Research Methodology for Design
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An introduction to research methodology and research principles aimed at Industrial Design students at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology.

An introduction to research methodology and research principles aimed at Industrial Design students at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology.

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Clear and really help out in teaching. Thank you
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  • An excellent informative slide show. Thank you Vikki
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  • You as a designer are the sum total of all your experiences. From the colour of your bedroom, the doodles you made, the first chair that inspired you etc. Link to Constructivism – we gain new knowledge by benchmarking it against what we already know as well as the learning in a social context.
  • Discuss idea that research is about the process – establishing links, identifying criteria or limitation, investigating processes and reasons. Something new is usually just a symptom... It is not the research problem.
  • Some research is about the BIG idea but most research is about contributing to our understanding. It isn’t about saving the world – it is about helping mankind understand it. Most of us are not Einstein, Newton or Galileo but we can actively contribute to our generations knowledge.
  • Research is a formula – a recipe. Create an air tight plan (recipe) in your research proposals and then simply execute! Research is for everyone. We do it in small ways everyday – you now just need to sit down and start doing it properly.
  • Research is not about the final finding – it is a process – it builds a case. It offers the reader a fuller context and justifies the statements made or conclusions drawn.
  • If it is worth looking it no SOME ONE HAS started. Find the connection – look at your field as well as others fields associated with the research topic.
  • Obtaining and "verifying" data that can be received from the senses is known as empirical evidence
  • InOn the Logic of the Social Sciences (1967),

Research Methodology for Design Research Methodology for Design Presentation Transcript

  • Design Research & Research Methodology An investigation and classification of terms. Industrial Design Department | Cape Peninsula University of Technology
  • Designing You Introduction What influenced you to become a designer? What type of designer would you like to be and why?
  • Designing Research Introduction Established Theories & Ideas. Knowledge. The world. Understanding. What is appropriate? What is know, what is tested? Discipline specific. Appropriate research techniques. Peer agreement. Defined. The unknown Your idea New theory. New application. Hybrid uses. Revisit ideas. New context. Gaps in knowledge. New technology. Existing About to exist View slide
  • Designing Research Introduction What do you want to investigate? Establish context. Develop main research question. Extract and order your subsidiary questions (3) Write up the background of your research problem. What do other researchers say? Find appropriate background info from appropriate sources. Write up what they said in your Literature Review. How are you going to investigate the topic? Research Proposal Appropriate theories. Select methods and styles of research as well as a practical outline of how you will go about answering your research problems. Your Research Methodology. View slide
  • Research Myths Introduction Myth #1: Research is about finding out new things. “Yesterday I figured out that my dog can play dead”
  • Research Myths Introduction Myth #2: All research must change the way we view the world!! “I found out that my best friend stole my promotion from under my nose...because he plays golf with the boss”
  • Research Myths Introduction Myth #3: Research is difficult and for ‘clever’ people. You learned how to walk. Hybrid method of observational and participatory research You gave a friend advice after listening to them. Narrative and observational social research.
  • Research Myths Introduction Myth #4: Research is stupid because my idea makes perfect sense. Carrot cake is the best cake in the world.
  • Research Myths Introduction Myth #5: I can’t research this topic because no-one has looked into it. The Effect of Country Music on Suicide. S. Stack and J. Gundlach. 1992. Wayne State University and Auburn University "The greater the airtime devoted to country music, the greater the white suicide rate" Love and Sex with Robots. D. Levy (PhD). 2007. University of Maastricht "Human-robot marriages will be legal by 2050" http://www.oddee.com/item_90683.aspx
  • When is it Research? Introduction Set philosophy and framework. Philosophies means approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Uses valid and reliable methods and techniques. Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy. Is completed and written in an objective manner. Unbiased and objective means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest. 3 golden rules of good research practices.
  • Research Methodology Types of methodologies, methods and strategies. Industrial Design Department | Cape Peninsula University of Technology
  • Research Methodology Types of methodologies, methods and strategies. Research Methodology • Scientific and Social Research • Positivism and Anti-positivism • Qualitative and Quantitative Research • Levels: Methodology, Methods and Strategies • Methodology for Design o Grounded Theory o Ethnography o Participatory Action Research
  • Scientific & Social Research What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Research can also be divided into pure research and applied research. Pure research has no application on real life, whereas applied research have real- world application. Pure research can have later real-world application.
  • Scientific & Social Research What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Scientific Research (method) Is a type of research in which the problem is identified, appropriate information and data is gathered, a hypothesis is developed based on the data, and the hypothesis is rigorously tested through experimentation. *Hypotheses are specified expectations about empirical reality which are derived from existing theory (knowledge) and propositions.
  • Scientific & Social Research What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Social Research: Social research is based on logic and empirical observations, and attempts to create or validate theories through data collection and data analysis. The goal of social research is exploration, description, explanation, and prediction. *Social Research can also rely with hypotheses.
  • Scientific & Social Research What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Scientific Research Social Research A large fertiliser company has moved next to a small rural community. In the 5 years following, infant mortality doubled. Chemicals present in air or water sources and relation to fertilizer plant? What level of pollution would lead to infant deaths? What is the impact of a high infant death rate on a rural community? How are families dealing with the grief?
  • Scientific & Social Research What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Firebaugh’s principles of ‘Good’ social research include: • Be open to unexpected findings and to change your mind; don’t be “blinded” by preconceived ideas. • Keep your work grounded and “build in reality checks”.
  • Scientific & Social Research What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Firebaugh’s principles of ‘Good’ social research include: • Try to replicate the research to see whether you will get the same results. • Compare ‘apples with apples’ • Your methods and processes must be dictated by the research: “Let method be the servant, not the master”.
  • Scientific & Social Research What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Social Research techniques: Social scientists are divided into camps of support for particular research techniques including: (positivism and anti-positivism) (quantitative and qualitative) *There is no right and wrong, ONLY what is appropriate.
  • Positivism & Anti-positivism What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Positivism is philosophy of science based on the view that in the social as well as natural sciences, empirical derived from sensory experience, and logical and mathematical treatments of such data, are together the exclusive source of all authentic knowledge.
  • Positivism & Anti-positivism What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Positivism is an approach to investigation and research credited to a number of thinkers and philosophers of the Enlightenment period. Auguste Comte, a philosopher who further developed the concept of positivism in the 19th century, argued that society operates according to its own laws which could be compared to the laws that govern the natural world.
  • Positivism & Anti-positivism What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Positivist Principles • Social and natural sciences are united in the scientific method – the only ‘right’ method. • Conclusions form positivist research should explain and predict (and be consistent during additional testing) • Data and knowledge should be generated through empirical methods. • Statements, findings and observations must be true for all times and places.
  • Positivism & Anti-positivism What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Positivist Principles • Deductive logic should be used to develop a hypothesis which in turn leads to experimentation, discovery or study of evidence). • Research should be observable with the ‘human senses’ (sensing or believing is not acceptable). • Research should be led by logic and should be objective (devoid of personal, cultural, political or religious bias).
  • Positivism & Anti-positivism What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Anti-positivism is the view in social science that the methods and processes of research used in natural science may not apply to the social sphere. Anti- positivistic research should focus on understanding the meanings and implications of social behaviour instead of empirical and scientific methods.
  • Positivism & Anti-positivism What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Jürgen Habermas (1967) argued that: “...the positivist thesis of unified science, which assimilates all the sciences to a natural-scientific model, fails because of the intimate relationship between the social sciences and history, and the fact that they are based on a situation-specific understanding of meaning... access to a symbolically prestructured reality cannot be gained by observation alone.”
  • Scientific & Social Research What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Social Research methods: 2 main methods 1. Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases to create. 2. Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication, or analysis and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality.
  • Quantitative & Qualitative What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Positivist research usually favours a methodical research process which adheres to empirical principles of replicability, reliability and validity associated with quantitative research methods. Positivists typically use research methods such as experiments and statistical surveys Anti-positivism generally adhere to qualitative research methods. The focus is on ethnographic fieldwork, conversation/discourse analysis or open- ended interviews.
  • Quantitative & Qualitative What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology While very different in many aspects, both qualitative and quantitative approaches involve a systematic interaction between theory and data. Positivist and anti-positivist methods are sometimes combined.
  • Scientific & Social Research What is this? Which do I use? Research Methodology Social Research methods: There are many more methods then stated below: Quantitative methods Cluster analysis Correlation and association Multivariate statistics Regression analysis Surveys and questionnaires Structural equation modelling Survey research Quantitative marketing research Qualitative methods Analytic induction Case study Life history Participant observation Unstructured interview Focus discussion group Depth interview Clinic Dialog Technique Fishbowl
  • Graphic Overview Overview: Methods and Research Types ScientificResearchSocialResearch Field Approach Methods Strategy/Theory Pure Empirical Positivist Anti- Positivist Laboratory Experimentation Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative Hybrid Statistical Survey Focus Group Statistical Questionnaire Relates to Research Methodology • Universal • Sustainable • Eco-Friendly • Participatory
  • Research Methodology Introducing just a few Methodologies Industrial Design Department | Cape Peninsula University of Technology
  • Methodology for Design Types of methodologies, methods and strategies. Research Methodology Methodology for Design o Grounded Theory o Ethnography o Participatory Action Research
  • Grounded Theory (GT) Methodology for Design Research Main Definition GT develops theory about phenomena of interest, rooted in observation. GT research begins with general questions which help to guide the research (can be open ended).When the initial data is gathered it is coded. As the researcher begins to gather more data, core theoretical concept(s) are identified. Links between concepts are identified and explored until categories are formed. The effort tends to evolve toward one core category that is central from which a theory is developed (inverse hypothesis). The Question “Why are people not using cellphones to primarily call anymore?” Origin Developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s. Fields of Application All social fields. Approach Mainly qualitative. Main Research Methods Interview, focus group, observation, depth interviews, fishbowls etc.
  • Ethnography Methodology for Design Research Main Definition Ethnography is a qualitative research method aimed to learn and understand cultural phenomena which reflect the knowledge and system of meanings of a cultural group. Today the ‘group’ could also be interpreted as any community of practice. Research can be ‘emic’ where the researcher is part of the culture as well as an observer or ‘etic’ where the researcher is merely an observer. There are various types of ethnographic research including photo ethnography and video ethnography. The Question “Which form of transport is most suitable to the elderly?” Origin Various anthropologists and philosophers dependant on field. Fields of Application Social (mainly anthropology, history, sociology, communication) Approach Qualitative Main Research Methods Mainly participant observation and field notes but could include other quantitative methods.
  • Participatory Action Research Methodology for Design Research Main Definition Action research involves the repeated systematic process of planning, taking action, observing, evaluating (including self-evaluation) and critical reflection prior to planning the next cycle. This process is a continuous one. Participatory action research is a way to gain understanding of how change in one's actions or practices can benefit one’s community of practitioners. A key aspect in PAR is that practice informs knowledge and knowledge informs practice. The Question “How can this situation be improved?” Origin PAR builds on the Action Research by Kurt Lewin in 1940’s, as well as the critical educational pedagogy put forward by Paulo Freire. Fields of Application Anthropology, sociology, business, education, design etc, Approach Mainly Qualitative Main Research Methods Any appropriate qualitatively method.
  • Graphic Overview Overview: Methods and Research Types ScientificResearchSocialResearch Field Approach Methods Strategy/Theory Pure Empirical Positivist Anti- Positivist Laboratory Experimentation Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative Hybrid 1. Focus Group 2. Participant Observation 3. Fishbowls 4. Photo documentation Statistical Questionnaire Ethnographic Methodology • Participatory Strategies •Phenomenology
  • Research Ethics Think about what you are doing and how you are going it? Research Methodology 1. Informed consent – all participant must understand their role in the research and must agree to participate. 2. Individuals who take part in research should not be harmed in any manner. 3. Research practices must at all times be transparent, honest, consistent and beneficial. There are many sites and documentation relating to ethic practices – please ensure you familiarise yourself with any which pertain to you. The BIG idea relates to the statements below: