Tassos Sarampalis   1
Chapters 8 and 9                   2
3
• Non-equivalent groups and historical controls• Interrupted time series• Single-case experimental designs• Cross-lagged c...
• Similar to real experiments• Typically involve pre- and post-treatment  measurements• But:  Without random assignment ->...
also known as literature controls• Easier• Fewer ethical worriesBut:Caution because of selection and report bias          ...
14                813                                 4                712                                 3              ...
14                                    8                             413                                    7              ...
Lived   Died   Total   % who livedHospital A   790     210    1000Hospital B   900     100    1000                        ...
Lived   Died   Total   % who livedHospital A   790     210    1000    79%Hospital B   900     100    1000    90%          ...
Lived       Died   Total   % who livedHospital A      790         210    1000    79%Hospital B      900         100    100...
Lived       Died   Total   % who livedHospital A      790         210    1000    79%Hospital B      900         100    100...
• A series of discreet measurements• A clear definition of the beginning and ending  of the treatment                     ...
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• Regular             N+1                                             N• Seasonal             Autocorrelation Coeff.      ...
• Repeated observations, but on a single case  (or small number of cases)                                                17
A1          A2B1          B2     time                 18
A1          A2B1          B2     time                 19
A1          A2                 Test-Retest CorrelationsB1          B2     time                                    20
A1          A2                 Test-Retest Correlations                 Synchronous CorrelationsB1          B2     time   ...
A1          A2                  Test-Retest Correlations                 Synchronous Correlations                 Cross-La...
A1          A2                  Test-Retest Correlations                 Synchronous Correlations                 Cross-La...
24
Simple   = from the undivided populationRandom   = every sampling unit is equally likely           to be selectedWith Repl...
Stratified = First divide population into strataRandom = In each stratum, each unit is             equally likely to be se...
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Psbe2 08 research methods 2011-2012 - week 7

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Psbe2 08 research methods 2011-2012 - week 7

  1. 1. Tassos Sarampalis 1
  2. 2. Chapters 8 and 9 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. • Non-equivalent groups and historical controls• Interrupted time series• Single-case experimental designs• Cross-lagged correlational designs 4
  5. 5. • Similar to real experiments• Typically involve pre- and post-treatment measurements• But: Without random assignment -> Groups are not equivalent 5
  6. 6. also known as literature controls• Easier• Fewer ethical worriesBut:Caution because of selection and report bias 6
  7. 7. 14 813 4 712 3 611 2 510 1 97 100 103 106 109 4 107 110 113 116 119 122 0 118 120 122 124 126 7
  8. 8. 14 8 413 7 312 6 2 1511 5 1 12 010 4 97 100 103 106 109 107 110 113 116 119 122 118 120 122 124 126 9 6 3 0 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 8
  9. 9. Lived Died Total % who livedHospital A 790 210 1000Hospital B 900 100 1000 9
  10. 10. Lived Died Total % who livedHospital A 790 210 1000 79%Hospital B 900 100 1000 90% 10
  11. 11. Lived Died Total % who livedHospital A 790 210 1000 79%Hospital B 900 100 1000 90%Fair Condition and Better Lived Died Total % who livedHospital A 580 10 590Hospital B 860 30 890Poor Condition and Worse Lived Died Total % who livedHospital A 210 200 410Hospital B 40 70 110 11
  12. 12. Lived Died Total % who livedHospital A 790 210 1000 79%Hospital B 900 100 1000 90%Fair Condition and Better Lived Died Total % who livedHospital A 580 10 590 98.3%Hospital B 860 30 890 96.6%Poor Condition and Worse Lived Died Total % who livedHospital A 210 200 410 51.2%Hospital B 40 70 110 36.3% 12
  13. 13. • A series of discreet measurements• A clear definition of the beginning and ending of the treatment 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. • Regular N+1 N• Seasonal Autocorrelation Coeff. 0 Time lag 16
  17. 17. • Repeated observations, but on a single case (or small number of cases) 17
  18. 18. A1 A2B1 B2 time 18
  19. 19. A1 A2B1 B2 time 19
  20. 20. A1 A2 Test-Retest CorrelationsB1 B2 time 20
  21. 21. A1 A2 Test-Retest Correlations Synchronous CorrelationsB1 B2 time 21
  22. 22. A1 A2 Test-Retest Correlations Synchronous Correlations Cross-Lagged CorrelationsB1 B2 time 22
  23. 23. A1 A2 Test-Retest Correlations Synchronous Correlations Cross-Lagged CorrelationsB1 B2 time 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. Simple = from the undivided populationRandom = every sampling unit is equally likely to be selectedWith ReplacementWithout Replacement 25
  26. 26. Stratified = First divide population into strataRandom = In each stratum, each unit is equally likely to be selectedAdvantage:Reduced sampling error (improved accuracy) 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 36
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