FROM: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bradley_ManningIn accordance with Federal Laws provided For Educational and Information Purposes – i.e. of PUBLIC InterestBradley ManningFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Bradley Manning December 17, 1987 (age 24)Born Crescent, Oklahoma, United StatesOccupation Soldier, United States Army Allegedly passed classified data toKnown for WikiLeaks Charges include transferring classified data onto his personal computer;Criminal transmitting national defense informationcharge to an unauthorized source; aiding the enemy.Bradley E. Manning (born December 17, 1987) is a United States Army soldier who was arrested in May 2010 inIraq on suspicion of having passed restricted material to the website WikiLeaks. He was charged in July that yearwith transferring classified data onto his personal computer, and communicating national defense information to anunauthorized source. An additional 22 charges were preferred in March 2011, including "aiding the enemy", acapital offense, though prosecutors said they would not seek the death penalty. He was found fit to face courtmartial in April 2011.Manning had been assigned in October 2009 to a unit of the 10th Mountain Division, based near Baghdad. Therehe had access to the Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNet), used by the United States government totransmit classified information. He was arrested after Adrian Lamo, a computer hacker, reported to the FBI thatManning had told him during online chats in May 2010 that he had downloaded material from SIPRNet and passedit to WikiLeaks. The leaked material is said to have included 250,000 U.S. diplomatic cables; footage of a July2007 Baghdad airstrike; and footage of the May 2009 Granai airstrike in Afghanistan.
Manning was held in maximum custody beginning in July 2010 in the Marine Corps Brig, Quantico, Virginia,which in effect meant solitary confinement, conditions that Amnesty International called harsh and punitive. InApril 2011, 295 scholars, including legal scholars and philosophers signed a letter saying the conditions heexperienced amounted to a violation of the U.S. Constitution; later that month the Pentagon transferred him to amedium-security facility in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, allowing him to interact with other pre-trial detainees.An article 32 hearing started on December 16 in Fort Meade, Maryland.Contents[hide] 1 Background o 1.1 Early life and education o 1.2 Enlistment in the U.S. Army and deployment to Iraq 2 Alleged disclosure of classified material o 2.1 WikiLeaks o 2.2 Mannings access to SIPRNet, material released by WikiLeaks o 2.3 Discharge, chats with Adrian Lamo o 2.4 Lamos approach to the FBI, partial publication of the chat logs 3 Legal proceedings o 3.1 Arrest and charges o 3.2 Detention at Marine Corps Base Quantico 3.2.1 Manning letter from jail 3.2.2 Complaints about detention, government response o 3.3 Detention at Fort Leavenworth o 3.4 Article 32 hearing 4 Friends and supporters 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading Background Early life and educationManning and an older sister were born in Crescent, Oklahoma, to Susan Fox, born in 1953 in Wales, and herAmerican husband, Brian Manning. His father had been in the United States Navy for five years; his parents metwhen his father was stationed in Wales at Cawdor Barracks. Manning was raised in Crescent, where his fatherworked as an IT manager for a rental car agency. The younger Manning was small for his age—as an adult, hereached just 5 ft 2 in (1.57 m) and weighed 105 lb (47.6 kg)—good at the saxophone, science, and computergames, and even in elementary school had said he wanted to join the U.S. Army. One teacher told reporters thatManning was smart and opinionated, but was never in trouble. He was one of the few people in his communitywho openly rejected religion; David Leigh and Luke Harding write that he would refuse to do homework related tothe Bible, and remained silent during the reference to God in the Pledge of Allegiance. They also write that hisfather was strict with him, which may have contributed to his becoming introverted and withdrawn, something thatdeepened when at age 13 he began to question his sexual orientation. 
High Street in Haverfordwest, Wales, where Manning went to secondary school.One neighbor said his mother had difficulty adjusting to life in the U.S., and his father was often away, soManning was largely left to fend for himself. His parents divorced when he was 13, and he moved with his motherto Haverfordwest, Wales, attending the local Tasker Milward school. Tom Dyer, who was at school with him,told reporters Manning would speak out if there was anything he disagreed with, which included havingaltercations with teachers. He said Manning was bullied because he was an American, the only one at the school;other students would imitate his accent and mannerisms.  He was also targeted for being effeminate; DenverNicks writes that he had told his schoolfriends in Oklahoma that he was gay, but he was not open about it at schoolin Wales.He decided to return to the United States after sitting his GCSEs, moving in with his father, sister, and his fatherssecond wife in Oklahoma City. He took a job with a software company, Zoto, and was apparently happy for a time,but was let go after four months, and became increasingly depressed. In March 2006, he reportedly threatened hisfathers wife with a butchers knife during an argument. She called the police, and he was escorted from the house.He lived in the pick-up truck his father had given him, and took several low-paid jobs, before moving in with hisfathers sister, Debra Manning, in Washington, D.C.  Enlistment in the U.S. Army and deployment to IraqHe enlisted in the army in October 2007, doing his basic training at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, and aftergraduating in April 2008 moved to Fort Huachuca, Arizona, where he trained as an intelligence analyst. Nickswrites that he was reprimanded while there for posting messages to friends on YouTube that apparently revealedsensitive information. In August 2008, he was sent to Fort Drum in Jefferson County, New York, where hewaited to be sent to Iraq. It was while there in the fall of 2008 that he met Tyler Watkins, with whom he had hisfirst serious relationship, posting happily on Facebook about it. Nicks writes that it appears to have ended bySeptember 2009, though Leigh and Harding say it ended around May 5, 2010.  Watkins was studyingneuroscience and psychology at Brandeis University near Boston, and Manning would regularly travel there tovisit him. It was at Brandeis that he was introduced to Watkinss network of friends, and the universitys hackercommunity. He visited Boston Universitys "hackerspace" workshop, and met its founder, David House, thecomputer scientist and MIT researcher who has been allowed to visit him in jail twice a month. While at Fort Drum, Manning had begun to lose control, according to Steve Fishman in New York magazine,falling out with roommates, and screaming at superior officers. He said he was being bullied for being gay, and byAugust 2009 had been referred to an Army mental-health counsellor. In October 2009, despite the doubts abouthis fitness to be deployed, he was sent to Iraq with the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, basedat Forward Operating Base Hammer, near Baghdad. His unhappiness and loneliness continued there. Analystswere working 14–15 hours at a time in what he described as "a dimly lit room crowded to the point you cant movean inch without having to quietly say ‘excuse me sir,’ ‘pardon me sergeant major’ ... cables trip you upeverywhere, papers stacked everywhere ..." He called it Groundhog Day.He was sent to a chaplain after officers noticed what ABC News said were "odd behaviors." In November2009—the same month he allegedly first contacted WikiLeaks—he wrote to a gender counselor in the United
States, said he felt female, and discussed having surgery. The counselor said it was clear that he was in crisis,partly because of his gender confusion, but also because he was opposed to the kind of war that he now foundhimself involved in. On May 7, 2010, he reportedly punched a female soldier in the face, and was demoted fromSpecialist to Private First Class. He was also told he would be discharged from the army.  Alleged disclosure of classified material WikiLeaksFurther information: Information published by WikiLeaksJulian Assange and Daniel Domscheit-Berg at the Chaos Communication Congress, Berlin, December 2009. It was Assangewho had the idea in 2006 of creating an open-source, democratic intelligence agency.WikiLeaks was set up in late 2006 as a disclosure portal, initially using the Wikipedia model, where volunteerswould write up and analyze classified or restricted material submitted by whistleblowers, or material that was insome other way legally threatened. It was Julian Assange—an Australian with a background in computer hacking,and the de facto editor-in-chief of WikiLeaks—who had the idea of creating what he saw as an "open-source,democratic intelligence agency." The wiki element was abandoned, but the site remained open for the anonymoussubmission of leaked documents, using OpenSSL, Freenet, PGP, and Tor.The New York Times wrote in December 2010 that the U.S. government was trying to discover whether Assangehad been a passive recipient of material from Manning, or had encouraged or helped him to extract the files; if thelatter, Assange could be charged with conspiracy. According to Daniel Domscheit-Berg, a former WikiLeaksspokesman, part of the WikiLeaks security concept was that they did not know who their sources were. WikiLeaksdid not identify Manning as the source of the material, and according to NBC in January 2011, the U.S.government could find no evidence of direct contact between Manning and Assange. Manning told Lamo duringtheir online chats in May 2010 that he had developed a relationship with Assange, but knew little about him. Lamoalleged later that Manning also said he had communicated directly with Assange using an encrypted Internetconferencing service, and that Assange had "coached" him. Lamo is the only source of these allegations; he saidthese statements from Manning were in the unpublished parts of the chat logs, but that the FBI had taken his harddrive so he no longer had access to the logs.  Mannings access to SIPRNet, material released by WikiLeaks
Manning said he gave WikiLeaks the "Apache airstrike" video in February 2010.Manning is said to have first contacted WikiLeaks in November 2009, days after it posted 570,000 pager messagesfrom the September 11, 2001, attacks. From his workstation in Iraq, Manning had access to SIPRNet and theJoint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System, and in late 2009 he found the Apache helicopter video. Hetold Lamo: "At first glance it was just a bunch of guys getting shot up by a helicopter. No big deal ... about twodozen more where that came from, right? But something struck me as odd with the van thing, and also the fact itwas being stored in a JAG officer’s directory. So I looked into it." Mannings former partner, Tyler Watkins, told reporters that, while on leave in Boston in January 2010, Manningsaid he had found some sensitive information and was considering leaking it.  During the same month Manningbegan posting on Facebook in a way that suggested he was upset about something. According to The DailyTelegraph, he wrote, "Bradley Manning didnt want this fight. Too much to lose, too fast," and said he was lividafter being "lectured by ex-boyfriend."On February 18, WikiLeaks posted the first of the material that allegedly came from him, a diplomatic cable datedJanuary 13, 2010, from the U.S. Embassy in Reykjavik, Iceland—a document now known as Reykjavik13. In thechat log, Manning called this a "test" document.  On March 15, WikiLeaks posted a 32-page report written in2008 by the U.S. Department of Defense about WikiLeaks itself. On March 29, it posted U.S. State Departmentprofiles of politicians in Iceland. On April 5, it published the Apache helicopter video of the July 2007 Baghdad airstrike, which Manning is allegedto have passed on in February; WikiLeaks called it the "Collateral Murder" video, and it attracted widespreadcoverage. On July 25, it released the Afghan war documents, and in October the Iraq War documents, internalmilitary war logs and diaries. Manning is also alleged to have given them 251,287 U.S. state department cables—written by 260 embassies and consulates in 180 countries—which were passed by Assange to several newsorganizations. Several thousand of them were published in stages, the first by WikiLeaks in February 2010 (theReykjavik13 document), then from November 29 by The New York Times, Der Spiegel, The Guardian, El País,and others. WikiLeaks said it was the largest set of confidential documents ever released into the public domain. Discharge, chats with Adrian LamoOn May 7, 2010, after other soldiers witnessed Manning punch a female intelligence analyst, Specialist Shulman,in the face, he was demoted and told he was about to be discharged.  On May 20, he contacted Adrian Lamo,a former "grey hat" hacker convicted in 2004 of having accessed The New York Times computer network withoutpermission. Lamo had been profiled that day by Kevin Poulsen in Wired magazine after being hospitalized anddiagnosed with Aspergers Syndrome. Poulsen, now a reporter, is himself a former hacker who had used Lamo as asource several times over the years.According to Lamo, Manning sent him several encrypted e-mails on May 20 after seeing a tweet from Lamo aboutWikiLeaks. Lamo said he was unable to decrypt the e-mails but replied anyway, not knowing the recipient or beingable to read the content, and invited the e-mailer to chat on AOL IM. Manning sent him more e-mails, also
encrypted. Lamo said he later turned these and the earlier e-mails over to the FBI without having read them.  In aseries of chats from May 21 until May 25/26, Manning—using the handle "Bradass87"—apparently told Lamo thathe had leaked classified material. He introduced himself to Lamo as "an army intelligence analyst, deployed toeastern Baghdad, pending discharge for adjustment disorder in lieu of gender identity disorder." Just over 10 minutes later he asked Lamo: "If you had unprecedented access to classified networks 14 hours a day,7 days a week for 8+ months, what would you do?" Lamo told him: "Im a journalist and a minister. You can pickeither, and treat this as a confession or an interview (never to be published) & enjoy a modicum of legalprotection." Manning told Lamo he felt isolated, and had "lost all of my emotional support channels ... family,boyfriend, trusting colleagues ... im a mess."May 22, 11:49:02 AM Manning: im in the desert, with a bunch of hyper-masculine trigger happy ignorant rednecks asneighbors… and the only safe place i seem to have is this satellite internet connection ...11:49:51 AM Manning: and i already got myself into minor trouble, revealing my uncertainty over my gender identity... which is causing me to lose this job ... and putting me in an awkward limbo ...11:58:33 AM Manning: and little does anyone know, but among this “visible” mess, theres the mess i created that no-one knows about yet12:15:11 PM Manning: hypothetical question: if you had free reign [sic] over classified networks for long periods oftime ... say, 8-9 months ... and you saw incredible things, awful things ... things that belonged in the public domain, andnot on some server stored in a dark room in Washington DC ... what would you do? ...12:26:09 PM Manning: lets just say *someone* i know intimately well, has been penetrating US classified networks,mining data like the ones described … and been transferring that data from the classified networks over the “air gap”onto a commercial network computer … sorting the data, compressing it, encrypting it, and uploading it to a crazywhite haired aussie who can’t seem to stay in one country very long =L ...12:31:43 PM Manning: crazy white haired dude = Julian Assange ...He said he had started to help WikiLeaks around Thanksgiving in November 2009, after WikiLeaks had releasedthe 9/11 pager messages. He said he recognized they had come from an NSA database, and told Lamo it made himfeel comfortable about stepping forward. He told Lamo that Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton "andseveral thousand diplomats around the world are going to have a heart attack when they wake up one morning, andfinds an entire repository of classified foreign policy is available, in searchable format to the public ... everywheretheres a US post ... theres a diplomatic scandal that will be revealed". Lamo asked what kind of material, andManning replied: "uhm ... crazy, almost criminal political backdealings ... the non-PR-versions of world events andcrises ..."May 23, 1:11:54 PM Manning: and ... its important that it gets out ... i feel, for some bizarre reason1:12:02 PM Manning: it might actually change something1:13:10 PM Manning: i just ... dont wish to be a part of it ... at least not now ... im not ready ... i wouldn’t mind goingto prison for the rest of my life, or being executed so much, if it wasn’t for the possibility of having pictures of me ...plastered all over the world press ... as [a] boy ...1:39:03 PM, Manning: i cant believe what im confessing to you :’(He told Lamo he had erased CD-RWs containing Lady Gaga songs, and had rewritten them with the downloadeddocuments:
May 25 or 26, 02:12:23 PM, Manning: ... it was a massive data spillage ... facilitated by numerous factors ... bothphysically, technically, and culturally ...02:13:02 PM, Manning: perfect example of how not to do INFOSEC02:14:21 PM, Manning: listened and lip-synced to Lady Gaga’s Telephone while exfiltratrating [sic] possibly thelargest data spillage in american history ...02:17:56 PM, Manning: weak servers, weak logging, weak physical security, weak counter-intelligence, inattentivesignal analysis ... a perfect storm ...02:22:47 PM, Manning: i mean what if i were someone more malicious02:23:25 PM, Manning: i could’ve sold to russia or china, and made bank?02:23:36 PM, Lamo: why didn’t you?02:23:58 PM, Manning: because it’s public data ...02:24:46 PM, Manning: it belongs in the public domain ...He said he hoped the material would lead to "worldwide discussion, debates, and reforms," and if not were"doomed as a species...". He said the reaction to the Baghdad airstrike video had given him hope: "CNN’s iReportwas overwhelmed ... Twitter exploded ..." He continued: "i want people to see the truth… regardless of who theyare ... because without information, you cannot make informed decisions as a public. Later that day he said the incident that "got [him] the most" was when 15 detainees were arrested by the IraqiFederal Police for printing anti-Iraqi literature. He was asked by the army to investigate who the "bad guys" were,he said. He told Lamo he discovered the detainees had printed what he called a scholarly critique of the Iraqi primeminister, one called "Where did the money go?" that followed what Manning said was a corruption trail within theIraqi cabinet. He reported this to his commanding officer, but said "he didnt want to hear any of it"; he said theofficer told him to help the Iraqi police find more detainees. Manning said he realized, "i was actively involved insomething that i was completely against ..."  Lamos approach to the FBI, partial publication of the chat logsAdrian Lamo (left) and Wireds Kevin Poulsen (right), photographed in 2001 with former computer hacker Kevin MitnickLamo told Wired he had given money to WikiLeaks in the past, and that the decision to go to the authorities hadnot been an easy one. He said he believed lives were in danger: "[Manning] was in a war zone and basically tryingto vacuum up as much classified information as he could, and just throwing it up into the air." Lamo said he hadoffered journalist-source anonymity to Manning during the chats, but he approached federal agents shortly aftertheir first chat. Jonathan V. Last wrote that Lamo discussed what Manning had told him with Chet Uber of thevolunteer group, Project Vigilant, which researches cyber crime, and Uber reportedly told Lamo to go to the FBI.
On May 25, Lamo met with FBI and Army CID officers at a Starbucks near his home in California, where heshowed them the chat logs. He met them again on May 27, at which point they told him Manning had been arrestedin Iraq the day before.The news of his arrest was broken on June 6 by Wired reporter Kevin Poulsen, who had written the May 20 Wiredprofile of Lamo. Daniel Domscheit-Berg described it as the worst moment in the history of WikiLeaks.  Wiredpublished around 25 percent of the chat logs on June 6 and June 10, saying the remainder either infringedMannings privacy or compromised sensitive military information. Ellen Nakashima of The Washington Postpublished excerpts on June 10, and on June 19 BoingBoing published what it said was a more complete version. Glenn Greenwald, writing in Salon in December 2010, called the failure to publish the logs in full "easily one ofthe worst journalistic disgraces of the year," writing that Poulsen and Wired had helped conceal the truth about thearrest. "In doing so," he argued, "they have actively shielded Poulsens longtime associate, Adrian Lamo—as wellas government investigators—from having their claims about Mannings statements scrutinized, and have enabledLamo to drive much of the reporting of this story by spouting whatever he wants about Mannings statementswithout any check." Wireds editor, Evan Hansen, wrote that the logs included sensitive personal informationthat had no bearing on WikiLeaks, and that it would serve no purpose to publish them. Wired eventuallypublished the full logs in July 2011. Legal proceedingsMain article: United States v. Bradley Manning Arrest and charges Manning–Wikileaks timeline Oct 2009: Manning sent to Iraq. Nov: Manning finds Apache Baghdad footage. Nov: Wikileaks publishes 9/11 pager messages. Nov: Manning allegedly contacts Wikileaks. Feb 18, 2010: Wikileaks releases Reykjavik 13 cable, purportedly from Manning. Mar 15: Wikileaks releases Defense Dept report about Wikileaks, purportedly from Manning. Mar 29: Wikileaks releases State Dept profiles
of Icelandic politicians, purportedly from Manning. Apr 5: Wikileaks releases Apache Baghdad footage, purportedly from Manning. May 21–25/6: Manning chats with Adrian Lamo. May 26: Manning arrested in Iraq. Jun 6–10: Wired and Washington Post publish partial Manning-Lamo chat logs. Jul 5: Manning charged. Jul 25: Wikileaks releases Afghan War Diary, purportedly from Manning. Jul 29: Manning transferred to the U.S. Oct 22: Wikileaks releases Iraq War logs, purportedly from Manning. Nov 28: Newspapers publish more U.S. diplomatic cables from Wikileaks, purportedly from Manning. Jan 2011: United Nations Special Rapporteur submits inquiry to U.S. about Manning. Mar 1: Manning charged with 22 more offenses. Dec 16: Article 32 hearing begins at Ft. Meade, MD This box: view talk editManning was arrested on May 26, 2010, and held at first in a military jail at Camp Arifjan in Kuwait. He wascharged on July 5 under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) with violations of UCMJ Articles 92 and134 for "transferring classified data onto his personal computer and adding unauthorized software to a classifiedcomputer system in connection with the leaking of a video of a helicopter attack in Iraq in 2007," and"communicating, transmitting and delivering national defense information to an unauthorized source anddisclosing classified information concerning the national defense with reason to believe that the information couldcause injury to the United States," between November 19, 2009, and May 27, 2010.  He was also one of thosenamed in the Twitter subpoena later in December, when the U.S. government tried to obtain access to the Twitteraccounts of several of those involved.On March 1, 2011, an additional 22 charges were preferred, including wrongfully obtaining classified material forthe purpose of posting it on the Internet, knowing that the information would be accessed by the enemy; the illegaltransmission of defense information; fraud; and aiding the enemy. CBS reported that the new charges involved theleaking of the Afghan and Iraq war logs, and a quarter of a million State Department cables; according to ABCNews, the charge sheets said Manning had transferred 380,000 records about Iraq, and 90,000 about Afghanistan.In all, CBS said, he is accused of having leaked over half a million documents and two videos. Prosecutors toldMannings lawyers they would not seek the death penalty, though the charge of aiding the enemy is a capital
offense. They said if convicted he will face life imprisonment, reduction in rank to the lowest enlisted pay grade, adishonorable discharge, and loss of pay and allowances.  Detention at Marine Corps Base QuanticoOn July 29, 2010, Manning was moved from Kuwait to the Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia, and classifiedas a "maximum custody detainee" held under a "Prevention of Injury" assignment until April 2011. At Quantico hewas detained in a 6 x 12 ft cell, with no window, furnished with a bed, toilet and sink, and with meals taken in hiscell. According to The Washington Post, the facility had 30 cells built in a U shape, and although the detaineescould talk to one another, they were unable to see each other, according to his lawyer, David Coombs, a formermilitary attorney and member of the United States Army Reserve. Coombs said in December 2010 that the guardswere professional, and had not tried to bully, harass, or embarrass Manning. He was allowed outside his cell towalk for up to one hour a day, shackled. There was access to television for limited periods when it was placed inthe corridor outside his cell. He was allowed to keep one book and one magazine in his cell—according to Leighand Harding, he requested Immanuel Kants Critique of Pure Reason (1781)—but otherwise no writing materials,though access to them was given during allotted times. He was shackled during visits.A Prevention of Injury order is one stop short of suicide watch. It entails checks by guards every five minutes, andno sleeping during the day. His lawyer said he was not allowed to sleep between 5 am (7 am at weekends) and 8pm, and if he tried to, was made to stand or sit up. He was required to remain visible at all times, including atnight, which entailed no access to sheets, no pillow except one built into his mattress, and a blanket designed not tobe shredded. Until March 2011 he was required to sleep in boxer shorts, and had experienced chafing of the skinfrom the heavy blanket. On March 2, he was told that an Article 138 complaint filed in January by his lawyer—asking that he be removed from maximum custody and prevention-of-injury watch—had been denied. His lawyersaid Manning subsequently joked to the guards that, if he wanted to harm himself, he could do so "with the elasticwaistband of his underwear or with his flip-flops." This resulted in him being required to sleep without clothingand present himself naked outside his cell for morning inspection, which his lawyer described as ritual humiliation,though from around March 10 onwards he was given a wrap-around smock with Velcro fasteners to sleep in. Inresponse to the incident, the brig psychiatrist classified him as at low risk of suicide.  Manning letter from jailMannings lawyer released an 11-page letter from Manning on March 10, 2011, written to the U.S. military inresponse to their decision to retain his Prevention of Injury status. In the letter, he described having been placed onsuicide watch for three days in January, and having had his clothing removed, apart from underwear, as well asprescription eyeglasses; he said the loss of the latter forced him to sit in "essential blindness." He wrote that hebelieved this was done as retribution for a protest his supporters had held outside the jail the day before; he allegedthat, just before the suicide watch began, the guards began harassing him and issuing conflicting orders, telling himto turn left, then not to turn left. He also described being required to sleep without clothes and stand naked formorning parade: "The guard told me to stand at parade rest, with my hands behind my back and my legs spacedshoulder width apart. I stood at "parade rest" for about three minutes until the DBS [duty brig supervisor] arrived.... The DBS looked at me, paused for a moment, and then continued to the next detainees cell. I was incrediblyembarrassed at having all these people stare at me naked. ..." He wrote that the smock he was later given to wear atnight was coarse and uncomfortable, and that he regarded the removal of his other clothing as unlawful pretrialpunishment. Complaints about detention, government responseThe conditions of his detention prompted international concern. David House, the computer scientist allowed tovisit him twice a month, said in December 2010 that he had watched Manning change from an intelligent youngman to someone who appeared catatonic and had difficulty conducting a conversation. Democratic Rep. DennisKucinich and Pentagon Papers whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg, a WikiLeaks volunteer, compared the treatment to
what happened inside the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. Ellsberg wrote that it amounted to "no-touch torture", and thatits purpose was to demoralize Manning so he would implicate WikiLeaks and Julian Assange. A Quantico spokesman said in January 2011 that allegations of mistreatment were "poppycock," and that Manninghad been designated "maximum custody" because his escape would pose a national security risk. The spokesmansaid Manning could talk to guards and prisoners in other cells, though he could not see the prisoners, and left hiscell for a daily hour of exercise, and for showers, phone calls, meetings with his lawyer, and weekend visits byfriends and relatives. Pentagon spokesman Geoff Morrell and Pentagon General Counsel Jeh Johnson visitedQuantico in February 2011 to examine the conditions of the detention. Morrell said he was impressed by theprofessionalism of the staff, and that Mannings housing and treatment were appropriate. He said: "It just sohappens that the configuration of the brig is that every individual is confined to his or her own cell. Hes beingprovided well-balanced, nutritious meals three times a day. He receives visitors and mail, and can write letters. Heroutinely meets with doctors, as well as his attorney. Hes allowed to make telephone calls. And he is being treatedjust like every other detainee in the brig."Juan E. Mendez, a United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture, submitted an inquiry about Manning to the U.S.State Department around January 2011, and in April accused the government of prevarication in response to hisrequest for an unmonitored meeting with Manning, saying he was deeply disappointed and frustrated. AmnestyInternational issued a complaint to the U.S. Secretary of Defense, and asked the British government to intervene onthe grounds that Manning is a British citizen by descent through his Welsh mother. The British Embassy inWashington expressed concern to the State Department in March; Mannings case was raised in the Britishparliament by Labour MP Ann Clwyd, who is Welsh; and in April Mannings mother asked that British consularofficials visit him in prison. Manning himself has not asked for assistance from the British government, and hislawyer has said Manning does not regard himself as a British citizen. In March, State Department spokesman Philip J. Crowley, speaking to a small audience, called Manningstreatment "ridiculous and counterproductive and stupid"; he resigned two days later, reportedly under pressurefrom the White House. His remark, described as a personal opinion, prompted reporters to ask President Obama tocomment on Mannings detention at a news conference; he replied: "... I have actually asked the Pentagon whetheror not the procedures that have been taken in terms of his confinement are appropriate and are meeting our basicstandards. They assured me that they are. I cant go into details about some of their concerns, but some of this hasto do with Private Mannings safety as well." He added later that Manning had broken the law.In April, 295 scholars signed a letter published in the New York Review of Books objecting to the conditions ofMannings detention. Signatories included Yochai Benkler and Laurence Tribe of Harvard Law School and BruceAckerman of Yale Law School. The letter said the conditions of the detention were a violation of the U.S.Constitution, specifically the Eighth Amendments prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment, and the FifthAmendments guarantee against punishment without trial, and that if the conditions continued they might amountto a violation of the criminal statute against torture: "procedures calculated to disrupt profoundly the senses or thepersonality." Detention at Fort LeavenworthThe Pentagon transferred Manning on April 20, 2011, to the Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility, a newmedium-security facility in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.  The prevention-of-injury order was lifted, his clotheswere not removed at night, and he was placed in a cell with a large window with natural light and a normalmattress. He was able to mix with other pre-trial detainees, write whenever he wanted, and keep personal objects,such as books and letters, in his cell.  Article 32 hearingAn Article 32 hearing started on December 16, 2011, in Fort Meade, Maryland.
 Friends and supportersRally in Quantico, Virginia, August 2010The Bradley Manning Support Network was formed in June 2010 by Mike Gogulski, an American living inSlovakia. Mannings friend, David House, was also involved in founding it, and it was coordinated by Courage toResist, which supports war resisters within the military. Several notable figures joined its advisory board, includingDaniel Ellsberg, one of 30 protesters arrested outside the Quantico base in March 2011; filmmaker Michael Moore,who contributed $5,000; Ray McGovern, a former CIA analyst; Ann Wright, a retired army colonel; and RobertMeeropol. Rallies were held in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and Ireland, and by January 2011donations for Mannings defense had risen to over $100,000, including $15,100 from WikiLeaks. The hacker group Anonymous threatened in March 2011 to disrupt activities at Quantico by cyber-attackingcommunications and exposing information about personnel, calling it "Operation Bradical." Manning was one of 241 candidates listed for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize. See also Classified information in the United States Incarceration in the United States Information sensitivity Journalism sourcing Espionage Act of 1917 McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950 References 1. ^ a b c d e Nicks, Denver. "Private Manning and the Making of Wikileaks", This Land, September 23, 2010. For the charges against Manning, see "Soldier faces criminal charges", United States Division—Center, Media Release, July 6, 2010, accessed February 19, 2011; for the additional charges, see Miklaszewski, Jim and Kube, Courtney. "Manning faces new charges, possible death penalty", msnbc.com, March 2, 2011. That he was found fit to stand trial, see "Panel Says WikiLeaks Suspect Is Competent to Stand Trial", Associated Press, April 29, 2011. 2. ^ a b c d Poulsen, Kevin and Zetter, Kim. "U.S. Intelligence Analyst Arrested in WikiLeaks Video Probe", Wired magazine, June 6, 2010. Last, Jonathan V. "The Lefts Canonization of St. Bradley Manning", CBS News, January 11, 2011. Also see "Charge sheet", Cryptome, accessed December 26, 2010. 3. ^ a b "WikiLeaks Suspect Transferred to Fort Leavenworth", Associated Press, April 20, 2011. 4. ^ Fishman, Steve. "Bradley Manning’s Army of One", New York, July 3, 2011, p. 2ff. 5. ^ Leigh, David and Harding, Luke. Wikileaks: Inside Julian Assanges War on Secrecy. Guardian Books, 2011, pp. 20–24. Also see Nicks, Denver. "Private Manning and the Making of WikiLeaks", This Land, September 23, 2010.
For his weight and height, see Kirkland, Michael. "Under the U.S. Supreme Court: Bradley Manning, WikiLeaks martyr?", UPI, March 13, 2011.6. ^ For his mother not adjusting, and Manning fending for himself, see Thompson, Ginger. "Early Struggles of Soldier Charged in Leak Case", The New York Times, August 8, 2010. For having "an attitude," and being a "computer nerd", see Booth, Robert; Brooke, Heather; and Morris, Steve. "WikiLeaks cables: Bradley Manning faces 52 years in jail", The Guardian, November 30, 2010. For being the only American in the school, building his own website, and for being impersonated, see Leigh and Harding 2011, p. 24. For Tom Dyers comments, see "WikiLeaks: Bradley Manning set up own Facebook", Channel 4 News, December 1, 2010.7. ^ Fishman, July 3, 2011, p. 3.8. ^ a b Leigh and Harding 2011, pp. 25–26.9. ^ Nicks, September 23, 2010. Leigh and Harding 2011, p. 72.10. ^ Fishman, July 3, 2011, p. 1.11. ^ Fishman, July 3, 2011, p. 4.12. ^ Moran, Terry. "Should PFC Bradley Manning Spend The Rest Of His Life In Prison?", Nightline, ABC News, November 29, 2010, courtesy of YouTube, accessed February 19, 2011.13. ^ Fishman, July 3, 2011, p. 5.14. ^ a b OKane, Maggie; Madlena, Chavala; Grandjean, Guy; and Fisher, Daniel. "WikiLeaks accused Bradley Manning should never have been sent to Iraq", The Guardian, May 27, 2011; for the allegation about the woman officer and his discharge, see the Guardians video, 17:40 mins. Also see OKane, Maggie; Madlena, Chavala; Grandjean, Guy; and Fisher, Daniel. "Bradley Manning: the bullied outsider who knew US militarys inner secrets", The Guardian, May 27, 2011.15. ^ a b Leigh and Harding 2011, pp. 52–56.16. ^ For the U.S. government trying to determine whether Assange encouraged Manning, and that the government took Lamos hard drive, see Savage, Charlie. "U.S. Tries to Build Case for Conspiracy by WikiLeaks", The New York Times, December 15, 2010. For Domscheit-Berg, see Domscheit-Berg, Daniel. Inside WikiLeaks. Doubleday, 2011, p. 165. For Mannings comments to Lamo; for Lamos allegations about Mannings contact with Assange and his use of an Internet conferencing service; and that Lamo is the only source of the allegations, see Leigh and Harding 2011, p. 75. That the U.S. government can find no direct connection between Manning and Assange, see Miklaszewski, Jim. "NBC: U.S. cant link accused Army private to Assange", NBC News, January 24, 2011. Also see Barnes, Julian and Perez, Evan. "Assange Probe Hits Snag", Wall Street Journal, February 9, 2011.17. ^ Leigh and Harding, 2011, p. 31.18. ^ Blake, Heidi; Bingham, John; and Rayner, Gordon. "Bradley Manning, suspected source of WikiLeaks documents, raged on his Facebook page", The Daily Telegraph, July 30, 2010.19. ^ For the publishing sequence, see Leigh and Harding 2010, p. 70. For more information about the "Reykjavik 13" cable and the State Department profiles of politicians, see Myers, Steven Lee. "Charges for Soldier Accused of Leak", The New York Times, July 6, 2010. For the leak of the Defense Dept report on WikiLeaks, see Kravets, David. "Secret Document Calls Wikileaks ‘Threat’ to U.S. Army", Wired, March 15, 2010. For the Defense Dept report itself , see Assange, Julian. "U.S. intelligence planned to destroy WikiLeaks", WikiLeaks release on March 15, 2010 of Horvath, Michael D. "Wikileaks.org—An Online Reference to Foreign Intelligence Services, Insurgents, or Terrorist Groups?", United States Army Counterintelligence Center, Department of Defense Counterintelligence Analysis Program, March 18, 2008.20. ^ Leigh and Harding, 2010, pp. 70, 194ff, 211. See p. 70 for the date of the Apache video; p. 194ff for the other material WikiLeaks published; and p. 211 for the number of documents and the quote from WikiLeaks. As of February 2011, the contents of 4,000 cables had been published. The Guardian published identifying information for all the cables (date, sender, etc.) on its website on December 3, 2010. See Fowler, Andrew. The Most Dangerous Man in the World. Skyhorse Publishing, 2011, pp. 207–208.21. ^ Williams, Matt. "Bradley Manning hearing told of lax security at military intelligence unit". The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved 18 December 2011.22. ^ Poulsen, Kevin. "Ex-Hacker Adrian Lamo Institutionalized for Asperger’s", Wired, May 20, 2010. For information about Poulsens relationship with Lamo, see Last, Jonathan V. "The Lefts Canonization of St. Bradley Manning", CBS News, January 11, 2011. For Lamos conviction, see Shachtman, Noah, "Adrian Lamo Cuts Deal With Feds", Wired, January 9, 2004.
23. ^ a b Greenwald, Glenn. "The strange and consequential case of Bradley Manning, Adrian Lamo and WikiLeaks", Salon, June 18, 2010. Greenwald wrote: "Lamo told me that Manning first emailed him on May 20 and, according to highly edited chat logs released by Wired, had his first online chat with Manning on May 21; in other words, Manning first contacted Lamo the very day that Poulsens Wired article on Lamos involuntary commitment appeared (the Wired article is time-stamped 5:46 p.m. on May 20). "Lamo, however, told me that Manning found him not from the Wired article—which Manning never mentioned reading—but from searching the word "WikiLeaks" on Twitter, which led him to a tweet Lamo had written that included the word "WikiLeaks." Even if Manning had really found Lamo through a Twitter search for "WikiLeaks," Lamo could not explain why Manning focused on him, rather than the thousands of other people who have also mentioned the word "WikiLeaks" on Twitter, including countless people who have done so by expressing support for WikiLeaks."24. ^ Leigh and Harding 2011, p. 76.25. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hansen, Evan. Manning-Lamo Chat Logs Revealed, Wired magazine, July 13, 2011.26. ^ Domscheit-Berg 2011, p. 164.27. ^ a b Greenwald, Glenn. "The worsening journalistic disgrace at Wired", Salon, December 27, 2010. Also see Greenwald, Glenn. "Wireds refusal to release or comment on the Manning chat logs", Salon, December 30, 2010.28. ^ Hansen, Evan and Poulsen, Kevin. "Putting the Record Straight on the Lamo-Manning Chat Logs", December 28, 2010.29. ^ Poulsen, Kevin and Zetter, Kim. "Three Weeks After Arrest, Still No Charges In WikiLeaks Probe", Wired magazine, June 16, 2010.30. ^ "Attorney for WikiLeaks suspect says hes seen no evidence on documents", CNN, August 31, 2010. Also see "Charge sheet", courtesy of Cryptome, accessed December 26, 2010.31. ^ "Twitter Subpoena", Salon, January 10, 2011.32. ^ Miklaszewski, Jim and Kube, Courtney. "Manning faces new charges, possible death penalty", msnbc.com, March 2, 2011. For the CBS report on the number of documents involved, and the penalty if convicted, see "WikiLeaks: Bradley Manning faces 22 new charges", CBS News, March 2, 2011. For the ABC figures, see Martinez, Luis. "22 New Charges Against Pvt. Bradley Manning, Accused WikiLeaks Source", ABC News, March 2, 2011.33. ^ a b For a description of the jail, see Nakashima, Ellen. "In brig, WikiLeaks suspect Bradley Manning ordered to sleep without clothing", The Washington Post, March 5, 2011. For Mannings lawyers description of the detention, see "A Typical Day for PFC Bradley Manning", The Law Offices of David E. Coombs, December 18, 2010, accessed March 7, 2011. For Mannings request of Kants Critique of Pure Reason, see Leigh and Harding, 2011, p. 89.34. ^ For details of the new rule, and the brig psychiatrists classification, see Nakashima, Ellen. "In brig, WikiLeaks suspect Bradley Manning ordered to sleep without clothing", The Washington Post, March 5, 2011. For his lawyer calling it ritual humiliation, see Gallagher, Roy. "Bradley Manning and the stench of US hypocrisy", The Guardian, March 4, 2011. For a sleep garment having been supplied, see Nakashima, Ellen. /11/AR2011031106542.html "WikiLeaks suspects treatment stupid, U.S. official says", The Washington Post, March 12, 2011. For a description of the smock, see "Editorial; The Abuse of Private Manning", The New York Times, March 15, 2011.35. ^ Pilkington, Ed. "Stripped naked every night, Bradley Manning tells of prison ordeal", The Guardian, March 11, 2011. For Mannings letter, see "Memorandum", released by David Coombs, March 10, 2011, accessed March 12, 2011. See pp. 7, 9 for his having had his eyeglasses removed; p. 7 for the alleged harassment and conflicting orders; p. 10 for his embarrassment about his lack of clothing.36. ^ For David Houses view, see Brooke, Heather. "Bradley Mannings health deteriorating in jail, supporters say", The Guardian, December 16, 2010. For more on Houses views, see Sontheimer, Michael. "I Have Watched My Friend Degrade over Time", Der Spiegel, March 14, 2011. For Dennis Kuninich, see "State Department spokesperson P.J. Crowley decries Bradley Mannings treatment as counterproductive, stupid", CBS News, March 11, 2011.
For Daniel Ellsberg, see Ellsberg, Daniel. "This shameful abuse of Bradley Manning", The Guardian, March 11, 2011. For more information, see Greenwald, Glenn. "The inhumane conditions of Bradley Mannings detention", Salon, December 15, 2010.37. ^ For the Quantico spokesmans description of detention, see Shane, Scott. "Accused Soldier in Brig as WikiLeaks Link is Sought", The New York Times, January 13, 2011. For Geoff Morrells opinion and Jeh Johnsons visit, see Nakashima, Ellen. "In brig, WikiLeaks suspect Bradley Manning ordered to sleep without clothing", The Washington Post, March 5, 2011, p. 2. For more on Johnsons visit, see Horton, Scott. "Inhumanity at Quantico", Harpers Magazine, March 7, 2011. For Morrells opinion that he is being treated like other detainees, see Tapper, Jake and Radia, Kirit. "Comments on Prisoner Treatment Cause State Department Spokesman to Lose His Job", ABC News, March 13, 2011.38. ^ MacAskill, Ewen. "Bradley Manning case sparks UN criticism of US government", The Guardian, 11 April 2011. Also see Shane, Scott. "Accused Soldier in Brig as WikiLeaks Link is Sought", The New York Times, January 13, 2011.39. ^ For the Amnesty complaint, see "Letter from Amnesty International to Robert M. Gates", Amnesty International, London, January 19, 2011, courtesy of Allvoices.com, accessed February 15, 2011. For Amnestys approach to the British government, see Pilkington, Ed; McGreal, Chris; and Morris, Steven. "Bradley Manning is UK citizen and needs protection, government told", The Guardian, February 1, 2011. The newspaper wrote that under the British Nationality Act 1981 anyone born outside the UK after 1 January 1983 whose mother is a British citizen by birth is British by descent. For the British embassy and Ann Clywd, see Addley, Esther and Leigh, David. "Bradley Manning supporters welcome UK governments expression of concern", The Guardian, April 5, 2011; for Ann Clywd raising the issue in the House of Commons, see "MPs raise concerns over Bradley Mannings treatment", BBC, April 4, 2011. For Mannings mother, see "Bradley Manning needs consular visit, mother tells William Hague", The Guardian, 13 April 2011.40. ^ Coombs, David E. "Clarification Regarding PFC Mannings Citizenship", Law Offices of David E. Coombs, February 2, 2011: "There has been some discussion regarding PFC Bradley Mannings citizenship. PFC Manning does not hold a British passport, nor does he consider himself a British citizen. He is an American, and is proud to be serving in the United States Army. His current confinement conditions are troubling to many both here in the United States and abroad. This concern, however, is not a citizenship issue."41. ^ For Philip J. Crowleys and President Obamas comments, see Nakashima, Ellen. "WikiLeaks suspects treatment stupid, U.S. official says", The Washington Post, March 12, 2011. For more of Obamas reply, see Zengerle, Patricia. "Obama asked Pentagon about Wiki soldiers treatment", Reuters, March 11, 2011. For Crowleys resignation, see Tapper, Jake and Radia, Kirit. "Comments on Prisoner Treatment Cause State Department Spokesman to Lose His Job", ABC News, March 13, 2011.42. ^ Lee, M.J. and Phillip, Abby. "Barack Obama on Bradley Manning: He broke the law", Politico, April 22, 2011.43. ^ Ackerman, Bruce and Benkler, Yochai. "Private Manning’s Humiliation", The New York Review of Books, accessed April 10, 2011. For the list of signatories, see "A Statement on Private Mannings Detention", balkin.blogspot.com, March 15, 2011, accessed April 10, 2011. For analysis, see Pilkington, Ed. "Bradley Manning: top US legal scholars voice outrage at torture", The Guardian, April 10, 2011.44. ^ Pilkington, Ed. "Bradley Mannings jail conditions improve dramatically after protest campaign", The Guardian, May 4, 2011.45. ^ "Article 32 Hearing", Law Office of David E. Coombs, 21 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.46. ^ Andy Greenberg. "Alleged WikiLeaks Source Bradley Manning Has A Court Date: 569 Days After His Arrest", Forbes, 21 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.47. ^ For the Support Networks founder, Mike Gogulksi, and Michael Moore, see Dishneau, David. "Michael Moore Praises Suspected WikiLeaks Source", Associated Press, August 21, 2010. For more about Gogulski and the Courage to Resist, see Savage, Michael W. "Army analyst linked to WikiLeaks hailed as antiwar hero", The Washington Post, August 14, 2010. For David Houses involvement, see Greenwald, Glenn. "Government harassing and intimidating Bradley Manning supporters", Salon, November 9, 2010.
For Daniel Ellsberg joining, see "Support for US WikiLeaks soldier raised in west Wales", BBC News, September 16, 2010. For Ann Wright and Ray McGovern, see McGreal, Chris. "Michael Moore campaigns to free Bradley Manning in war logs case", The Guardian, September 15, 2010. For the rallies, see "Montreal protesters rally in support of WikiLeaks", The Montreal Gazette, December 18, 2010. For the donations, see "WikiLeaks contributes to Manning defense, support group says", CNN, January 15, 2011. For the support groups advisory board, see "Advisory Board", Bradley Manning Support Network, accessed March 4, 2011. For Ellsbergs arrest, see Fears, Darryl. "Protesters arrested near Quantico as rally for alleged WikiLeaks source turns tense", The Washington Post, March 20, 2011. For new advisory board members, see Update 6/17/11: New advisory board members, David House speaks out against Wikileaks Grand Jury, Bradley Manning Support Network, June 17, 2011. 48. ^ Greenberg, Andy. "Anonymous Hackers Target Alleged WikiLeaker Bradley Manning’s Jailers", Forbes, March 7, 2011. For "Operation Bradical," see Emspak, Jesse. "Anonymous Threatens To Post Info On Bradley Mannings Guards", International Business Times, March 10, 2011. 49. ^ Fouche, Gwladys (27 September 2011). "Nobel Peace Prize may recognise Arab Spring". Reuters. Retrieved 29 September 2011. Further readingKey articles about Lamo and the Lamo-Manning chat log, in order of publication Poulsen, Kevin. "Ex-Hacker Adrian Lamo Institutionalized for Asperger’s", Wired magazine, May 20, 2010. Poulsen, Kevin and Zetter, Kim. "U.S. Intelligence Analyst Arrested in WikiLeaks Video Probe", Wired magazine, June 6, 2010. Poulsen, Kevin and Zetter, Kim. I Cant Believe What Im Confessing to You: The WikiLeaks Chats", Wired magazine, June 10, 2010. Nakashima, Ellen. "Messages from alleged leaker Bradley Manning portray him as despondent soldier", The Washington Post, June 10, 2010. Poulsen, Kevin and Zetter, Kim. "Three Weeks After Arrest, Still No Charges in WikiLeaks Probe", Wired magazine, June 16, 2010. Xeni, Jardin. "WikiLeaks: a somewhat less redacted version of the Lamo/Manning logs", Boing Boing, June 19, 2010. Greenwald, Glenn. "The worsening journalistic disgrace at Wired", Salon, December 27, 2010. Hansen, Evan and Poulsen, Kevin. "Putting the Record Straight on the Lamo-Manning Chat Logs", Wired, December 28, 2010. Greenwald, Glenn. "Wireds refusal to release or comment on the Manning chat logs", Salon, December 29, 2010. Firedoglake. "Manning/WikiLeaks timeline", published as a complete version of the released excerpts, accessed March 14, 2011. Hansen, Evan. "Manning-Lamo Chat Logs Revealed", Wired, July 13, 2011.Other Democracy Now! "Glenn Greenwald on the Assange Extradition Ruling, the Jailing of Bradley Manning ...", February 24, 2011.