvon Martin ( -20120315,0,1716605.story) . Orlando Sentinel. martin-shooting-zimmerman-letter-20120315,0,1716605.story. Retrieved March 20, 2012. 7. ^ Trayvon Martin, George Zimmerman And Beyond Black And White ( white) . DCentric. and-white. Retrieved March 23, 2012. 8. ^ a b Manuel Roig-Franzia; Tom Jackman; Darryl Fears. Florida shooter George Zimmerman not easily pigeonholed ( . The Seattle Times. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 23, 2012. 9. ^ Trayvon Martin Case Salts Old Wounds And Racial Tension ( . The Huffington Post. florida_n_1345868.html. Retrieved March 23, 2012. 10. ^ a b c Transcript of George Zimmermans Call to the Police ( , Source: City of Sanford, Florida, published by Mother Jones. 11. ^ The Martin Shooting ( . Fox News. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 12. ^ Outrage Escalates Following Trayvon Martin Death ( . WESH. March 19, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. 13. ^ Stutzman, Rene. Trayvon Martin case: facts vs. rumors ( 02/news/os-trayvon-martin-qa3-20120402_1_civil-rights-gated-community-robert-zimmerman) . Orlando Sentinel. rights-gated-community-robert-zimmerman. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sanford Police Initial Report ( Lakes-Shooting-Initial-Report.pdf) . February 26, 2012. content/uploads/2012/04/Twin-Lakes-Shooting-Initial-Report.pdf. Retrieved April 7, 2012. 15. ^ a b Gray, Madison. George Zimmermans Gun a Popular Choice for Concealed Carry ( carry/) . Time. concealed-carry/. Retrieved March 31, 2012. 16. ^ a b c d e Kuo, Vivian (March 14, 2012). Fatal shooting of Florida teen turned over to state attorney ( . CNN. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 17. ^ a b c d Gutman, Matt. Trayvon Martin case timeline of events ( . ABC News. Retrieved March 31, 2012. 18. ^ a b c Photo of blood on back of Zimmermans head ( from — Gutman, Matt; Seni Tienabeso (2012-04-20). George Zimmerman Tells Trayvon Martins Parents I Am Sorry ( id=16177849#.T5MNSkZ3yHK) . abc Good Morning America. ABC News. id=16177849#.T5MNSkZ3yHK. Retrieved 2012-04-21. 5/17/2012
  21. 21. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 21 of 37 19. ^ Sanford Police Say They Lack Evidence To Arrest George Zimmerman ( arrest-george-zimmerman) . The Florida News Journal. March 12, 2012. zimmerman. Retrieved March 25, 2012. 20. ^ a b c Gutman, Matt (March 27, 2012). Trayvon Martin Investigator Wanted Manslaughter Charge ( manslaughter/story?id=16011674) . ABC News. wanted-charge-george-zimmerman-manslaughter/story?id=16011674. Retrieved May 3, 2012. 21. ^ a b Horwitz, Sari; White, Josh (April 2, 2012). Martin familys attorney seeks Justice Dept. investigation into police actions after shooting ( justice-dept-investigation-into-police-actions-after-shooting/2012/04/02/gIQAnD2prS_story.html) . The Washington Post. investigation-into-police-actions-after-shooting/2012/04/02/gIQAnD2prS_story.html. Retrieved April 5, 2012. 22. ^ a b c d Trotta, Daniel (April 3, 2012). Trayvon Martin: Before the World Heard the Cries ( idUSBRE8320UK20120403) . Reuters. trayvon-idUSBRE8320UK20120403. Retrieved April 7, 2012. 23. ^ a b Wisniewski, Mary (March 24, 2012). Rallies held around country for Trayvon Martin ( idUSBRE82O00Z20120325) . Reuters. rallies-idUSBRE82O00Z20120325. Retrieved March 25, 2012. 24. ^ a b Copeland, Larry (March 23, 2012). Trayvon Martin rally draws thousands in call for arrest ( . USA Today. Retrieved March 25, 2012. 25. ^ Gutman, Matt. Neighborhood watch shooting of Trayvon Martin: Probe reveals questionable police conduct ( questionable/story?id=15907136) . ABCNews. trayvon-martin-probe-reveals-questionable/story?id=15907136. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 26. ^ a b State of Florida vs. George Zimmerman ( (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-21. 27. ^ State of Florida vs. George Zimmerman: Affidavit of probable cause ( probable-cause/) . Fox News. zimmerman-affidavit-probable-cause/. Retrieved 2012-04-21. 28. ^ a b Zimmerman charged with second-degree murder ( -announce-decision-on-zimmerman/) . CNN. April 11, 2012. 29. ^ a b New Booking Photo: George Zimmerman turns self in ( . April 11, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 30. ^ a b George Zimmermans bail set at $150,000 ( 57417825/george-zimmermans-bail-set-at-$150000/) . CBS News. 501363_162-57417825/george-zimmermans-bail-set-at-$150000/. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 31. ^ Burch, Audra D. S.; Laura Isensee (March 22, 2012). Trayvon Martin: a typical teen who loved video games, looked forward to prom ( martin-a-typical-teen.html) . The Miami Herald. fullstory/2708960/trayvon-martin-a-typical-teen.html. Retrieved March 23, 2012. 32. ^ Robles, Frances (March 31, 2012). What is known, what isnt about Trayvon Martins death ( . The Miami Herald. Retrieved April 21, 2012. 5/17/2012
  22. 22. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 22 of 37 33. ^ Prieto, Bianca; Robert Nolin (March 17, 2012). Tensions still simmer in Trayvon Martin shooting case ( 20120317_1_shooting-death-english-teacher-uncle) . Orlando Sentinel. 20120317_1_shooting-death-english-teacher-uncle. Retrieved March 23, 2012. 34. ^ Jonsson, Patrik (March 22, 2012). Will Trayvon Martin case spur rethinking of Stand Your Ground laws? ( Stand-Your-Ground-laws-video) . The Christian Science Monitor. Your-Ground-laws-video. Retrieved March 26, 2012. 35. ^ a b Family Wants Answers After Miami Teen Shot, Killed In Sanford ( . CBS Miami. March 11, 2012. Retrieved March 23, 2012. 36. ^ Memmott, Mark (March 19, 2012). Trayvon Martin Was Typical Teen, George Zimmerman Is Hard To Categorize : The Two-Way ( was-typical-teen-george-zimmerman-is-hard-to-categorize) . NPR. way/2012/03/23/149206896/trayvon-martin-was-typical-teen-george-zimmerman-is-hard-to-categorize. Retrieved March 24, 2012. 37. ^ Robles, Frances; Ovalle, David. Lawyer: Girl on phone with Trayvon Martin moments before he was shot ( followed/1220972) . Tampa Bay Times. girlfriend-he-was-being-followed/1220972. Retrieved March 24, 2012. 38. ^ Trayvon Martin case: George Zimmermans brother defends him as his father attacks Obama ( brother-defends-father-attacks-Obama.html) . Daily Mail. April 5, 2012. defends-father-attacks-Obama.html. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 39. ^ Zimmerman grew up in a multiracial family ( trayvon-martin-shooter-is-hispanic-has-multi-racial-family/) 40. ^ Seminole County Sheriffs Office, Zimmerman, George Michael ( report-0412.pdf) , Inmate Booking Information, Public Version, 4/11/2012 20:10. 41. ^ Seminole County Sheriffs Office, Zimmerman, George Michael ( , Inmate Booking Information, Public Version, 4/11/2012 20:10. 42. ^ Gamboa, Suzanne (March 29, 2012). Florida Shooters Race a Complicated Matter ( . Associated Press. Retrieved April 11, 2012. 43. ^ Connor, Adam Sheets (March 27, 2012). Voting Form Shows George Zimmerman Is A Registered Democrat, Confounding Message Pushed By Left ( hispanic-shooting.htm) . International Business Times. shooting.htm. Retrieved March 27, 2012. 44. ^ George Zimmerman: Self-appointed watchman or racist killer? ( appointed.html) . The Miami Herald. March 25, 2012. fullstory/2712299/george-zimmerman-self-appointed.html. Retrieved April 14, 2012. 45. ^ Rush, Annemarie (March 29, 2012). A Closer Look At George Zimmerman ( . InsightOut News. Retrieved March 29, 2012. 46. ^ DeGregory, Lane (March 25, 2012). Trayvon Martins killing shatters safety within Retreat at Twin Lakes in Sanford ( retreat-at-twin-lakes-in/1221799) . Tampa Bay Times. 5/17/2012
  23. 23. Shooting of Trayvon Martin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 23 of 37 -lakes-in/1221799. Retrieved March 29, 2012. 47. ^ Weiner, Jeff (March 23, 2012). Trayvon Martin George Zimmerman job: New details of George Zimmermans youth, employment ( george-zimmerman-job-20120323_1_robert-zimmerman-source-new-details) . Orlando Sentinel. 20120323_1_robert-zimmerman-source-new-details. Retrieved April 1, 2012. 48. ^ Reuters425 George Zimmerman: Prelude to a shooting ( usa-florida-shooting-zimmerman-idUSBRE83O18H20120425) 49. ^ Los Angeles Times, Trayvon Martin case: George Zimmerman, mystery gunman (,0,6326075.story) 50. ^ a b c d e f g h Robles, Frances (March 17, 2012). Shooter of Trayvon Martin a habitual caller to cops ( habitual.html) . The Miami Herald. -trayvon-martin-a-habitual.html. Retrieved March 20, 2012. 51. ^ Trayvon Martin: Zimmerman was not following Neighborhood Watch rules ( 20120321_1_zimmerman-community-ties-neighborhood-watch) . Orlando Sentinel 52. ^ Report: Zimmerman told police teen punched him before fatal shooting ( . CNN. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 53. ^ 911 Call History ( . City of Sanford, Florida. (copies of police Event Reports for 911 calls by Zimmerman as part of a city investigation of the incident) 54. ^ Vanderveen, Chris (March 26, 2012). A look at the facts in the Trayvon Martin shooting ( shooting-) . KUSA. Martin-shooting-. 55. ^ DeLuca, Matthew (March 22, 2012). Did Trayvon Shooter Abuse 911? ( . The Daily Beast. 56. ^ Prieto, Bianca (March 19, 2012). Sheriffs Office releases more 911 calls made by George Zimmerman ( zimmerman-911-20120319_1_neighborhood-county-sheriff-s-office-crime-watch) . Orlando Sentinel. 20120319_1_neighborhood-county-sheriff-s-office-crime-watch. 57. ^ Robles, Frances (March 21, 2012). Shooter of Trayvon Martin a habitual caller to cops ( spotlight.html) . The Miami Herald. minded-prosecutor-in-spotlight.html. 58. ^ Cohen, Andrew (March 21, 2012). Trayvon Martins Killer Was Looking for Trouble—and Found It ( -found-it/254815/) . The Atlantic. killer-was-looking-for-trouble-and-found-it/254815/. 59. ^ idUSBRE83O18H20120425 60. ^ Simon, Mallory; McConnell, Dugald (March 23, 2012). Neighbors describe watch leader ( . CNN. Retrieved March 23, 2012. 61. ^ a b Gendar, Alison; Hutchinson, Bill (March 28, 2012). Homicide detective Chris Serino says he wanted George Zimmerman slapped with manslaughter charges in shooting death of Trayvon Martin ( zimmerman-slapped-manslaughter-charges-shooting-death-trayvon-martin-article-1.1051848) . Daily News. slapped-manslaughter-charges-shooting-death-trayvon-martin-article-1.1051848. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 5/17/2012