DEFINITION OF TERMS• Human sexuality - is the capacity to have erotic experiences and responses. Human sexuality can also refer to the way someone is sexually attracted to another person - which is determined by their sexual orientation - whether it is to the opposite sex (heterosexuality), to the same sex (homosexuality), having both these tendencies (bisexuality), or not being attracted to anyone in a sexual manner (asexuality). Human sexuality impacts cultural, political, legal, and philosophical aspects of life. It can refer to issues of morality, ethics, theology, spirituality, or religion. It is not, however, directly tied to gender. Some cultures have been described as sexually repressive. (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_sexuality)• Law - Is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior. They apply to people as rational beings only.• Divine Law – a law that is believed to come directly from God
DEFINITION OF TERMS• Natural Law - (Philosophy) an ethical belief or system of beliefs supposed to be inherent in human nature and discoverable by reason rather than revelation• a rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society• Moral Law - is a system of guidelines for behavior. These guidelines may or may not be part of a religion, codified in written form, or legally enforceable. For some people moral law is synonymous with the commands of a divine being. For others, moral law is a set of universal rules that should apply to everyone.• Morality - The quality of being in accord with standards of right or good conduct.• Sin – Noun: an immoral act considered to be a transgression against divine law (Source: Oxford)
DEFINITION OF TERMSMarriage – The state of being married. (The Merriam – Webster Dictionary) - Marriage is a special contract of permanent union between a man and a woman entered into in accordance with law for the establishment of conjugal and family life. It is the foundation of the family and an inviolable social institution whose nature, consequences, and incidents are governed by law and not subject to stipulation, except that marriage settlements may fix the property relations during the marriage within the limits provided by this Code. (THE FAMILY CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES)Marry – To take husband and wife according to law or custom. (The Merriam – Webster Dictionary)Customs – It consists of those habits and practices which through long and uninterrupted usage have become acknowledged by society as binding rules of conduct. - A custom must be proved as a fact according to rules of evidence. (Article 12, Civil Code) It may be applied by the courts in the absence of law or statute exactly applicable to the point in controversy. But customs which are contrary to law, public order or public policy are not countenanced.
OBJECTIVES:•To show the conflict between many religions andhomosexuality.•To show how “ordinary Filipino people” view same sexmarriage.•To show whether or not religion affects the moralstandard of the ordinary people.•To show the reason why it is very difficult to legalizesame sex marriage in the Philippines
LIMITATIONS• This study is intended within the Philippines only but can also be applicable to other countries dominated by religious citizens especially “conservative” Christians.
INTRODUCTION:-U.S.A. wants to legalize Same – Sex Marriage-“About 75 to 80 per cent of Filipinos are Roman Catholics, about 1%are irreligious, about 4.2% are adherents of Islam, and about 15% areProtestant Christians. Other Christian denominations include thePhilippine Independent Church (more commonly called the AglipayanChurch), Iglesia ni Cristo (one of a number of separate Churches ofChrist generally not affiliated with one another), and The Church ofJesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon). Minority religions includeBuddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF OURPERCEPTION TOWARDS HOMOSEXUALS: Modern attitudes toward homosexuality have religious, legal, and medical underpinnings. Before the High Middle Ages, homosexual acts appear to have been tolerated or ignored by the Christian church throughout Europe. Beginning in the latter twelfth century, however, hostility toward homosexuality began to take root, and eventually spread throughout European religious and secular institutions. Condemnation of homosexual acts (and other nonprocreative sexual behavior) as "unnatural," which received official expression in the writings of Thomas Aquinas and others, became widespread and has continued through the present day (Boswell, 1980).
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF OUR PERCEPTION TOWARDS HOMOSEXUALS:Religious teachings soon were incorporated into legal sanctions. Many of theearly American colonies, for example, enacted stiff criminal penalties forsodomy, an umbrella term that encompassed a wide variety of sexual actsthat were nonprocreative (including homosexual behavior), occurred outsideof marriage (e.g., sex between a man and woman who were not married), orviolated traditions (e.g., sex between husband and wife with the woman ontop). The statutes often described such conduct only in Latin or with obliquephrases such as "wickedness not to be named"). In some places, such as theNew Haven colony, male and female homosexual acts were punishable bydeath (e.g., Katz, 1976).By the end of the 19th century, medicine and psychiatry were effectivelycompeting with religion and the law for jurisdiction over sexuality. As aconsequence, discourse about homosexuality expanded from the realms ofsin and crime to include that of pathology. This historical shift was generallyconsidered progressive because a sick person was less blameful than asinner or criminal (e.g., Chauncey, 1982/1983; DEmilio & Freedman, 1988;Duberman, Vicinus, & Chauncey, 1989).
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF OURPERCEPTION TOWARDS HOMOSEXUALS: Even within medicine and psychiatry, however, homosexuality was not universally viewed as a pathology. Richard von Krafft-Ebing described it as a degenerative sickness in his Psychopathia Sexualis, but Sigmund Freud and Havelock Ellis both adopted more accepting stances. Early in the twentieth century, Ellis (1901) argued that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease, and that many homosexuals made outstanding contributions to society (Source: http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/facts_me ntal_health.html)
The first country to legalize same-sex marriage is Netherlands.
Problem• Wikipedia: “About 75 to 80 per cent of Filipinos are Roman Catholics, about 1% are irreligious, about 4.2% are adherents of Islam, and about 15% are Protestant Christians. Other Christian denominations include the Philippine Independent Church (more commonly called the Aglipayan Church), Iglesia ni Cristo (one of a number of separate Churches of Christ generally not affiliated with one another), and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon). Minority religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism.•• Roman Catholics and Protestants were converted during the four centuries of Western influence by Spain, and the United States. Under Spanish rule, much of the population was converted to Christianity.• Orthodox Christians also live in Philippines. Protestant Christianity arrived in the Philippines during the 20th century, introduced by American missionaries.•• Islam was brought to the Sulu Archipelago in the 14th century by Makhdum Karim, an Arab trader, and to Mindanao Island by Rajah Kabungsuwan, a Malaccan nobleman. From then onwards, Muslim princes carried on expeditions to propagate Islam. While Islam was easily displaced over the years among the peoples of Luzon, and the Visayas, it retained a foothold in the central parts of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago.• Other religions include Judaism, Mahayana Buddhism, often mixed with Taoist beliefs, Hinduism, and Sikhism. Animism and Paganism are also followed.”
Problem Stand Towards Same – Sex MarriageSome Religion in the PhilippinesRoman Catholic AgainstIslam AgainstProtestant Christian VariesIglesia Ni Cristo AgainstMormon AgainstBuddhism VariesHinduism AcceptedJudaism Against
SURVEYThe following are the reasons according to them:•Genes•Environment•Influence•Chromosomes•Parents/ Family•Media•Hindi maipaliwanag na nararamdaman, hindi ko alam ang dahilan•Ang alam ko ay natural ito sa akin. I was born this way.
SURVEYThe following are some of the suggested solutions given by the respondents:•Respeto•Tamang pagtugon•Tanggaling ang diskriminasyon•Isabatas na•Focus on other more important issues•Huwag isabatas sa bansa•Kumunsulta sa psychiatrist•Batas na magbabawal magibigan ang homosexuals at bisexuals•Secularism•Huwag na ipilit•Maging bukas ang isip•Disregard it•Pagaralan pang mabuti•Pagusapan, Representasyon•Bigyan ng boses•Civil Marriage•Education
Conclusion- Beginning to be accepted- Religion