Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                        Page 1 of 26Pakistan–United Sta...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                               Page 2 of 26            ...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                             Page 3 of 26visits with th...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                           Page 4 of 26[8]   The reques...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                            Page 5 of 26"severely compr...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                             Page 6 of 26Nixon relayed ...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                              Page 7 of 26    See also:...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                           Page 8 of 26                ...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                               Page 9 of 26Following th...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                           Page 10 of 26programme, feel...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                         Page 11 of 26In 1998, Prime mi...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                            Page 12 of 26Military scien...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                           Page 13 of 26An intensive di...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                              Page 14 of 26In October 2...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                           Page 15 of 26Trust deficits ...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                             Page 16 of 26these allegat...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                           Page 17 of 26Between 2002–20...
Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                            Page 18 of 26Osama bin Lade...
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PAKISTAN - United States Relations ($2 BillionYearFrom 911 Attacks)
PAKISTAN - United States Relations ($2 BillionYearFrom 911 Attacks)
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PAKISTAN - United States Relations ($2 BillionYearFrom 911 Attacks)


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  • 27_02_1991

    Thank you so much for your feedback. Your interest and support is greatly appreciated. Please feel free to share this information with others and visit our website at . The following documents have also been added to SlideShare to support what appears to be the United States of America’s SUPPORT and FINANCING of its TERRORIST Cells (i.e. such as the Taliban):

    as well as the GAMES and SIDESHOW (as President Barack Obama described it) regarding the recent SCANDALS - - Efforts to get the PUBLIC/WORLD to think that the TEA PARTY was the group that EXPOSED these SCANDALS when they were NOT. Vogel Denise Newsome’s documents will SHARE and EXPOSE how SOON Congress and the White House (i.e. Government Agencies) were made aware of BAKER DONELSON BEARMAN CALDWELL & BERKOWITZ’ and their CONSPIRATORS’ Criminal Activities and the HIJACKING of the United States of America’s Government Agencies to CARRY OUT their RACIST/TERRORIST Agendas:
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PAKISTAN - United States Relations ($2 BillionYearFrom 911 Attacks)

  1. 1. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 1 of 26Pakistan–United States relationsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaPakistan – United States relations or Pakistan-American relations, refers to the international, historical, Pakistan-United States relationsand cultural bilateral relationship between the State ofPakistan and the United States, with both countries firstestablishing diplomatic relations on October 20, 1947,roughly two months after the establishment of the formercountry after the Indian partition by Great Britain. Withthe United States being among the very first nations tohave established relations with Pakistan, the relationshipsince then has been based primarily on U.S. economic andmilitary assistance to Pakistan.[1] Pakistan is a Major non- Pakistan United StatesNATO ally of the United States and also the second-largest supplier of military equipment to Pakistan afterChina, and largest economic aid contributor as well.[2][3][4] Contents Ŷ 1 Relations with Superpower: 1947–Present Ŷ 1.1 Democratic governments (1947-1958) Ŷ 1.2 Military dictatorship (1960–1969) Ŷ 1.3 Military dictatorship (1969–1971) Ŷ 1.3.1 Pakistans role in U.S.-China relations Ŷ 1.3.2 Role in Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 Ŷ 1.4 Democratic government (1971-1977) Ŷ 1.5 Military dictatorship (1977–1988) Ŷ 1.6 Democratic governments (1988–1998) Ŷ 1.6.1 Rift in relations Ŷ 1.6.2 Economic embargo Ŷ 2 Military pacts and suspension of aid Ŷ 2.1 Baghdad Pact Ŷ 2.2 Foreign Assistance Act Ŷ 3 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Ŷ 4 Military science programmes Ŷ 4.1 Pakistan and atomic weapons Ŷ 4.2 Space programme Ŷ 5 Modern history: Post–September 11 Ŷ 5.1 Alliance with United States Ŷ 5.2 Aid from the United States since 9/11 Ŷ 5.3 Trust deficits issues Ŷ 5.4 Border skirmishes Ŷ 6 Current issues Ŷ 6.1 2009 Ŷ 6.2 2010 Ŷ 6.3 2011 Ŷ 6.3.1 Death of Osama bin Laden 6/6/2012
  2. 2. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 26 Ŷ Allegations against Pakistan Ŷ 7 Military aid from the United States Ŷ 8 External links Ŷ 9 ReferencesRelations with Superpower: 1947–PresentDemocratic governments (1947-1958) Main articles: Indian integration of Junagadh, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indian-held Kashmir, Operation Polo, and Pakistan-Poland relations Main article: Soviet Union-Pakistan relationsAfter Pakistans independence by the partitioning of the BritishIndian Empire, Pakistan was founded while struggling withproblems involving the national economy, national security, andIndian expansion of adjacent Muslim independent states and Sovietinfluence on Afghanistan and Iran, forced Pakistans first primeminister Liaquat Ali Khan to cement a pro-Western and pro-American policy.[6] In 1949, the Soviet Union directed a farewellmessage to Prime minister Ali Khan, followed by the U.S. invitationin 1950. The proposal was under consideration when Pakistansgeostrategists, military policy makers, logisiticians and foreign Prime minister Liaquat Ali Khanservice officers raised great questions whether or not the Soviet meeting President Truman (duringUnion could provide the military, technical, and economic aid that the 1950s when Pakistani Primethe country needed so urgently.[7] One key common denominator minister made a good will tour inwas at the home front, when the Communist party had gained the the U.S.).[5]considerable support in East Pakistan and the Socialist party in WestPakistan, in which the Muslim League had failed to take activemeasures against socialists in the West and communists in the East.[6] Prime Minister Ali Khan made atireless effort to establish relations with the Soviet Union, repeatedly asking Joseph Stalin for militaryaid, but all attempts were rebuffed by the Soviets.[7] According to the PIIA, the religious background ofPakistan and the atheist background of the Soviet Union had created a major divergence after Pakistannoted subservience which was forced upon the allies of the Soviet Union.[6]After a long debate, Prime Minister Ali Khan decided to pay his first visit to the United States, whileholding the Soviet invitation which was met with great hostility from the Soviet Union, and the harshcriticism by the socialists and communists to Ali Khan and his government. The President of the UnitedStates Harry Truman and the U.S. itself were well aware of strategic importance of Pakistan, but did nothave any concrete plans.[8] The U.S. continued its civilian aid to the country through the United StatesAmbassador to Pakistan, Paul Allin. It was not until 1950 when the military aid was begun with newambassador Avra M. Warren taking office.[8]In 1950-53, a flurry of Pakistans state delegation paid visit to the U.S., initially seeking military aidrather than civilian.[8] Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan, Huseyn Suhravardie, Army commander AyubKhan, Foreign Minister Sir Zafrullah Khan, Foreign Secretary Ikram-ullah Khan, Finance MinisterGhulam Muhammad, Defense Secretary Sikander Mirza, and special envoy Mir Laiq Ali made U.S 6/6/2012
  3. 3. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 26visits with the main intention of getting military aid. Controversially, there was neither an organized,coordinated, nor institutional effort nor any attempt made to study the U.S. decision-making process toachieve the goal.[8] The U.S. government officials were smart enough to understand and to very quickly grasp the mediocre Pakistans leadership.[8] The U.S. government would use the country to their maximum regional and strategic goals and interests. When the true nature of U.S. ambition exposed to Prime minister Ali Khan, the prime minister deliberately attempted to warm the relations with the Soviet Union and the Soviet bloc, while warning the U.S. that "[Pakistan] has annexed half of Kashmir without [A]merican support.... And would be able to take the other half too".[9] Ali Khans sudden shift and aggressive mood was a "bombshell" for President Trumans presidency and for the U.S. foreign policy.[9] In 1950, President Truman requested Prime minister Ali Khan to provide a military base to Central Intelligence Agency to keep an eye on Soviet Union, which Map of Pakistan before 1971: The Ali Khan hesitated and later refused, prompting the U.S. to tendency of socialism in West and began the planning to assassinate Ali Khan to remove him communism in East, played a key factor in from the countrys politics once and for all.[9] However, Pakistans policy to developed close there are no official evidence to support, marking the big relations with the United States throughout question on Ali Khans assassination.[9] The Indian the cold war era. government followed a different, non-aligned policy stance, which leaned closer to the Soviet Union rather than the United States of America. Pakistan was seeking strongalliances to counter its neighbor, India. At this time, India was neutral and went on to be a part of NonAligned Movement.In 1953, United States assessed Pakistan as "a volunteer army of 3,000,000... It is not neutral but an anti-communist... As a possible ally for US, Pakistan displays a tempting picture of power — potential andactual. The Pakistan Armed Forces were extremely well-disciplined, professional, well trained armedforces whose morale and bravery are unquestionable.[8] According to Hamid Hussain, Pakistan hasbecame comical in 1955-56, and the Secretary of State John Foster Dulles while arguing for wheat aid toPakistan in 1953, told the sub-committee on Agriculture and Forestry during hearings that, "the [p]eopleof Pakistan had a splendid military tradition and that in Karachi he had been met by a guard of honourwhich was the "finest" he had ever seen".[8] Apparently, Dulles did not tell the agriculture departmentwhat on earth the wheat aid has to do with the military. After the signing of first mutual defence treaty inMay 1954, large-scale interaction between U.S. and Pakistani military started, with hundreds of officersbegan to sent to U.S. on routine and regular basis, getting trained shoulder-to-shoulders with U.S.military.[8] A U.S. Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) was established in Army Headquartersin Rawalpindi, although the MAAG was divided into groups depending on their role.[8] According toColonel Jordan of CIA, the officers of Pakistan Armed Forces were not only trained in military ethicsbut also to groom them for non-military activities such as leadership, management, economics.[8] TheU.S. had no interests to enhance relations with the political leadership, but was rather hostile towards thecivilians.[8] In 1956, President Dwight Eisenhower kindly requested Prime minister Suhravardie to leasea military base, Peshawar Air Station (PAS), to make preparations for spy operations and to coordinatesecret signal intelligence flights to gain intelligence on Soviet Unions intercontinental ballistic missiles. 6/6/2012
  4. 4. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 26[8] The request was granted and the U.S. opened the station with building an airstrip, command andcontrol station and air force base near by.[8] This base was kept in secret, the highest Pakistanigovernment officials, including the military personnel, could not enter, and in 1959, U.S. denied therequest of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto when he tried to visit the facility.[8]The U.S. interest in Pakistan grew after realizing the importance of Pakistan Armed Forces, which wasseen as potential partners against the communism, not the political leadership. That is why, when Primeminister Huseyn Suhravardie made a frequent trip to U.S., the importance was not given to him but hisArmy commander Ayub Khan.[8] Furthermore, the relations gradually went down with people-electedpresident Iskander Mirza, leading to military coup against him in 1958. After successfully leading themilitary coup détat in 1958, Ayub Khan quickly visit the U.S., stressing that armed forces are thestrongest element.[8]Ayub Khan and U.S. were completely convinced that the left wing intellectuals will come to powerwhich will not only destabilize Pakistan but will affect U.S. strategic interest.[8] To United States, themilitary alliance with Ayub Khan was to ensure a provide safeguard to U.S. interests in Southwest Asiaand Middle East and not against India. The secret Establishment too saw the relationship as a short cutto modernization of its armed forces but failed to comprehend long-term strategic interest of Pakistan.[8]Military dictatorship (1960–1969) Main articles: CIA activities in Pakistan, Peshawar Air Station, 1960 U-2 incident, and Indo- Pakistani war of 1965 Pakistan joined the US-led military alliances SEATO and CENTO. In 1954 the United States signed a Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement with Pakistan. Under Ayub Khan, Pakistan enjoyed a strong and healthy relationship with the United States. Pakistan had aligned itself with the United States during the Cold War, rather than with the Soviet Union. Khans government also provided a secret military base to United States. The 1960s era was perhaps most enjoyable and fond relationships enjoyed both by the United States and Pakistan. This 1960s era, Pakistan and her people were the most pro- American nation where the U.S. image was more positive than Jacquelyn Kennedy visiting Pakistan any other nation at that time. In 1961, Khan paid a state visit to the United States, accompanied by his daughter Begum Nasir in 1962 Akhtar Aurangzeb. Highlights of the trip included a state dinner at Mount Vernon, a visit to the Islamic Center of Washington,and a ticker tape parade in New York City.[10]In 1954, Ayub Khan had famously told Brigadier-General Henry A. Byroade and the United States that"I didn’t come here to look at barracks. Our army can be your army if you want us. But let’s make adecision".[8] In 1960, Ayub Khan gave approval to U.S. to fly a spy mission to Soviet Union, knowingthe aftermath of the mission, Ayub Khan was fully aware of the operation.[8] On May 1960, the U-2incident took place, capturing its pilot Gary Powers was captured.[8] The CIA notified Ayub Khan of theincident when he was in London for a state visit, he shrugged his shoulders and said that he hadexpected this would happen at some point.[8] According the General Khalid Mahmud Arif, this incident 6/6/2012
  5. 5. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 26"severely compromised Pakistan security" and brought the Soviet ire on Pakistan.[8] "Pakistan feltdeceived because the US had kept her in the dark about such clandestine spy operations launched fromPakistan’s territory", quoted by General Arif.[8]The United States military aide was only concentrated in West-Pakistan, and the economical benefitsenjoyed by West Pakistan, not the East.[8] The Anti-Americanism and democracy tendency was greatand was stronger in East-Pakistan, the East-Pakistan parliament signed a statement, denouncing themilitary pact and aide with United States.[8] The United States refrained to provide the military trainingof the East Pakistan Army and the East Pakistan Rifles, troops stationed at Kashmir province did notreceive any training but was managed by Pakistan itself.[8]The economical aide to Pakistan was increased by theUnited States through the consortium companies.[11]Booming economy had brought Pakistan a prestige and thesuccess of capitalism system in an underdeveloped countrywas widely appreciated.[11] But this was short lived, whenAyub Khan launched the Operation Gibraltar against India,leading India to declare full-scale war with West-Pakistan.[11]Many civil bureaucrats, notably Sartaj Aziz noted that thewar with India was an ill-considered decision and itsaftermath that was uncontrollable by Ayub Khan.[11] Theeconomy and foreign policy requirements are not fully President Ayub Khan and Jaquelineconsistent, in fact they were rapidly falling out of line after Kennedy with Sardar, a Seal brown horsethe operations were launched.[11] The United States placed gifted by Khan to Jackie Kennedy, 1962.embargo on Pakistan, both military and economical, that ledthe collapse of Pakistans economy.[11]The war with India cost Pakistan an economical price, when Pakistan lost lost the half a billion dollars ithad coming from the Consortium for Pakistan through the United States.[11] Ayub Khan could not sufferthe aftermath and fall from the presidency after surrendering the presidential power of ArmyCommander General Yahya Khan in 1969.[11] Escalating the further crises, the country was floundered,losing East-Pakistan after India again attack Pakistan six years later, with the economy in great jeopardywithout United States assistance.[11]Military dictatorship (1969–1971) See also: Bangladesh Liberation War, Yahya Khan, Indo-Pakistani war of 1971, 1972 Nixon visit to China, Sino-American relations, and State-sponsored terrorism#IndiaPakistan was perceived in the United States as an integral bulwark against Communism in the Cold War.The United States cautiously supported Pakistan during 1971 although congress kept in place an armsembargo.[12]With the Soviet Union already covertly engaged in neighboring Afghanistan, the Nixon administrationused Pakistan to try to deter further Soviet encroachment in the region.[13] 6/6/2012
  6. 6. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 26Nixon relayed messages to Yahya, urging him to restrain Pakistani forces.[14] His objective was toprevent a war and safeguard Pakistans interests, though he feared an Indian invasion of West Pakistanthat would lead to Indian domination of the sub-continent and strengthen the position of the SovietUnion.[15] Similarly, Yahya Khan feared that an independent Bangladesh could lead to the disintegrationof Pakistan. Indian military support for Bengali guerillas led to war between India and Pakistan.[16]Pakistans role in U.S.-China relationsIn 1971, Pakistan helped the United States to make preparations for the President Richard Nixon for hishistorical visit to Peoples Republic of China (PRC). President Nixon and Henry Kissinger usedPakistans relationship with China to start secret contacts with China, which resulted with HenryKissinger’s secret visit to China in July 1971 while visiting Pakistan.Role in Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 The United States was secretly encouraging the shipment of military equipment from Iran, Turkey, and Jordan to Pakistan, reimbursing those countries[17] despite Congressional objections.[18] The U.S. used the threat of an aid cut-off to force Pakistan to back down, while its continued military aid to Islamabad prevented India from launching incursions deeper into the country. Near the end of the war and fearing Pakistans defeat by the joint forces of Mukti Bahini and Indian forces, Nixon ordered the Enterprise into the Indian President of Pakistan Yahya Khan Ocean, although it was never used for actual combat fearing Russian with United States President response.[19] Pakistan also felt the US arms embargo affected Richard Nixon, 1970. Pakistan more than it affected India.[20] The United States deployed the Task Force-74 of the United StatesSeventh Fleet, when it became apparent that Pakistan was losing the war. At the height of Vietnam war,the Enterprise led the Task Force-74 and was seen as a Show of force by by the United States in supportof the beleaguered West Pakistan Armed Forces.[20] The Task Force-74 was forced to withdrew withSoviet Union dispatch a large fleet to support India, as well as nuclear submarines armed with nuclearmissiles.[19]In a declassified CIA intelligence documents proved that "India intended to dismember Pakistan anddestroy its armed forces, a possible loss of U.S. ally in the Cold war that United States cannot afford tolose. Nixon termed India as "Soviet stooge" before ordering the Enterprise to lead the Task Force-74.[21]In an assessment completed by U.S., India, with full-backing of Soviet Union, can tackle [Pakistan]without anybody doing anything.[21] Nixon sent a strong message to Soviet Union urging Russians tostop India from dismembering and disintegrating the State of Pakistan from existence, in Nixons words:"In the strongest possible...(...)... terms to restrain India with which … (Soviets) have great influence andfor whose actions you must share responsibility... (...)...".[21]Democratic government (1971-1977) Main articles: 1977 Pakistani coup détat, Smiling Buddha, Organization of the Islamic Conference, Pakistan and its Nuclear Deterrent Program, Democratic socialism, Pakistan Peoples Party, and Nationalization in Pakistan 6/6/2012
  7. 7. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 7 of 26 See also: Pakistan–Soviet Union relations, Pakistan North Korea relations, and Pakistan-Vietnam relationsAs a result of 1970s election, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, a charismatic democratic socialist, became President(1971-1974) and later Prime minister in 1974. This period is seen as a "quiet cold war" with the Pakistanwho was administer under democratic socialists led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. His socialist ideas favoredthe communist ideas but never actually allied with communism. Under Bhutto, Pakistan would focusedon Movement of Non-Aligned Countries, building closer ties with Soviet bloc and the Soviet Union.Meanwhile, Bhutto tried to maintain a balance with the United States, but such attempts were rebuffedby United States. Bhutto opposed the ultra-leftism concepts but was a strong proponent of left-wingpolitics, which the U.S. had opposed in Pakistan from the very start.[22]Although, Richard Nixon enjoyed firmly strong relations with When differencesBhutto and was a close friend of Bhutto, the graph of relationsignificantly went down under the Presidency of Jimmy Carter.[23]Carter, an anti-socialist, tightened the embargo placed on Pakistan “ develop, a small country should not take on a great powerand placed a pressure through the United States Ambassador to head-on, it is wiserPakistan, Brigadier-General Henry Byroade.[23] The socialist for it to duck, detour,orientation, and Bhuttos proposed left-wing theories, had badly side-step and try toupset the United States, further clinging the bell tolls in the UnitedStates as fearing Pakistans loss as an ally in the Cold war.[23] The enter from the back- door... ”leftists and Bhuttos policy towards Soviet Union was seensympathetic and had built a bridge for Soviet Union to have gain —Zulfi Bhutto, on U.S.-Pakistanaccess in Pakistans warm water ports, that something both United relations, [8]States and Soviet Union had lacked.[23]During the course of 1976 presidential election, Carter was elected as U.S. President, and his veryinaugural speech Carter announced the determination to seek the ban of nuclear weapons.[23] WithCarters election, Bhutto lost all links to United States administration he had through President Nixon.[23]Bhutto had to faced the embargo and pressure from the American President who was totally against thepolitical objectives which Bhutto had set forth for his upcoming future plans. Carter indirectlyannounced his opposition to Bhutto, his ambition and the elections.[23]Although, Carter placed an embargo on Pakistan, Bhutto under the technical guidance and diplomaticthough Foreign minister Aziz Ahmed, succeeded to bought sensitive equipments, common metalmaterials, and electronic components, marked as "common items", hide the true nature of the intentions,greatly enhance the atomic bomb project, though a complete failure for Carters embargo.[23] Bhutto triedto resolve the issue, but Carter intentionally sabotage the talks. In a thesis written by historian AbdulGhafoor Buhgari, Carter keenly sabotaged Bhutto credibility, but did not wanted favored his executionas Carter made a call to General Zia-ul-Haq to stop the act.[23] Therefore senior leadership of PakistanPeoples Party reached out to different countrys ambassadors and high commissioners but did not meetwith the U.S. ambassador, as the leadership knew the "noble" part played by Carter and hisadministration.[23] When Carter administration discovered Bhuttos act, the programme was reached to awell advanced level, and furthermore, had disastrous effect on SALT I Treaty which was soon collapse,a failure of President Carter to stop the atomic proliferation and arm race between Soviet Union andUnited States heightened.[23] 6/6/2012
  8. 8. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 8 of 26 In 1974, with India carried out the test of nuclear weapons near the Pakistans eastern border, codename Smiling Buddha, Bhutto sought United States to impose economic sanctions in India.[22] Though it was unsuccessful approach, in a meeting of Pakistans Ambassador to United States with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Kissingers told Pakistan’s ambassador to Washington that the test is “a fait accompli and that Pakistan would have to learn to live with it,” although he was aware this is a “little rough” on the Pakistanis.[22] In 1970s, the ties were further severed with Bhutto as Bhutto had continued Bhutto meeting with Nixon in 1972. to administer the research on weapons, and in 1976, in a meeting with Bhutto and Kissinger, Kissinger hadtold Bhutto, "that if you [Bhutto] do not cancel, modify or postpone the Reprocessing Plant Agreement,we will make a horrible example from you".[24] The meeting was ended by Bhutto as he had replied:"For my country’s sake, for the sake of people of Pakistan, I did not succumb to that black-mailing andthreats". After the meeting, Bhutto intensified his nationalization and industrialization policies, as wellas aggressively taking steps to spurred the scientific research on atomic weapons and the atomic bombproject. Bhutto authorized the construction of Chagai weapon-testing laboratories, whilst United Statesopposed the action and predicted that it will lead to a massive and destructive war between India andPakistan in the future. The atomic bomb project became fully mature in 1978; and a first cold test wasconducted in 1983 (see Kirana-I).Bhutto called upon Organization of Islamic Conference in order to bring Muslim world together butafter months, the pro-United States Muslim nations and United States itself took the promised step andBhutto was declared as the corrupted one, as a result the Bhutto was hanged in 1979.[24]Military dictatorship (1977–1988) Main articles: Soviet war in Afghanistan, Operation Cyclone, Foreign aid to Pakistan, Reagan Doctrine, Ronald Reagon, Tim Osman, Grand Mosque Seizure, Islamic terrorism, and United States and state terrorismIn 1979, a group of Pakistani students burned the American embassy in Islamabad to the ground killingtwo Americans as a reaction to Grand Mosque Seizure, citing the U.S. involvement.After the removal and death of Bhutto, the Pakistans ties withUnited States were better and improved. In December 24, 1979, theSoviet 40th Army crossed borders, rolling into Afghanistan,President Carter issued his doctrine (see Carter Doctrine). The silentfeatures offers the creation of the Rapid Deployment Force (RDF),increasing the deployment of United States Naval Forces CentralCommand (NAVCENT), a collective security framework in theregion and a commitment to the defence of Pakistan by transfer ofsignificant amount of weapons and Monetarism. Crile and Charlie Wilson meeting with ISI officers, c. 1980s. 6/6/2012
  9. 9. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 9 of 26Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, ISI and CIA ran multi-billion dollar worth OperationCyclone to thwart the communist regime as well as defeating Soviets in Afghanistan. Throughout themilitary regime of General Zia-ul-Haq, the ties and relations were promoted at its maximum point, andUnited States had given billion dollars of economical and military aid to Pakistan.In the 1980s, Pakistan agreed to pay $658 million for 28 F-16 fighter jets from the United States;however the American congress froze the deal citing objections to Pakistani nuclear ambitions. Underthe terms of the American cancellation, they kept both the money and the planes, leading to angryclaims of theft by Pakistanis.[25] Initially, Carter offered Pakistan $325 million in aid over three When Americans lost years; Zia rejected this as "peanuts."[26] Carter also signed the “ in Vietnam, Americans went home and cried. finding in 1980 that allowed less than $50 million a year to go to the Mujahideen. All attempts were rebuffed, Zia shrewdly played When the Soviets got his cards knowing that Carter was on his way out and he may get kicked out of Egypt, a better deal from the incoming Reagan. After Ronald Reagan Soviets decided to go came to office, defeating Carter for the US Presidency in 1980, all after Libya... Is this changed, due to President Reagans new priorities and the America still the unlikely and remarkably effective effort by Congressman Charles leader of the free Wilson (D-TX), aided by Joanne Herring, and CIA Afghan Desk world? In what Chief Gust Avrakotos to increase the funding for Operation respect?.... I hope it Cyclone. Aid to the Afghan resistance, and to Pakistan, increased will soon restore its substantially, finally reaching $1 billion. The United States, faced countervailing role, with a rival superpower looking as if it were to create another abandoned after Vietnam ” Communist bloc, now engaged Zia to fight a US-aided war by proxy in Afghanistan against the Soviets. The Reagon administration and Reagon himself was a great —Zia on U.S.s policy on Pakistan., [8] supporter of Pakistans military regime, American officials visiting country on a routine basis.[8] The U.S. politicalintelligentsia in Pakistan had effectively curbed down the liberals, socialists, communists, anddemocracy tendency in the country in 1983, instead advising Zia to hold the non-partisans elections in1985.[8] General Akhtar Abdur Rahman of ISI and William Casey of CIA worked together in harmony,and in an atmosphere of mutual trust. The ISI officer Mohammad Yusuf stated "“It was a great blow tothe Jehad when Casey died", callimg Casey as "shaheed", a former CIA director is actually a martyr ofIslam.[8] The U.S. intelligence community also helped Zia to expand the idea of Establishment, in thenational politics of Pakistan, approving the sell of F-16 Fighting Falcon, nuclear technology, navalwarships and furthermore intelligence training and efforts.[8]Democratic governments (1988–1998) Main articles: Pressler amendment, Taliban, Economy of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif, Benazir Bhutto, Indo-Pakistani War of 1999, 1999 Pakistani coup détat, Pokhran-II, Chagai-II, and Soviet troop withdrawal from AfghanistanAfter the restoration of democracy after the disastrous and mysterious death of Zia and U.S.Ambassador in an aviation crash. The relations quickly deteriorated with upcoming prime ministersBenazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif. The United States took tough stand on Pakistans nucleardevelopment, passing the Pressler amendment, while significantly improving the relations with India.Both Benazir and Nawaz Sharif also asked the United States to take steps to stop the Indian nuclear 6/6/2012
  10. 10. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 10 of 26programme, feeling that United States was not doing enough to address what Pakistan saw as anexistential threat. Pakistan found itself in a state of extremely high insecurity as tensions mounted withIndia and Afghanistan’s infighting continued. Pakistan’s alliance with the U.S. was strained due tofactors such as its support for the Taliban and public distancing of the Pakistani government from theU.S.Rift in relationsIn 1992 US Ambassador Nicholas Platt advised Pakistans leaders that if Pakistan continued to supportterrorists in India or Indian-administered territory, "the Secretary of State may find himself required bylaw to place Pakistan on the state sponsors of terrorism list."[27] When the US decided to respond to the1998 United States embassy bombings in Africa by firing missiles at an al-Qaeda camp in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan, five Pakistani intelligence agents present at the camp were killed.[27]Economic embargo In 1989, Benazir Bhutto made a quick visit in the U.S. asking U.S. to stop financing the Afghan mujahideen to President George H. W. Bush, which she marked "Americas Frankenstein".[28] This was followed by Nawaz Sharif who visited the U.S. in 1990, but U.S. gave cold shoulder to Pakistan, asking Pakistan to stop developing the nuclear deterrence. In 1990, Prime minister Nawaz Sharif travels to U.S. to solve the nuclear crises after the U.S. had tightened its economic embargo on Pakistan, prompting Sharif and then-Treasure Benazir Bhutto paying state visit Minister Sartaj Aziz to held talks on Washington.[29] It was widely to the U.S., 1989. reported in Pakistan that the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Teresita Schaffer had told the Foreign Minister Shahabzada Yaqub Khan to halt the uranium enrichment programme.[29] In December1990, Frances Commissariat à lénergie atomique agreed to provide a commercial 900MW power plant,but plans did not materialize as France wanted Pakistan to provide entire financial funds for the plant.Furthermore, the U.S. Ambassador Robert Oakley further influenced on the project, showing growingconcerns of the U.S. on the agreement.[29] While talking to U.S. media, Nawaz Sharif declared that:"Pakistan possessed no [atomic] bomb... Pakistan would be happy to sign the Nuclear NonproliferationTreaty (NPT) but it must be provided "first" to India to do the same".[29] After the Frances projectcancel, Nawaz Sharif successfully held talks with the China to build the largest commercial nuclearplant, CHASNUPP-I in Chasma city in Pakistan.[29]In 1995, Prime minister Benazir Bhutto made final visit to U.S. urging President Bill Clinton to amendthe Pressler Amendment and emphasized United States to launch a campaign against the extremism,with Pakistan allying with the United States.[30] Prime minister Benazir Bhutto was succeeded to passthe Brown Amendment, but the embargo on arms remain active. At the United States trip, Primeminister Benazir Bhutto faced a heated criticism and opposition on nuclear weapons program, BenazirBhutto responded fiercely and sharply criticized U.S.s nonproliferation policy and demanded that theUnited States honour its contractual obligation.[30] Although Benazir was able to convince U.S. businesscommunity to invest in Pakistan, but was unable to revert the economic embargo which kept investmentaway from the country.[30] 6/6/2012
  11. 11. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 11 of 26In 1998, Prime minister Nawaz Sharif ordered to conduct firstnuclear tests after Benazir Bhutto called for the tests (see Chagai-Iand Chagai-II), in response to Indian nuclear tests (see Pokhran-II).Nawaz Sharifs ordering the nuclear tests was met with greathostility and ire in the United States after President Clinton placingthe economic embargo on Pakistan. The relations were alsorefrained and strained after Nawaz Sharif became involved withKargil war with India, while Indias relations with Israel and U.Sgreatly enhanced. Soon after the tests, Benazir Bhutto publiclyannounced her believe that her father was "sent to the gallows at the Nawaz Sharif meeting withinstance of the superpower for pursuing the nuclear capability,[31] William Cohen, Secretary of State, 1998.though she did not disclose the name of the power.[32] In 1999,Benazir leaked the information that Nawaz Sharif would be deposedthat there is (nothing) that Americans[33] want to support Nawaz Sharif or the democracy in Pakistan.[33]After the military coup was commenced against Nawaz Sharif, the President Clinton criticized the coupdemanding the restoration of democracy but did not favor the mass demonstration against the militaryregime as the coup, at that time, was popular. In conclusion, both Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhuttorefused to make compromise the with countrys nuclear deterrence, but instead building theinfrastructure despote U.S. objections.[31]Military pacts and suspension of aidBaghdad PactPakistan was a member of the Central Treaty Organization from its adoption in 1955, until the pactsdissolution in 1979. The promise of economic aid from the US was instrumental in creating theagreement. At the time the pact was adopted, Pakistans relationship with the United States was thefriendliest in Asia.[citation needed]During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the US did not provide Pakistan with military support aspledged. This generated a widespread feeling in Pakistan that the United States was no longer a reliableally. According to C. Christine Fair, the US cut off arms supplies because Pakistan "started the war withIndia by using regular military personnel disguised as mujahideen." According to Fair, in 1971 "thePakistanis were angry at the US again, for not bailing them out from another war they started againstIndia."[27]Foreign Assistance ActIn April 1979, the United States suspended most economic assistance to Pakistan over concerns aboutPakistans nuclear program[34] under the Foreign Assistance Act.Soviet invasion of AfghanistanThe Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 highlighted the common interest of Pakistan andthe United States in opposing the Soviet Union. In 1981, Pakistan and the United States agreed on a $3.2billion military and economic assistance program aimed at helping Pakistan deal with the heightenedthreat to security in the region and its economic development needs. 6/6/2012
  12. 12. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 12 of 26Military science programmesPakistan and atomic weaponsIn 1955, after Prime minister Huseyn Suhrawardy established nuclear power to ease of the electricitycrises, with U.S. offering grant of $350,000 to acquire a commercial nuclear power plant.[35] Followingthis year, the PAEC signed an agreement with counterpart United States Atomic Energy Commissionwhere the research on nuclear power and training was started initially by the United States. During1960s, the U.S. opens doors to Pakistans scientists and engineers to conduct research on leadinginstitutions of the U.S., notably ANL, ORNL, and LLNL. In 1965, Abdus Salam went to U.S.succeeding the U.S. government to establish a national institute of nuclear research (see PINSTECH anda research reactor Parr-I).[35] The Pinstech was designed by leading American architect Edward DurrellStone whereby American nuclear engineer Peter Karter designed the reactor, with the reactor suppliedby the American Machine and Foundry as its contractors.[35] Later in years, U.S. helped Pakistan tonegotiate to acquire first commercial nuclear power plant, Kanupp-I, from GE Canada in 1965.[35] Allthis nuclear infrastructure was established by the U.S. during the successive years of 1960s, as part ofthe Congressional Atoms for Peace programme.[35]This was changed after Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and democratic socialists under him decided to build nuclearweapons for the sake of their national security and survival.[35] In 1974, U.S. imposed embargo andrestriction on Pakistan to limit its nuclear weapons programme.[35] In 1980s, the American concerns ofPakistan’s role in nuclear proliferation eventually turned out to be true after the exposure of nuclearprograms of Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia and Libya.[35] Although the atomic program waseffectively peaceful and devoted for economical usage, the nuclear policy change in 1970s and till thepresent, with Pakistan maintaining its program as part of the strategic deterrence.[35]In 1980s, the plan of recognizing national security concerns and accepting Pakistan assurances that itdid not intend to construct a nuclear weapon, Congress waived restrictions (Symington Amendment) onmilitary assistance to Pakistan. In October 1980, a high level delegation and CMLA General Zia-ul-Haqtravels to U.S., first meeting with former president Richard Nixon.[36] Although, the meeting was todiscuss the Soviet integration of Afghanistan, Nixon made it clear he is in favor of Pakistan gainingnuclear weapons capability, while correcting that he is not in a race for the presidential elections.[36] Thefollowing year, Agha Shahi made it clear to Alexander Haig that Pakistan "wont make a compromise"on its nuclear weapons program, but assured the U.S. that the country had adopted the policy ofdeliberate ambiguity, refraining itself to conduct nuclear tests to avoid or create divergence in therelations.[36]In March 1986, the two countries agreed on a second multi-year (FY 1988–93) $4-billion economicdevelopment and security assistance program. On October 1, 1990, however, the United Statessuspended all military assistance and new economic aid to Pakistan under the Pressler Amendment,which required that the President certify annually that Pakistan "does not possess a nuclear explosivedevice."Indias decision to conduct nuclear tests in May 1998 and Pakistans matching response set back USrelations in the region, which had seen renewed US interest during the second Clinton Administration. Apresidential visit scheduled for the first quarter of 1998 was postponed and, under the GlennAmendment, sanctions restricted the provision of credits, military sales, economic assistance, and loansto the government. 6/6/2012
  13. 13. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 13 of 26An intensive dialogue on nuclear nonproliferation and security issues between Foreign SecretaryShamshad Ahmad and Deputy Secretary Talbott was initiated, with discussions focusing on CTBTsignature and ratification, FMCT negotiations, export controls, and a nuclear restraint regime.[citation needed] The October 1999 overthrow of the democratically elected Sharif government triggered anadditional layer of sanctions under Section 508 of the Foreign Appropriations Act which includerestrictions on foreign military financing and economic assistance. US Government assistance toPakistan was limited mainly to refugee and counter-narcotics assistance.[citation needed]Space programmeIn 1990s, U.S. and the Missile Technology Control Regime put restrictions on Pakistans spaceprogramme in amid fear that the countrys alleged covert development of missile programmes. The U.S.began cooperation with Pakistan in peaceful space technology in 1960s after establishing the SonmianiTerminal in 1961, constructing an airfield and launch pad. In 1962, the Space Research Commissionlaunched the first solid-fuel rocket, Rehbar-I, built with close interaction with the U.S. NASA.Launching of the rocket made Pakistan the first South Asian country and tenth country in the world tocarrying out the launch of the rocket. During the 1962 and 1972, approximately 200 rockets were firedfrom the Sonmiani, but this cooperation waned after 1972.During 1990s and early 2000s, U.S. tightened its embargo and constriction on Pakistans spacedevelopment, and in 1998, putting restrictions and sanctions on premier astronautics researchdepartment, DESTO, although the sanctions were uplifted in 2001 by the Bush Administration.Modern history: Post–September 11After the September 11 attacks in 2001 in the UnitedStates, Pakistan became a key ally in the war onterror with the United States. In 2001, US PresidentGeorge W. Bush pressured the government intojoining the US war on terror. Pervez Musharrafacknowledges the payments received for capturedterrorists in his book: Weve captured 689 and handed over 369 to the United States. Weve earned bounties totaling millions of dollars —Former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf Pervez Musharraf with President Bush.In 2003, the US officially forgave US$1 billion inPakistani debt in a ceremony in Pakistan as one ofthe rewards for Pakistan joining the US war on terror. "Todays signing represents a promise kept andanother milestone in our expanding partnership," US Ambassador Nancy Powell said in a statement,"The forgiveness of $1 billion in bilateral debt is just one piece of a multifaceted, multibillion dollarassistance package." The new relationship between the United States and Pakistan is not just aboutSeptember 11, Powell said. "It is about the rebirth of a long-term partnership between our twocountries." However Pakistan support of the U.S. and its war has angered many Pakistanis that do notsupport it. 6/6/2012
  14. 14. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 14 of 26In October 2005, Condoleezza Rice made a statement where she promised that the United States willsupport the countrys earthquake relief efforts and help it rebuild" after the Kashmir Earthquake.[37]Alliance with United StatesPrior to the September 11 attacks in 2001, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia were key supporters of the Talibanin Afghanistan, as part of their "strategic depth" objective vis-a-vis India, Iran, and Russia.[citation needed]After 9/11, Pakistan, led by General Pervez Musharraf, reversed course as they were under pressurefrom the United States and joined the "War on Terror" as a U.S. ally. Having failed to convince theTaliban to hand over bin Laden and other members of Al Qaeda, Pakistan provided the U.S. a number ofmilitary airports and bases for its attack on Afghanistan, along with other logistical support.[citation needed]Since 2001, Pakistan has arrested over five hundred Al-Qaeda members and handed them over to theUnited States; senior U.S. officers have been lavish in their praise of Pakistani efforts in public whileexpressing their concern that not enough was being done in private. However, General Musharraf wasstrongly supported by the Bush administration.[citation needed] In return for their support, Pakistan had sanctions lifted and has received about $10 billion in U.S. aid since 2001, primarily military. In June 2004, President George W. Bush designated Pakistan as a major non-NATO ally,[38] making it eligible, among other things, to purchase advanced American military technology. Pakistan has lost thousands of lives since joining the U.S. war on terror in the form of both soldiers and civilians, and was going Pakistan Prime minister Shaukat through a critical period, however many areas of Pakistan are Aziz shakes hands with President becoming terror free. Suicide bombs were commonplace in George Walker Bush. Pakistan, whereas they were unheard of prior to 9/11.[citation needed] The Taliban have been resurgent in recent years in both Afghanistan and Pakistan. Hundreds of thousands of refugees have been createdinternally in Pakistan, as they have been forced to flee their homes as a result of fighting betweenPakistani forces and the Taliban in the regions bordering Afghanistan and further in Swat.[citation needed] Inaddition, the economy is in an extremely fragile position.[citation needed]A key campaign argument of US President Barack Obama was that the US had made the mistake of"putting all our eggs in one basket" in the form of General Musharraf.[citation needed] Musharraf waseventually forced out of office under the threat of impeachment, after years of political protests by , y p p ylawyers, civilians and other p y , political p parties in Pakistan. With Obama coming into office, the U.S. is g ,expected to triple non-military aid to Pakistan to $1.5 billion per year over 10 years, and to tie military p p y raid to progress in the fight against militants. The purpose of the aid is to help strengthen the relativelynew democratic government led by President Zardari and to help strengthen civil institutions and thegeneral economy in Pakistan, and to put in place an aid program that is broader in scope than justsupporting Pakistans military.Aid from the United States since 9/11 See also: Foreign aid to PakistanPakistan is a major non-NATO ally as part of the War on Terrorism, and a leading recipient of U.S. aid.[39] 6/6/2012
  15. 15. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 15 of 26Trust deficits issuesIn 2008, NSA Director Mike McConnell confronted ISI Director Ahmad Shuja Pasha, claiming that theISI was tipping off jihadists so that they could escape in advance of American attacks against them.[27]On 11 June 2008, the Gora Prai airstrike, on the Afghan-Pakistani border, killed 10 members of theparamilitary Frontier Corps. The Pakistani military condemned the airstrike as an act of aggression,souring the relations between the two countries.[40] However after the drone attacks in June, PresidentBush had said Pakistan is strong ally .[41] Western officials have claimed nearly 70%( roughly $3.4billion) of the aid given to the Pakistani military has been misspent in 2002–2007. However U.S-Pakistani relationship has been a transactional based and US military aid to Pakistan has been shroudedin secrecy for several years until recently.[42][43][44][45][46] Furthermore a significant proportion of USeconomic aid for Pakistan has ended up back in the US as funds are channeled through large UScontractors. US Representative Gary Ackerman also said a large sum of US economic aid has not leftthe US as it spent on consulting fees and overhead cost.[47][48]In the November 2008 Mumbai Attacks, the United States informed Pakistan that it expected fullcooperation in the hunt for the plotters of the attacks.Border skirmishes See also: Pakistan-United States skirmishes, Pakistan and state terrorism, and Drone attacks in PakistanThe United States and Pakistan have experienced several military confrontations on the Durand Line.These skirmishes took place between American forces deployed in Afghanistan, and Pakistani troopsguarding the border. On November 26, 2011, 24 Pakistani soldiers were killed in an aerial attack onPakistani positions near the border. The attack further damaged US-Pakistani relations with many inPakistan calling for a more hardline stance against the United States.[49]Current issuesPresent US-Pakistan relations are a case study on the difficulties of diplomacy and policy making in amultipolar world. Pakistan has important geopolitical significance for both India and China, makingunilateral action almost impossible for the US. At the same time, Pakistan remains a key player inAmerican efforts in Afghanistan. The two countries are trying to build a strategic partnership, but thereremains a significant trust deficit, which continues to hinder successful cooperation in combatingcommon threats.Despite recent setbacks, both Pakistan and the United States continue to seek a productive relationshipto defeat terrorist organizations.[50] It has been alleged that the ISI pays journalists to write articleshostile to the United States.[27]2009On 14 September 2009, former President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, admitted that American foreignaid to Pakistan had been diverted from its original purpose of fighting the Taliban to preparing for waragainst neighboring India.[51] The United States government has responded by stating that it will take 6/6/2012
  16. 16. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 16 of 26these allegations seriously.[52] However PervezMusharraf also said, "Wherever there is a threat toPakistan, we will use it [the equipment] there. If thethreat comes from al-Qaeda or Taliban, it will beused there. If the threat comes from India, we willmost surely use it there."[51]In late 2009, Hillary Clinton made a speech inPakistan about the war against the militants and said"...we commend the Pakistani military for theircourageous fight, and we commit to stand shoulder Secretary State Hillary Clinton attending meetingto shoulder with the Pakistani people in your fight with Pakistan Prime Minister Jousaph Raza Gillaniefor peace and security."[53] during an October 2009 visit to Islamabad.In October 2009, the US Congress approved $7.5billion of non-military aid to Pakistan over the next five years via the Kerry-Lugar Bill. In February2010, US President Barack Obama sought to increase funds to Pakistan to "promote economic andpolitical stability in strategically important regions where the United States has special securityinterests".[39] Obama also sought $3.1 billion aid for Pakistan to defeat Al Qaeda for 2010.[54]On December 1, 2009, President Barack Obama in a speech on a policy about Pakistan said "In the past,we too often defined our relationship with Pakistan narrowly. Those days are over.... The Pakistanipeople must know America will remain a strong supporter of Pakistan’s security and prosperity longafter the guns have fallen silent, so that the great potential of its people can be unleashed."[55] PresidentObama also said, "In the past, we too often defined our relationship with Pakistan narrowly, those daysare over. Moving forward, we are committed to a partnership with Pakistan that is built on a foundationof mutual interests, mutual respect and mutual trust" and that the two countries "share a common enemyin combating Islamic extremism."[56]In the aftermath of a thwarted bombing attempt on a 2009 Northwest Airlines flight, the U.S.Transportation Security Administration (TSA) issued a new set of screening guidelines that includes pat-downs for passengers from countries of interest, which includes Pakistan.[57] In a sign of wideningfissures between the two allies, on January 21, Pakistan declined a request by the United States to launchnew offensives on militants in 2010.[58] Pakistan say it "cant launch any new offensives against militantsfor six months to a year because it wants to stabilize previous gains made. However, the US praisesPakistans military effort against the militants.[59] Furthermore Pakistan president, in meeting with theU.S. delegation, had said Pakistan "had suffered a... loss of over 35 billion dollars during the last eightyears as a result of the fight against militancy." But the President also called for "greater Pak-U.S.cooperation".2010In February 2010, Anne W. Patterson (U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan) said that the United States iscommitted to partnership with Pakistan and further said “Making this commitment to Pakistan while theU.S. is still recovering from the effects of the global recession reflects the strength of our vision. Yet wehave made this commitment, because we see the success of Pakistan, its economy, its civil society andits democratic institutions as important for ourselves, for this region and for the world.”[55] 6/6/2012
  17. 17. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 17 of 26Between 2002–2010, Pakistan received approximately $18 b , pp y billion[60] in military and economic aid from [60] ythe United States. In February 2010, the Obama administration requested an additional $3 billion in aid, yfor a total of $20.7 billion.[61] b [In mid-February 2010, after the capture of the second most powerful Taliban, Abdul Ghani Baradar inPakistan by Pakistani forces, the White House hailed the operation. Furthermore, White House PressSecretary Robert Gibbs said that this is a "big success for our mutual efforts(Pakistan and United States)in the region" and praised Pakistan for the capture, saying it was a sign of increased cooperation with theUS in the terror fight.[62]In March, Richard Holbrooke, then US special envoy to Pakistan, said that US-Pakistani relations have , , p y ,seen "significant improvement" under Obama. He also said, "No government on earth has received morehigh-level attention" than Pakistan[63][64] [63][64]2011In January 2011, the Raymond Allen Davis incident occurred in which Raymond Davis, an allegedprivate security contractor, shot dead two Pakistani locals after they attempted to rob him. The actionsparked protests in Pakistan and threatened relations between the United States and Pakistan, includingaid flows.[65] Pakistan prosecuted him despite US demands for him to be freed because he enjoysdiplomatic immunity.[65] Ultimately he was freed after the United States made payments to the familiesof the slain Pakistanis, but the incident was emblematic of the volatile nature of American-Pakistanirelations. In spite of this rocky relationship, the United States remains committed to assisting Pakistansnew democratic government in the areas of development, stability, and security.[66]The CIA had long suspected Osama Bin Laden of hiding in Pakistan.[67][68] India and US have alsoaccused Pakistan of giving safe-haven to the Taliban.[69] However, Pakistan has repeatedly denied theseaccusations.The attack on the US embassy and the NATO headquarters in Kabul was blamed on the HaqqaniNetwork, which US Admiral Mike Mullen called "a veritable arm of Pakistans Inter-ServicesIntelligence Agency."[70][71] Pakistan reacted by recalling its finance minister who was on a visit to theU.N.[72] Pakistan also tried to strengthen the relationship with China and Saudi Arabia to counter theU.S.[73] The Chinese government advised Pakistan against any commitments that could jeopardizeChinas relationships with US and India.[74] The United States reissued a call urging Pakistan to actagainst the Haqqani Network or else the US would be forced to take on the threat unilaterally.[75] Islamicgroups in Pakistan, issued a fatwa proclaiming Jihad against the US and claimed that US should not becalled a superpower since the title belonged to Allah.[76] This was followed by Pakistan threatening theUS with retaliation, if the US went ahead with unilateral action against the Haqqani network.[77]In May 2011, Pakistani journalist Saleem Shahzad was killed and in September, The New Yorkerreported that the order to kill Shahzad came from an officer on General Kayanis staff. In July AdmiralMullen alleged that Shahzads killing had been "sanctioned by the government" of Pakistan,[78] but theISI denied any involvement in the Shahzad murder.Death of Osama bin Laden See also: Death of Osama bin Laden 6/6/2012
  18. 18. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 18 of 26Osama bin Laden, then head of the militant groupal-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011,shortly after 1 a.m. local time[79][80] by a UnitedStates special forces military unit. The operation,codenamed Operation Neptune Spear, was orderedby United States President Barack Obama andcarried out in a US Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) operation by a team of United States NavySEALs from the United States Naval SpecialWarfare Development Group (also known asDEVGRU or informally by its former name, SEALTeam Six) of the Joint Special Operations Diagram of Osama bin Ladens hideout, showingCommand, with support from CIA operatives on the the high concrete walls that surround the compoundground.[81][82]The raid on bin Ladens compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan was launched from Afghanistan.[83] After theraid, U.S. forces took bin Ladens body to Afghanistan for identification, then buried it at sea within 24hours of his death.[84]Al-Qaeda confirmed the death on May 6 with posts made on militant websites, vowing to avenge thekilling.[85] Bin Ladens killing was generally favorably received by U.S. public opinion;[86][87] waswelcomed by the United Nations, NATO, the European Union, and a large number of governments;[88]but was condemned by some, including Fidel Castro of Cuba[89] and Ismail Haniyeh, the head of theHamas administration of the Gaza Strip.[90] Legal and ethical aspects of the killing, such as his not beingtaken alive despite being unarmed, were questioned by others, including Amnesty International.[91]According to Obama administration officials, US officials did not share information about the raid withthe government of Pakistan until it was over.[84][92] Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Michael Mullencalled Pakistans army chief Ashfaq Parvez Kayani at about 3 a.m. local time to inform him of theAbbottabad Operation.[93]According to the Pakistani foreign ministry, the operation was conducted entirely by the US forces.[94]Pakistan Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) officials said they were also present at what they called a jointoperation;[95] President Asif Ali Zardari flatly denied this.[96] Pakistans foreign secretary Salman Bashirlater confirmed that Pakistani military had scrambled F-16s after they became aware of the attack butthat they reached the compound after American helicopters had left.[97]Allegations against Pakistan See also: Allegations of support system in Pakistan for Osama bin LadenNumerous allegations were made that the government of Pakistan had shielded bin Laden.[95][98][99]Critics cited the very close proximity of bin Ladens heavily fortified compound to the Pakistan MilitaryAcademy, that the US chose not to notify Pakistani authorities before the operation and the doublestandards of Pakistan regarding the perpetrators of the 2008 Mumbai attacks.[99][100][101] US governmentfiles, leaked by Wikileaks, disclosed that American diplomats had been told that Pakistani securityservices were tipping off bin Laden every time US forces approached. Pakistans Inter-ServicesIntelligence (ISI), also helped smuggle al-Qaeda militants into Afghanistan to fight NATO troops. 6/6/2012
  19. 19. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 19 of 26According to the leaked files, in December 2009, the government of Tajikistan had also told US officialsthat many in Pakistan were aware of bin Ladens whereabouts. [102]CIA chief Leon Panetta said the CIA had ruled out involving Pakistan in the operation, because it fearedthat "any effort to work with the Pakistanis could jeopardize the mission. They might alert thetargets."[103] However, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton stated that "cooperation with Pakistanhelped lead us to bin Laden and the compound in which he was hiding."[104] Obama echoed hersentiments.[105] John O. Brennan, Obamas chief counterterrorism advisor, said that it was inconceivablethat bin Laden did not have support from within Pakistan. He further stated, "People have been referringto this as hiding in plain sight. We are looking at how he was able to hide out there for so long." [106]In 2012, Shakil Afridi, a doctor who had been cooperating with the United States in searching for AlQaeda and bin Laden was convicted of treason by Pakistan,and was sentenced to 33 years in prison. [107]After the conviction, the United States has recalled its ambassador and diplomats from Pakistan, closedits embassy in Pakistan, and have expelled the Pakistani ambassador and diplomats from the UnitedStates.[citation needed] The United States Congress also voted to cut 33 million dollars in aid to Pakistan; 1million dollars for every year that Shakil Afridi was sentenced to prison.[citation needed]Military aid from the United States See also: Foreign aid to PakistanPakistan is a major non-NATO ally as part of the War on Terrorism and provides key intelligence and p p y glogistical support for the United States. A leading recipient of US military assistance, Pakistan expects g pp g p y ,to receive approximately $20 billion since 2001 a combination of reimbursement to Pakistan and pp ytraining programs for the Pakistan counter terrorism units. However, in the aftermath of the Osama Bin gp g ,Laden raid, Pakistan Army cancelled a $500 million training program and sent all 135 trainers home. , y gp gThe United States showed displeasure at this act and withheld a further $300 million dollars inassistance.[108] [108]Some politicians in Pakistan argue the war on terror has cost the Pakistani economy $70 billion dollarsand U.S. aid costs the country more in the long term, leading to accusations that the US is makingPakistan a client state.[109]31 May 2012, A conservative senator called for the United States to suspend all aid to Pakistan andgrant citizenship to a doctor who was jailed for helping hunt down Osama bin Laden. [110]External linksThe Washington Post - Highs and lows in U.S.-Pakistan relations: The two countries are allies but theirrelationship has been plagued by mistrust ( 1. ^ "U.S.-Pakistan relations: An unhappy alliance" ( 20110507,0,2721411.story?track=rss) . Los Angeles Times. May 7, 2011.,0,2721411.story?track=rss. 6/6/2012
  20. 20. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 20 of 26 2. ^ "U.S-Pakistan Military Cooperation" ( cooperation/p16644) . Council on Foreign Relations. cooperation/p16644. Retrieved June 26, 2008. 3. ^ Provost, Claire (July 15, 2011). "Sixty years of US aid to Pakistan: Get the data" ( . Guardian (London). pakistan. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 4. ^ "U.S.-PAKISTAN RELATIONS" ( . 5. ^ Warden, Philip (May 4, 1950). "Liaquat Ali Arrives For Goodwill Tour" ( dids=502488262:502488262&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&type=historic&date=May+04% 2C+1950&author=&pub=Chicago+Tribune&desc=LIAQUAT+ALI+ARRIVES+FOR+GOODWILL+TOUR Chicago Daily Tribune. dids=502488262:502488262&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&type=historic&date=May+04% 2C+1950&author=&pub=Chicago+Tribune&desc=LIAQUAT+ALI+ARRIVES+FOR+GOODWILL+TOUR 6. ^ a b c Kazmi, Muhammad Raza (2003). Liaquat Ali Khan: his life and work ( id=xBduAAAAMAAJ&q=liaquat+ali+khan&dq=liaquat+ali+khan&hl=en&ei=FiMmT_DKB8mSiQKM77iA -thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CD0Q6wEwAA) . United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2003. pp. 354. ISBN 978-0-19-579788-6. id=xBduAAAAMAAJ&q=liaquat+ali+khan&dq=liaquat+ali+khan&hl=en&ei=FiMmT_DKB8mSiQKM77iA -thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CD0Q6wEwAA. 7. ^ a b Ardeshir Cowasjee (13 March 2011). "A recap of Soviet-Pakistan relations" ( . Dawn Newspaper, Pakistan Institute of International Affairs (1950). pakistan-relations.html. Retrieved 26 February 2012. 8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Hamid Hussain. "Tale of a love affair that never was: United States-Pakistan Defence Relations" ( . Hamid Hussain , Defence Journal of Pakistan. Hamid Hussain , Defence Journal of Pakistan. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 9. ^ a b c d Gauhar, Altaf. "Declassified Papers Shed Light on US Role in Liaquat’s Murder" ( . Altaf Gauhar. Retrieved 31 January 2012. 10. ^ "America Welcomes President Ayub" ( title=America_Welcomes_President_Ayub&gsearch=ayub) . Gordon Wilkison Collection. Texas Archive of the Moving Image. July 1961. title=America_Welcomes_President_Ayub&gsearch=ayub. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Aziz, Sartaj (2009). Between Dreams and Realities: Some Milestones in Pakistan’s History ( . Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press. pp. 408. ISBN 978-0-19-547718-4. page=20090809story_9-8-2009_pg3_5. 12. ^ Mosleh Uddin. "Personal Prejudice Makes Foreign Policy" ( . Retrieved 2011-03-28. 13. ^ "The Rise and Rise of Robert Gates by Roger Morris | ZNet Article" ( -rise-and-rise-of-robert-gates-by-roger-morris) . ZCommunications. rise-and-rise-of-robert-gates-by-roger-morris. Retrieved 2011-03-28. 14. ^ Black, Conrad (2007), p. 751. 15. ^ "The Kissinger Tilt" (,9171,877618-2,00.html) . Time. January 17, 1972.,9171,877618-2,00.html. Retrieved September 30, 2008. 16. ^ "World: Pakistan: The Ravaging of Golden Bengal" (,8816,878408,00.html) . TIME. 1971-08-02.,8816,878408,00.html. Retrieved 2011-03-28. 17. ^ Black, Conrad (2007), p. 756. 6/6/2012
  21. 21. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 21 of 26 18. ^ Gandhi, Sajit (December 16, 2002). "The Tilt: The U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971" ( . National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 79. National Security Archive. Retrieved January 15, 2009. 19. ^ a b Garthoff R.L, B.M, R.L B.M (1994). Detente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan. Transaction Publishers. pp. 297–312. ISBN 0-8157-3042-X.. 20. ^ a b Blechman, B.M.; Kaplan, S.S. (1978), Force Without War: U.S. Armed Forces as a Political Instrument, Brookings Institution Press, ISBN 0-8157-0985-4. 21. ^ a b c U.S. Government. "Nixon/Kissinger Saw India as "Soviet Stooge" in 1971 South Asia Crisis" ( . CIA Documentation Center (1971). U.S. Government, 1971 archives. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 22. ^ a b c "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto" ( . Retrieved 2011. 23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bhurgari, Abdul Ghafoor. "The Falcon of Pakistan" ( . Abdul Ghafoor Bugari. Abdul Ghafoor Bugari and Sani Penhwar, Member of Parliament. Retrieved 26 January 2012. 24. ^ a b "Zulfikar Bhutto had blamed US for his ‘horrible’ fate" ( . Zee News. April 08, 2011. Retrieved 2011. 25. ^ Benjamin, Daniel & Steven Simon. "The Age of Sacred Terror", 2002 26. ^ The Bear Trap, Brig. Muhammad Yousuf 27. ^ a b c d e Jeffrey Goldberg and Marc Ambinder, The Ally From Hell ( The Atlantic December 2011 28. ^ "The Road to September 11" ( . Evan Thomas. Newsweek. 1 October 2001. 29. ^ a b c d e NTI. "Nuclear policy of Nawaz Sharif" ( . NTI. NTI Publications on 1990. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 30. ^ a b c Our Staff Correspondent. "Pakistan against forces of extremism: PM" ( -studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1995/13Ap95.html#extr) . DAWNWIRESERIVCE, APRIL 1995. DAWNWIRESERIVCE, APRIL 1995. studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1995/13Ap95.html#extr. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 31. ^ a b Malick, Nasir Malick (May 10, 1998). "Benazir vows to fight on peoples side" ( . DawnWireService (DWS). studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1998/16May98.html#bena. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 32. ^ Panhwar, Member of Sindh Provincial Assembly., Sani (April 5, 1979). "CIA Sent Bhutto to the Gallows" ( . The New York Time (article published in 1979) and Sani H. Panhwar, member of Sindh Provincial Assembly and Party representative of Pakistan Peoples Party.. Retrieved August 23, 2011. ""I [Ramsey Clark] do not believe in conspiracy theories in general, but the similarities in the staging of riots in Chile (where the CIA allegedly helped overthrow President Salvadore Allande) and in Pakistan are just too close, Bhutto was removed from power in Pakistan by force on July 5, after the usual party on the 4th at the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad, with U.S. approval, if not more, by General Zia-ul-Haq. Bhutto was falsely accused and brutalized for months during proceedings that corrupted the Judiciary of Pakistan before being murdered, then hanged. As Americans, we must ask ourselves this: Is it possible that a rational military leader under the circumstances in Pakistan could have overthrown a constitutional government, without at least the tacit approval of the United States?"." 33. ^ a b Shaheen Sehbai (25 September 1999). "Benazir says Nawaz to go by December" ( . 6/6/2012
  22. 22. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 22 of 26 DawnWire Serivce 25 September 1999. studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1999/25sep99.html#bena. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 34. ^ "Background note: Pakistan" ( . US Department of State. 35. ^ a b c d e f g h i Munawar, Harris (14 July 2011). "What has America done for Pakistan?" ( . Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 36. ^ a b c History Commons. "History: U.S. recognition of secret nuclear power, Pakistan" ( . History commons. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 37. ^ " – Rice: U.S. will support Pakistan – Oct 12, 2005" ( . CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 38. ^ "US and Pakistan, Not Allies But Enemies" ( not-allies-but-enemies.html) . 2010-10-02. 39. ^ a b "Obama seeks boost in Pakistan aid" ( . Reuters. February 1, 2010. 40. ^ Riaz Khan (2008-06-11). "Pakistan blames U.S. coalition for troops death" ( . Google News. Associated Press. 0y_bvBUJXG4vaRlDHuQD917R49O0. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 41. ^ Feller, Ben (July 28, 2008). "Bush hails Pakistan as strong ally" (,4670,USPakistan,00.html) . Fox News.,4670,USPakistan,00.html. 42. ^ "/ Asia-Pacific / Pakistan - US boosts strategic ties with Pakistan" ( 375f-11df-9176-00144feabdc0.html) . 2010-03-24. 9176-00144feabdc0.html. Retrieved 2011-03-17. 43. ^ Walsh, Declan (February 27, 2008). "Up to 70% of US aid to Pakistan misspent" ( . The Guardian (London). p g p y , Retrieved May 20, 2010. 44. ^ Rohde, David; Gall, Carlotta; Schmitt, Eric; Sanger, David E. ( , ; , ; , ; g , (December 24, 2007). "U.S. Officials See , ) Waste in Billions Sent to Pakistan" ( . The ( p y y ) New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 45. ^ Peters, Justin (2007-12-24). "Foreign Aid Betrayed" ( . Slate. p 46. , ; , g ( ) ^ Rohde, David; Carlotta Gall, Eric Schmitt and David E. Sanger (2007-12-24). "U.S. Officials See Waste in Billions Sent to Pakistan" ( ( p y y p g pagewanted=print) . The New York Times. p ) pagewanted=print. 47. ^ "U.S. to channel more aid via Pakistan government" ( . Reuters. April 14, 2010. via.html. 48. ^ Upadhyay, Brajesh (May 16, 2008). "U.S. aid failing to reach target" ( . BBC News. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 49. ^ 50. ^ 51. ^ a b "Musharraf admits U.S. aid diverted" ( . BBC News. September 14, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 52. ^ CJ: Mineguruji (2009-11-21). "US unaware of any diversion of military aid to Pak" ( pak/15784255.shtml) . military-aid-to-pak/15784255.shtml. Retrieved 2011-03-17. 6/6/2012
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  24. 24. Pakistan–United States relations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 24 of 26 71. ^ U.S. blames Pakistan agency in Kabul attack ( idUSTRE78K7XA20110922) 72. ^ Pakistani PM calls back FM over U.S. charge ( 09/26/c_131159238.htm) 73. ^ Pakistan hosts top Chinese security official and war games with Saudi as ties with US plunge ( terror-cooperation/2011/09/26/gIQAjR4PyK_story.html) 74. ^ Pakistan wants more fire, but China has commitment issues ( issues_1592380) 75. ^ US sharpens warning to Pakistan ( warning-to-pakistan/2011/09/20/gIQAdqlNjK_story.html) 76. ^ Fatwa for Jihad against America ( online/Regional/Lahore/26-Sep-2011/Fatwa-for-Jihad-against-America) 77. ^ Pak will retaliate to any US misadventure: Report ( misadventure-report/188311-56.html) 78. ^ Dexter Filkins, The Journalist and the Spies ( The New Yorker September 19, 2011 79. ^ Greg Miller (May 5, 2011). "CIA spied on bin Laden from safe house" ( house/2011/05/05/AFXbG31F_story.html) . The Washington Post. house/2011/05/05/AFXbG31F_story.html. Retrieved May 6, 2011. 80. ^ Cooper, Helene (May 1, 2011). "Obama Announces Killing of Osama bin Laden" ( . The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2011. 81. ^ Philip Sherwell (May 7, 2011). "Osama bin Laden killed: Behind the scenes of the deadly raid" ( scenes-of-the-deadly-raid.html) . The Daily Telegraph (London). of-the-deadly-raid.html. Retrieved May 9, 2011. 82. ^ Dilanian, Ken (May 2, 2011). "CIA led U.S. special forces mission against Osama bin Laden" (,0,6466214.story) . Los Angeles Times.,0,6466214.story. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 83. ^ C. Christine Fair (May 4, 2011). "The bin Laden aftermath: The U.S. shouldnt hold Pakistans military against Pakistans civilians" ( Foreign Policy. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 84. ^ a b "Osama Bin Laden, al-Qaeda leader, dead – Barack Obama" ( canada-13256676) . BBC News. May 2, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 85. ^ Maggie Michael (May 6, 2011). "Al-Qaida Vows Revenge for Osama Bin Ladens Death" ( . Associated Press. ABC News. Retrieved May 6, 2011. 86. ^ "Public Relieved By bin Ladens Death, Obamas Job Approval Rises" ( credit-first-heard-news) . 2011. death-reaction-obama-bush-military-cia-credit-first-heard-news. Retrieved May 19, 2011. 87. ^ Newport, Frank (2011). "Americans Back Bin Laden Mission; Credit Military, CIA Most" ( CIA.aspx) . Military-CIA.aspx. Retrieved May 19, 2011. 6/6/2012